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Encyclopedia > International English

International English is the concept of the English language as a global means of communication in numerous dialects, and the movement towards an international standard for the language. It is also referred to as Global English, World English, Common English, General English or Standard English. Sometimes these terms refer simply to the array of varieties of English spoken throughout the world; sometimes they refer to a desired standardisation. However, consensus on the terminology and path to standardisation has not been reached. The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Standard English is a general term for a form of written and spoken English that is considered the model for educated people by native English speakers. ...


Historical context

The modern concept of International English does not exist in isolation, but is the product of centuries of development of the English language.

The language of England came to dominance throughout the island of Great Britain during the Middle Ages and in Ireland during the 18th century and, especially, the 19th century. In the modern era, printing led to the gradual standardisation of English, and particularly the use of the prestige dialect of the English ruling classes. Motto: (French for God and my right) Anthem: Multiple unofficial anthems Capital London Largest city London Official language(s) English (de facto) Unification    - by Athelstan AD 927  Area    - Total 130,395 km² (1st in UK)   50,346 sq mi  Population    - 2005 est. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... A prestige dialect is the dialect spoken by the most prestigious people in a speech community large enough to sustain multiple dialects. ...

The establishment of the first permanent English-speaking colony in North America in 1607 was a major step towards the globalisation of the language. British English was only partially standardised when the American colonies were established. Isolated from each other by the Atlantic Ocean, the dialects in England and the colonies began evolving independently. The differences between American English and British English were then magnified by choices made by the first influential lexicographers (dictionary writers) on each side of the Atlantic. While spellings such as "center" and "color" had been common in both North America and England since the time of Shakespeare, Samuel Johnson's dictionary of 1755 greatly favored Norman-influenced spellings. On the other hand, Noah Webster's first guide to American spelling, published in 1783, moved sharply away from the Norman-influenced spellings. The difference in strategy and philosophy of Johnson and Webster are what gave rise to the main division in English spelling that exists today. World map showing North America A satellite composite image of North America. ... Events January 20 - Tidal wave swept along the Bristol Channel, killing 2000 people. ... Globalization is a term used to describe the changes in societies and the world economy that are the result of dramatically increased trade and cultural exchange. ... Diagram showing the geographical locations of selected languages and dialects of the British Isles. ... English language spread in the United States. ... Diagram showing the geographical locations of selected languages and dialects of the British Isles. ... A lexicographer is a person devoted to the study of lexicography, especially an author of a dictionary. ... William Shakespeare—born April 1564; baptised April 26, 1564; died April 23, 1616 (O.S.), May 3, 1616 (N.S.)—has a reputation as the greatest of all writers in English. ... Samuel Johnson circa 1772, painted by Sir Joshua Reynolds. ... Noah Webster Noah Webster (October 16, 1758 – April 28, 1843) was an American lexicographer, textbook author, spelling reformer, political writer, and editor. ...

In the 18th century, the standardisation of British English was more settled than it had been in the previous century, and this relatively well-established English was brought to Africa, Asia and Oceania. It developed both as the language of English-speaking settlers from Britain and Ireland, and as the administrative language imposed on speakers of other languages in the various parts of the British Empire. The first form can be seen in New Zealand English, and the latter in Indian English. The term Commonwealth English refers to these groups of English dialects. (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... Diagram showing the geographical locations of selected languages and dialects of the British Isles. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa. ... World map showing the location of Asia. ... For the fictional superstate in George Orwells novel, see Oceania (Nineteen Eighty-Four). ... The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ... New Zealand English is the English spoken in New Zealand. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... A dialect (from the Greek word διάλεκτος) is a variant, or variety, of a language spoken in a certain geographical area. ...

The English-speaking regions of Canada and the Caribbean are caught between historical connections with the UK and the Commonwealth, and geographical and economic connections with the U.S. In some things, and more formally, they tend to follow British standards, whereas in others they follow the U.S. standard. World map depicting Caribbean : West Indies redirects here. ...

More recently, American English has become predominant as the preferred version of English in many countries that previously either had no preferred form, or preferred some variant of British English. Since World War II, for example, Japan has generally used American English.

The ebb and flow between the standardisation of the language and its diversification have been ever present throughout its history. The flagship of the former is intelligibility and practicality, while the latter has cultural autonomy and flexibility.

