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Encyclopedia > International Geophysical Year

The International Geophysical Year or IGY was an international scientific effort that lasted from July 1, 1957, to December 31, 1958. is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1957 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1958 (MCMLVIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The IGY encompassed eleven Earth sciences: aurora and airglow, cosmic rays, geomagnetism, gravity, ionospheric physics, longitude and latitude determinations (precision mapping), meteorology, oceanography, seismology and solar activity. Earth science (also known as geoscience, the geosciences or the Earth Sciences), is an all-embracing term for the sciences related to the planet Earth. ... Aurora borealis Polar aurorae are optical phenomena characterized by colorful displays of light in the night sky. ... The airglow is the very weak emission of visible light by the earths atmosphere, which means that the night sky is never completely dark. ... Cosmic rays can loosely be defined as energetic particles originating outside of the Earth. ... The magnetosphere shields the surface of the Earth from the charged particles of the solar wind. ... Gravity is a force of attraction that acts between bodies that have mass. ... Relationship of the atmosphere and ionosphere The ionosphere is the uppermost part of the atmosphere, distinguished because it is ionized by solar radiation. ... Longitude is the east-west geographic coordinate measurement most commonly utilized in cartography and global navigation. ... Latitude,usually denoted symbolically by the Greek letter phi, , gives the location of a place on Earth north or south of the equator. ... // Meteorology (from Greek: μετέωρον, meteoron, high in the sky; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is the interdisciplinary scientific study of the atmosphere that focuses on weather processes and forecasting. ... Thermohaline circulation Oceanography (from Ocean + Greek γράφειν = write), also called oceanology or marine science, is the branch of Earth Sciences that studies the Earths oceans and seas. ... Seismology (from the Greek seismos = earthquake and logos = word) is the scientific study of earthquakes and the propagation of elastic waves through the Earth. ... 20 years of solar irradiance data from satellites Solar variation refers to fluctuation in the amount of energy emitted by the Sun. ...


Both the U.S. and the Soviet Union launched artificial satellites for this event; the Soviet Union's Sputnik 1 of October 1957 was the first successful artificial satellite. Other significant achievements of the IGY included the discovery of the Van Allen Belts and the discovery of mid-ocean submarine ridges, an important confirmation of plate tectonics.[1] Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from... An Earth observation satellite, ERS 2 In the context of spaceflight, satellites are objects which have been placed into orbit by human endeavor. ... Sputnik 1 (Russian: , Satellite-1, byname ПС-1 (PS-1, i. ... Van Allen belts The Van Allen radiation belt is a torus of energetic charged particles around Earth, trapped by Earths magnetic field. ... The tectonic plates of the world were mapped in the second half of the 20th century. ...

Contents

Events

International Polar Years were held in 1882-1883 and 1932-1933. Another International Polar Year is in progress from 2007-2009. The International Polar Year (or IPY) was a collaborative, international effort researching the polar regions. ...


In March 1950, at a gathering of eight or ten top scientists (including Lloyd Berkner, S. Fred Singer, and Harry Vestine) in James Van Allen's living room, someone suggested that with the development of new tools such as rockets, radar and computers, the time was ripe for a worldwide geophysical year. Lloyd V. Berkner (born February 1, 1905, in Milwaukee, died June 4, 1967, in Washington, D.C.) was the U.S. physicist and engineer who first measured the height and density of the ionosphere. ... Siegfried Frederick Singer (born September 27, 1924 in Vienna) is an atmospheric physicist. ... James Van Allen at National Air & Space Museum (NASM), 1981, Photo courtesy of NASM. Explorer I model and Pioneer H probe in background James Alfred Van Allen (September 7, 1914 – August 9, 2006) was an American space scientist at the University of Iowa. ...


From the March 1950 meeting, Lloyd Berkner and other participants proposed to the International Council of Scientific Unions that an International Geophysical Year (IGY) be planned for 1957–58 — during the maximum solar activity.[2] The International Council for Science (ICSU), formerly called the International Council of Scientific Unions, was founded in 1931 as an international non-governmental organization devoted to international co-operation in the advancement of science. ...


April 11, 1957, the US Navy tests a satellite to an altitude of 126 mi.[3]


October 4, 1957, the USSR launches Sputnik 1. Sputnik 1 (Russian: , Satellite-1, byname ПС-1 (PS-1, i. ...


January 31, 1958, the US launches Explorer I. Explorer-I, officially Satellite 1958 Alpha (and sometimes referred to as Explorer 1), was the first Earth satellite of the United States, having been launched at 10:48pm EST on January 31 (03:48 on 1 February in GMT), 1958, as part of the United States program for the International...


Antarctica

IGY triggered an eighteen-month year of Antarctic science. The International Council of Scientific Unions, a parent body, broadened the proposals from polar studies to geophysical research. More than 70 existing national scientific organizations then formed IGY committees, and participated in the cooperative effort. The International Council for Science (ICSU), formerly called the International Council of Scientific Unions, was founded in 1931 as an international non-governmental organization devoted to international co-operation in the advancement of science. ...