Methods of promotion

Unlike proponents of constructed languages, International English proponents face on the one hand the belief that English already is a world language (and as such, nothing needs to be done to promote it further) and, on the other, the belief that an international language would inherently need to be a constructed one (e.g., Esperanto in Chinese is generally just referred to as "shijie yu" or "world language"). In such an environment, at least four basic approaches have been proposed or employed toward the further expansion or consolidation of International English, some in contrast with, and others in opposition to, methods used to advance constructed international auxiliary languages. Look up Esperanto in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... An international auxiliary language (sometimes abbreviated as IAL or auxlang) is a language used (or to be used in the future) for communication between people from different nations who do not share a common native language. ...

  1. Laissez-faire approach. This approach is taken either out of ignorance of the other approaches or out of a belief that English will more quickly (or with less objections) become a more fully international language without any specific global legislation.
  2. Institutional sponsorship and grass-roots promotion of language programs. Some governments have promoted the spread of the English language through sponsorship of English language programs abroad, without any attempt to gain formal international endorsement, as have grass-roots individuals and organizations supporting English (whether through instruction, marketing, etc.).
  3. National legislation. This approach encourages countries to enshrine English as having at least some kind of official status, in the belief that this would further its spread and could include more countries over time.
  4. International legislation. This approach involves promotion of the future holding of a binding international convention (perhaps to be under the auspices of such international organizations as the United Nations or Inter-Parliamentary Union) to formally agree upon an official international auxiliary language which would then be taught in all schools around the world, beginning at the primary level. While this approach allows for the possibility of an alternative to English being chosen (due to its necessarily democratic approach), the approach also allows for the eventuality that English would be chosen by a sufficient majority of the proposed convention's delegates so as to put international opinion and law behind the language and thus to consolidate it as a full official world language.

If would chose my english acent had been undiscrabeble The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, and social equity. ... The Inter-Parliamentary Union is an international organization established in 1889 by William Randal Cremer (United Kingdom) and Frédéric Passy (France). ...

Modern global language

There is a distinction between English as spoken as a native language around the world (for example in Australia, Canada, the United Kingdom, and the United States) and as a non-native language spoken as a national (for example in India), regional or global lingua franca. Native Language Music, founded in 1996 by musicians Joe Sherbanee and Theo Bishop, is an independent adult contemporary record company based in Southern California that produces, markets, and distributes premium jazz, world, and new age music. ... Lingua franca, literally Frankish language in Italian, was originally a mixed language consisting largely of Italian plus a vocabulary drawn from Turkish, Persian, French, Greek and Arabic and used for communication throughout the Middle East. ...

A second distinction is made between those countries where non-native or semi-native English has official or historical importance (special significance, for example, in Pakistan and Uganda), and those where it does not (for example, in Japan and Peru).

In the terminology of English language teaching (ELT), we have: This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

  • English as a native language (ENL), also called first language (L1).
  • English as an additional language (EAL) or English for speakers of other languages (ESOL), which can be divided into:
    • English as a second language (ESL) in an environment where English has a special significance, also called second language (L2).
    • English as a foreign language (EFL) in places where it has no special significance, also called third language (L3).

For further information, see English language teaching. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

English as a second language might refer either to acquisition of the language in India, where it is a prominent regional lingua franca, or the acquisition of the language by a speaker of another language in a predominantly English-speaking country (a Brazilian living in Barbados, for instance). It may not be an individual's actual second language, but perhaps third or fourth. Roger Nunn considers different types of competence in relation to the teaching of English as an International Language, arguing that linguistic competence has yet to be adequately addressed in recent considerations of EIL. [1]

In the context of language teaching, English as an additional language (EAL) usually is based on the standards of either British/Commonwealth English or American English. English as an international language (EIL) is EAL with emphasis on learning different major dialect forms; in particular, it aims to equip students with the linguistic tools to communicate internationally. Language teaching has gone through an important evolution in the recent decades and many different principles have been described. ...

Varying concepts

Universality and flexibility

International English sometimes refers to English as it is actually being used and developed in the world; as a language owned not just by native speakers, but by all those who come to use it.

Basically, it covers the English language at large, often (but not always or necessarily) implicitly seen as standard. It is certainly also commonly used in connection with the acquisition, use, and study of English as the world's lingua franca ('TEIL: Teaching English as an International Language'), and especially when the language is considered as a whole in contrast with American English, British English, South African English, and the like. — McArthur (2002, p. 444–45)

It especially means English words and phrases generally understood throughout the English-speaking world as opposed to localisms. The importance of non-native English language skills can be recognised behind the long-standing joke that the international language of science and technology is broken English.


International English reaches towards cultural neutrality. This has a practical use:

"What could be better than a type of English that saves you from having to re-edit publications for individual regional markets! Teachers and learners of English as a second language also find it an attractive idea — both often concerned that their English should be neutral, without British or American or Canadian or Australian colouring. Any regional variety of English has a set of political, social and cultural connotations attached to it, even the so-called 'standard' forms." — Peters (2004, International English)

According to this viewpoint, International English is a concept of English that minimises the aspects defined by either the colonial imperialism of Victorian Britain or the so-called "cultural imperialism" of the 20th century United States. While British colonialism laid the foundation for English over much of the world, International English is a product of an emerging world culture, very much attributable to the influence of the United States as well, but conceptually based on a far greater degree of cross-talk and linguistic transculturation, which tends to mitigate both U.S. influence and British colonial influence. Imperialism is a policy of extending control or authority over foreign entities as a means of acquisition and/or maintenance of empires. ... Cultural imperialism is the practice of promoting the culture or language of one nation in another. ... See colony and colonisation for examples of colonialism which do not refer to Western colonialism. ...

The development of International English often centres around academic and scientific communities, where formal English usage is prevalent, and creative and flowery use of the language is at a minimum. This formal International English allows entry into Western culture as a whole and Western cultural values in general.


The continued growth of the English language itself is seen by many as a kind of cultural imperialism, whether it is English in one form or English in two slightly different forms. Cultural imperialism is the practice of promoting the culture or language of one nation in another. ...

Robert Phillipson argues against the possibility of such neutrality in his Linguistic Imperialism (1992). Learners who wish to use purportedly correct English are in fact faced with the dual standard of American English and British English, and other less known standard Englishes (namely Australian and Canadian).

Edward Trimnell, author of Why You Need a Foreign Language & How to Learn One (2005) argues that the international version of English is only adequate for communicating basic ideas. For complex discussions and business/technical situations, English is not an adequate communication tool for non-native speakers of the language. Trimnell also asserts that native English-speakers have become "dependent on the language skills of others" by placing their faith in international English.

Appropriation theory

There are also some who reject both linguistic imperialism and David Crystal's theory of the neutrality of English. They argue that the phenomenon of the global spread of English is better understood in the framework of appropriation (e.g. Spichtinger 2000), that is, English used for local purposes around the world. Demonstrators in non-English speaking countries often use signs in English to convey their demands to TV-audiences around the globe, for instance. Professor David Crystal, OBE (born 1941 in Lisburn, Northern Ireland, UK) is a linguist, academic and author. ... Appropriation is the act of taking possession of or assigning purpose to properties or ideas and is important in many topics, including: Appropriation (sociology) in relation to the spread of knowledge Appropriation (art) Appropriation (visual art) [1] Appropriation (music) in reference to the re-use and proliferation of different types...

In English language teaching Bobda shows how Cameroon has moved away from a mono-cultural, Anglo-centred way of teaching English and has gradually appropriated teaching material to a Cameroonian context. Non Western-topics treated are, for instance, the rule of Emirs, traditional medicine or polygamy (1997:225). Kramsch and Sullivan (1996) describe how Western methodology and textbooks have been appropriated to suit local Vietnamese culture. The Pakistani textbook "Primary Stage English" includes lessons such as "Pakistan My Country", "Our Flag", or "Our Great Leader" (Malik 1993: 5,6,7) which might well sound jingoistic to Western ears. Within the native culture, however, establishing a connection between ELT, patriotism and Muslim faith is seen as one of the aims of ELT, as the chairman of the Punjab Textbook Board openly states: "The board...takes care, through these books to inoculate in the students a love of the Islamic values and awareness to guard the ideological frontiers of your [the students] home lands" (Punjab Text Book Board 1997). Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...

Many Englishes

There are many difficult choices that have to be made if there is to be further standardisation of English in the future. These include the choice over whether to adopt a current standard, or move towards a more neutral, but artificial one. A true International English might supplant both current American and British English as a variety of English for international communication, leaving these as local dialects, or would rise from a merger of General American and standard British English with admixture of other varieties of English and would generally replace all these varieties of English.