Halley Research Station was founded in 1956, for IGY, by an expedition from the Royal Society. The bay where the expedition set up their base was named Halley Bay, after the astronomer Edmond Halley. Halley 5, Winter 1999 Halley Research Station, located at , on the Brunt Ice Shelf floating on the Weddell Sea in Antarctica is a British research facility dedicated to the study of the Earths atmosphere. ... The premises of The Royal Society in London (first four properties only). ... Portrait of Edmond Halley painted around 1687 by Thomas Murray (Royal Society, London) Portrait of Edmond Halley Bust of Edmond Halley in the Museum of the Royal Greenwich Observatory Edmond Halley FRS (sometimes Edmund; IPA: ) (November 8, 1656 – January 14, 1742) was an English astronomer, geophysicist, mathematician, meteorologist, and physicist. ...


Trivia

Donald Fagen album

IGY is featured in a song of the same name, titled in full as "I.G.Y. (International Geophysical Year)", on Donald Fagen's solo album, The Nightfly. In 1993, this same song was recorded by Howard Jones and released on his "Best Of" album. Donald Jay Fagen (born January 10, 1948 in Passaic, New Jersey) is an American musician and songwriter, best known as co-writer, co-founder, singer, and pianist with the jazz-rock band Steely Dan. ... The Nightfly is the first solo album by Steely Dan member Donald Fagen, released in 1982 (see 1982 in music). ... Howard Jones (born John Howard Jones, 23 February 1955) is an English singer and songwriter that gained acclaim in the 1980s. ...


Walt Kelly's Pogo

The International Geophysical Year is featured prominently during 1957–1958 run of Pogo comic strips by Walt Kelly. The characters in the strip refer to the scientific initiative as the "G.O. Fizzickle Year." During this run, the characters try to make their own contributions to scientific endeavours, such as putting a flea on the moon. A subsequent compilation of the strips was published by Simon & Schuster SC in 1958 as G.O. Fizzickle Pogo and later Pogo's Will Be That Was in 1979. Pogo as drawn by Walt Kelly. ... Walter Crawford Kelly, Jr (August 25, 1913 - October 18, 1973), known simply as Walt Kelly, was a cartoonist notable for his comic strip Pogo featuring characters that inhabited a portion of the Okefenokee Swamp in Georgia. ...


Punch Cartoon

The IGY was featured in a cartoon by Russell Brockbank in Punch magazine in November 1956. It shows the three main superpowers Great Britain, USA and USSR at the South Pole, each with a gathering of penguins who they are trying to educate with "culture". The penguins in the British camp are being bored with Francis Bacon; in the American camp they are happily playing baseball, whilst the Russian camp resembles a gulag, with barbed-wire fences and the penguins are made to march and perform military manoevres. Russell Brockbank (1913-1979) was a Canadian-born cartoonist who spent much of his working life in the United Kingdom. ... Punch was a British weekly magazine of humour and satire published from 1841 to 1992 and from 1996 to 2002. ... Francis Bacon, 1st Viscount St Alban (22 January 1561 – 9 April 1626) was an English philosopher, statesman, and essayist, but is best known as a philosophical advocate and defender of the scientific revolution. ... Gulag ( , Russian: ) was the government body responsible for administering prison camps across the former Soviet Union. ...


See also

Territorial claims of Antarctica List of Antarctica expeditions is a chronological list of expeditions involving Antarctica. ... The International Biological Program (IBP) was an effort between 1964 and 1974 to coordinate large-scale ecological and environmental studies. ... Mount Sulphur Cosmic Ray Observatory Sulphur Mountain Cosmic Ray Station National Historic Site, found atop Sulphur Mountain in Banff National Park, commemorates Canadas participation in the International Geophysical Year, during 1957 to 1958. ...

References & Footnotes

  1. ^ http://www.cmdl.noaa.gov/obop/spo/igy_history.html
  2. ^ http://www.nas.edu/history/igy
  3. ^ E. Emme, ed., Aeronautics and Astronautics, 1915-1960, p. 85.
  • University of Saskatchewan Archives
  • History of ionosondes, at the U.K.'s Rutherford Appleton Laboratory
  • History of arctic exploration
  • James Van Allen, From High School to the Beginning of the Space Era: A Biographical Sketch by George Ludwig
  1. ^ http://www.cmdl.noaa.gov/obop/spo/igy_history.html
  2. ^ http://www.nas.edu/history/igy
  3. ^ E. Emme, ed., Aeronautics and Astronautics, 1915-1960, p. 85.

  Results from FactBites:
 
International Geophysical Year - definition of International Geophysical Year in Encyclopedia (692 words)
The International Geophysical Year or IGY was an international scientific effort that lasted from July 1, 1957 to December 1958.
The IGY was chosen to occur during a solar maximum, to notice unusual effects of the sun on the Earth.
The IGY encompassed eleven Earth sciences: aurora and airglow, cosmic rays, geomagnetism, glaciology, gravity, ionospheric physics, longitude and latitude determinations (precision mapping), meteorology, oceanography, seismology and solar activity.
AllRefer.com - International Geophysical Year (Geology And Oceanography) - Encyclopedia (420 words)
International Geophysical Year (IGY), 18-month period from July, 1957, through Dec., 1958, during a period of maximum sunspot activity, designated for cooperative study of the solar-terrestrial environment by the scientists of 67 nations.
The major programs of IGY were continued from Jan., 1958, to Jan., 1959, as the International Geophysical Cooperation.
Also connected to IGY was the International Years of the Quiet Sun, an international cooperative program during 1964 to 1965, that focused on solar-terrestrial phenomena during a quiet sun, or near sunspot minimum.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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