We may, in due course, all need to be in control of two standard Englishes—the one which gives us our national and local identity, and the other which puts us in touch with the rest of the human race. In effect, we may all need to become bilingual in our own language. — David Crystal (1988: p. 265)

This is the situation long faced by many users of English who possess a 'non-standard' dialect of English as their birth tongue but have also learned to write (and perhaps also speak) a more standard dialect. Many academics often publish material in journals requiring different varieties of English and change style and spellings as necessary without great difficulty.

Dual standard

Two approaches to International English are the individualistic and inclusive approach and the new dialect approach.

The individualistic approach gives control to individual authors to write and spell as they wish (within purported standard conventions) and to accept the validity of differences. The Longman Grammar of Spoken and Written English, published in 1999, is a descriptive study of both American and British English in which each chapter follows individual spelling conventions according to the preference of the main editor of that chapter.

The new dialect approach appears in The Cambridge Guide to English Usage (Peters, 2004) which attempts to avoid any language bias and accordingly uses an idiosyncratic international spelling system of mixed American and British forms (but tending more to American spelling).

Non-U.S. English

Sometimes International English is used to refer to a general standard that is based on English as spoken in the British Isles and most Commonwealth countries (as opposed to American English). Whereas the majority of English non-native speakers use American English,[citation needed] some people argue that the standard of most English-speaking nations other than the United States, the Philippines, and Liberia is based on British usage.[citation needed] They thus contend that the term "International English" should refer to a standard that is largely British. Indeed, until World War II, British English was the primary reference point (or, for non-English-speaking nations, the dialect of English taught as a foreign language) in all Commonwealth countries (except Canada, also influenced by the U.S.), and former British colonies: South Africa, Egypt and many other countries in Africa, the Indian subcontinent (Pakistan, India, and Bangladesh), portions of Southeast Asia (Myanmar, Singapore, Malaysia and Thailand), as well as Hong Kong, all Middle Eastern Countries except Israel, and most of Continental Europe. After World War II, some of these regions began shifting towards a preference for American English, in part as an indirect consequence of the economic and cultural influence of the United States. The shift towards American English was particularly rapid in the case of Eastern Europe, for reasons that might partly be political. Diagram showing the geographical locations of selected languages and dialects of the British Isles. ... The Commonwealth of Nations (CN), usually known as the Commonwealth, is a voluntary association of 53 independent sovereign states, the majority of which are former colonies of the United Kingdom. ... English language spread in the United States. ... Satellite image of the Indian subcontinent Map of South Asia (see note) This article deals with the geophysical region in Asia. ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... Continental Europe, also referred to as mainland Europe or simply the Continent, is the continent of Europe, explicitly excluding European islands and peninsulae. ...

The putative international flavour of this variety of English is argued to depend on three factors:

  1. It is standard in far more countries around the world than U.S. English. (Though see next for a different opinion)
  2. Many academic publications outside the United States use the conventions of the Oxford University Press.
  3. This standard of English has official status in the United Nations and the European Union, and it is used as the basis of English-language testing by the International English Language Testing System (IELTS).

The so-called "Americanisation" of Australian English — signified by the borrowing of words, terms, and usages from North American English — began during the goldrushes, and was accelerated by a massive influx of United States military personnel during World War II. The large-scale importation of television programs and other mass media content from the US, from the 1950s onwards, has also had a significant effect. As a result, Australians use many British and American words interchangeably, such as pants/trousers or elevator/lift. Oxford University Press (OUP) is a highly-respected publishing house and a department of the University of Oxford in England. ... The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, and social equity. ... International English Language Testing System (IELTS) is a test of English language proficiency. ... Australian English (AuE) is the form of the English language used in Australia. ...

International English is also sometimes used in this manner in the computer industry. The Linux community, and other open software groups use the term Commonwealth English instead, usually in giving users a choice of spellings or wordings for messages. But the English language choices given are in fact normally only between American English and British English with -ise spellings, the latter being called International English or Commonwealth English. Finally, it is worth noting that Microsoft's Encarta has different versions for American English, Australian English, British English, and Canadian English (which does not exhaust what could be provided). Linux (also known as GNU/Linux) is a Unix-like computer operating system. ... Open software may refer to open source software. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Microsoft Corporation, (NASDAQ: MSFT, HKSE: 4338) is a multinational computer technology corporation with global annual revenue of US$44. ... Encarta is a digital multimedia encyclopedia published and updated frequently by Microsoft Corporation. ... Australian English (AuE) is the form of the English language used in Australia. ...

U.S. English

While some use the term "International English" to refer to a standard based on British English, others use the term to refer to a standard based on U.S. English. These people argue that, in part because of the international influence of American culture, the overwhelming majority of non-native speakers use American vocabulary and pronunciation. Moreover, they argue that the majority (though not the vast majority, as is the case with vocabulary and pronunciation) of non-native speakers prefer the American spelling system. Mainland Chinese, Taiwanese, Russians generally use American spelling; Japan, the Koreas, the Philippines, and most South American countries use American spelling, and many in Europe use American spelling (though this is changing as the UK's influence over language questions in the EU continues to grow).[citation needed]

The putative international flavor of this variety of English is argued to depend on three factors:

  1. It is the standard in more countries around the world than British English. (Though see above for a different opinion.)
  2. Standard or not, it is the language actually used by a majority of non-native speakers. (Though see above for a different opinion.)
  3. Most academic publications around the world, especially publications in the humanities, use the conventions of the Chicago Manual of Style, the Modern Language Association, or Harvard University Press.

Another reason that U.S. English is often referred to as "international English" is normative. That is, advocates of English spelling reform contend that American English is more suited to international use by non-native speakers. After all, they argue, this was the whole point of Ben Franklin's and Noah Webster's spelling reforms: for example, when someone learns the adjective rigorous, he or she can determine the noun form simply by removing the suffix. This, along with other changes in spelling adopted by the U.S., they contend, is why American English (or some variant thereof) should be made into an international standard. (Note, though: spelling reform advocates mostly agree that British punctuation is better suited for international use than American.[citation needed]) The Chicago Manual of Style (CMS) is a highly regarded style guide for American English, dealing with questions of style, manuscript preparation, and, to a lesser degree, usage. ... The MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, Fifth Edition The Modern Language Association of America (MLA) is the principal professional association in the United States for scholars of literature and literary criticism. ... The factual accuracy of this article is disputed. ...

Regions and countries that tend to use American English in teaching and publishing include much of East Asia (especially Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, Vietnam, Philippines and mainland China, although largely excluding the former British colonies of Hong Kong and Singapore); the Americas (excluding the other former British colonies of Canada and those in the Caribbean); and, in Africa, Liberia. East Asia is a subregion of Asia that can be defined in either geographical or cultural terms. ... World map showing the Americas The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere or New World consisting of the continents of North America and South America with their associated islands and regions. ... World map depicting Caribbean : West Indies redirects here. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa. ...

International organisations

There are three major English varieties used as standards by international organisations:

British English with Oxford Spelling (-ize)

Spellings: centre, programme, labour, defence, cooperation, organize, recognize, but: analyse
IANA language tag en-GB-oed, this standard is based on the Oxford English Dictionary Oxford spelling is the spelling used in the editorial practice of the Oxford English Dictionary (OED) and other English language dictionaries based on the OED, for example the Concise Oxford English Dictionary. ... The Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) is an organisation that oversees IP address, top level domain and Internet protocol code point allocations. ... The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is a comprehensive multi-volume dictionary published by the Oxford University Press (OUP). ... The Oxford English Dictionary print set The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is a dictionary published by the Oxford University Press (OUP), and is generally regarded as the most comprehensive and scholarly dictionary of the English language. ...

Examples of organisations that predominantly adhere to this standard are:

  • United Nations system (UN, UNESCO, UNICEF...),
  • World Trade Organization (WTO),
  • International Organization for Standardization (ISO),
  • International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC),
  • International Telecommunication Union (ITU),
  • World Health Organization (WHO),
  • International Labour Organization (ILO),
  • International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA),
  • Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC),
  • South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC),
  • International Criminal Police Organization - Interpol,
  • International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC),
  • WWF - The Conservation Organization,
  • and Amnesty International.

This article is about the United Nations, for other uses of UN see UN (disambiguation) Official languages English, French, Spanish, Russian, Chinese, Arabic Secretary-General Kofi Annan (since 1997) Established October 24, 1945 Member states 191 Headquarters New York City, NY, USA Official site http://www. ... UNESCO logo UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. ... UNICEF Logo The United Nations Childrens Fund or UNICEF (Arabic: ; French: ; Spanish: ) was established by the United Nations General Assembly on December 11, 1946. ... For other uses of the initials WTO, see WTO (disambiguation). ... The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) is an international standard-setting body composed of representatives from national standards bodies. ... The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is an international standards organization dealing with electrical, electronic and related technologies. ... Monument in Bern, Switzerland. ... Who can refer to: WHO, World Health Organization The Who, a British rock band The Guess Who, a Canadian rock band who (pronoun), an English language interrogative pronoun. ... The International Labour Organization (ILO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations to deal with labour issues. ... IAEA The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), established as an autonomous organization on July 29, 1957, seeks to promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy and to inhibit its use for military purposes. ... Logo The Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) is an international organization made up of Algeria, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, Nigeria, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, and Venezuela. ... The South Asian Association for Regional Co-Operation, or SAARC, (established December 8, 1985) is an association of 7 countries of South Asia namely Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka. ... Interpol (or International Criminal Police Organization) was created in 1923 to assist international criminal police co-operation. ... The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) is historically a committee of Swiss nationals, although non-Swiss nationals have recently been allowed (the committee appoints new members to itself to replace those who resign or die) which leads the international Red Cross movement (often simply known after its symbol... WWF redirects here. ... Amnesty International symbol Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is a non-governmental organization (NGO) comprising a worldwide movement of people who campaign for internationally recognized human rights.[1] Essentially it compares actual practices of human rights with internationally accepted standards and demands compliance where these have not...

British English with -ise

Spellings: centre, programme, labour, defence, co-operation, organise, recognise, analyse
Language tag en-GB, the official standard of the UK government. Diagram showing the geographical locations of selected languages and dialects of the British Isles. ...

Examples of organisations that predominantly adhere to this standard are:

NATO 2002 Summit in Prague The North Atlantic Treaty Organisation[1] (NATO), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, the Atlantic Alliance or the Western Alliance, is an international organisation for collective security established in 1949, in support of the North Atlantic Treaty signed in Washington, DC, on 4 April 1949. ... The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) is an international organization of those developed countries that accept the principles of representative democracy and a free market economy. ... The Commonwealth Secretariat is the central body of the Commonwealth of Nations, which implements the decisions taken by the associations 54 member governments and organises meetings of Commonwealth ministers. ... The Commonwealth of Nations (CN), usually known as the Commonwealth, is a voluntary association of 53 independent sovereign states, the majority of which are former colonies of the United Kingdom. ... The Caribbean Community and Common Market or CARICOM was established by the Treaty of Chaguaramas which came into effect on August 1, 1973. ... The Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States (OECS) includes the member states of: Anguilla Antigua and Barbuda British Virgin Islands Dominica Grenada Montserrat Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Vincent and the Grenadines The OECS was created on 18 June 1981, with the Treaty of Basseterre, named after the capital... Alternative meanings at IOC (disambiguation) The International Olympic Committee is an organization based in Lausanne, Switzerland, created by Pierre de Coubertin in 1894 to reinstate the Ancient Olympic Games held in Greece, and organize this sports event every four years. ... The Fédération Internationale de Football Association, known worldwide by its acronym FIFA, is the international governing body of Football (soccer) and the largest sporting organization in the world. ... Transparency International (TI) is an international organisation addressing corruption, including, but not limited to, political corruption. ... Greenpeace is an international environmental organization founded in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada in 1971. ...

American English

Spellings: center, program, labor, defense, cooperation, organize, recognize, analyze
Language tag en-US, used by the U.S. government. American English or U.S. English (en-US according to RFC 3066) is the diverse form of the English language used mostly in the United States of America. ...

Examples of organisations that predominantly adhere to this standard are:

The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an international organization that oversees the global financial system by observing exchange rates and balance of payments, as well as offering financial and technical assistance when requested. ... The World Bank Group is a group of five international organizations responsible for providing finance and advice to countries for the purposes of economic development and poverty. ... The Organization of American States (OAS; OEA in the other three official languages) is an international organization, headquartered in Washington, D.C., USA. Its members are the 35 independent nations of the Americas. ... Map of NAFTA President Clinton signs the agreement. ... The MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, Fifth Edition The Modern Language Association of America (MLA) is the principal professional association in the United States for scholars of literature and literary criticism. ... Headquarters in Geneva The World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) is one of the specialized agencies of the United Nations. ... IUPAC logo The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) (Pronounced as eye-you-pack) is an international non-governmental organization established in 1919 devoted to the advancement of chemistry. ...

See also

  • Globish, the "dialect" version of International English

Globish is a portmanteau neologism of the words Global and English. ...

References, further reading, and external links

Distinguished from or including both U.S. and British English

  • Albu, Rodica (2005). "Using English(es). Introduction to the Study of Present-day English Varieties & Terminological Glossary", 3rd edition. Iasi: Demiurg. ISBN 973-7603-67-9
  • Biber, Douglas; Johansson, Stig; Leech, Geoffrey; Conrad, Susan; Finnegan, Edward (1999). Longman Grammar of Spoken and Written English. Harlow, Essex: Pearson Education. ISBN 0-582-23725-4.
  • Bobda, Augustin Simo (1997) "Sociocultural Constraints in EFL Teaching in Cameroon." In: Pütz, Martin (ed.) The cultural Context in Foreign Language Teaching. Frankfurt a.M.: Lang. 221-240.
  • Crystal, David (1988). The English Language. London: Penguin. ISBN 0-14-013532-4.
  • ————— (1997). English as a Global Language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-59247-X.
  • Erling, Elizabeth J. (2000). "International/Global/World English: Is a Consensus Possible?", Postgraduate Conference Proceedings, The University of Edinburgh, Department of Applied Linguistics. (Postscript.)
  • García Landa, José Ángel (2004). "World English" Bibliography. From A Bibliography of Literary Theory, Criticism and Philology (10th ed.) University of Zaragoza (Spain).
  • Graddol, David (2006). "English Next", British Council. Critical analysis of future prospects for Global English
  • IELTS—International English Language Testing System.
  • Jenkins, Jennifer. "Global English and the teaching of pronunciation". (A discussion of the relative importance of different pronunciation feature for international comprehension of spoken English.)
  • Johnson, Christine and Bartlett, Cath (1999). "International Business English - What should we be teaching?" BESIG Business Issues 3.
  • Johnson, Angel M. "Southerners, Rednecks, Hicks, and Bumpkins: Sustainers of the Forgotten United States Dialects".
  • Kachru, Braj (1986). The Alchemy of English: The Spread, Functions, and Models of Non-native Englishes. Chicago: University of Illinois Press. ISBN 0-252-06172-1.
  • Klaire Kramsch and Particia Sullivan (1996) "Appropriate Pedagogy". ELT Journal 50/3 199-212.
  • Malik, S.A. Primary Stage English (1993). Lahore: Tario Brothers.
  • McArthur, T. (Oxford, 1992) "The Oxford Companion to the English Language," Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-214183-X
  • ————— (2001). "World English and World Englishes: Trends, tensions, varieties, and standards", Language Teaching Vol. 34, issue 1. Available in PDF format at Cambridge: Language Teaching: Sample article and Learning and Teacher Support Centre: McArthur.
  • ————— (2002). Oxford Guide to World English. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-866248-3 hardback, ISBN 0-19-860771-7 paperback.
  • Tarnopolsky, Oleg. "What Variety of English to Teach in Ukraine?" (A study suggesting that teaching both British English and American English is preferable to teaching an artificial "International English".)
  • Peters, Pam (2004). The Cambridge Guide to English Usage. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-62181-X.
  • Phan Le ha (2005). Toward a Critical Notion of Appropriation of English as an International Language. Asian EFL Journal Vol 7 (3)[2]
  • Phillipson, Robert (1992). Linguistic Imperialism. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-437146-8.
  • Spichtinger, David (2000). "The Spread of English and its Appropriation." Diplomarbeit zur Erlangung des Magistergrades der Philosophie eingereicht an der Geisteswissenschaftlichen Fakultät der Universität Wien. (PDF.)
  • Punjab Text Book Board (1997) My English Book Step IV. Lahore: Metro Printers.
  • ***TESL-EJ Forum***: Varieties of English: Definition and Instruction
  • Henry Widdowson (1998a) " EIL: squaring the Circles. A Reply." World Englishes 17/3 397-401.

Professor David Crystal, OBE (born 1941 in Lisburn, Northern Ireland, UK) is a linguist, academic and author. ... Henry Widdowson (also H.G. Widdowson and sometimes Henry G. Widdowson) is an authority in the field of applied linguistics and language teaching. ...

Closely identified or synonymous with standard British English

  • Bible Society: Machine Assisted Translations: Anglicisations ("The standard English of India, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, the Commonwealth and some other countries where English is used follows the conventions of British English. It is often therefore called International English to distinguish it from American English.")
  • Carson, George S., Puk, Richard F., Carey, Rikk (1998). "Development of the VRML 97 International Standard". ("International Standards are written in International English, not American English. The most obvious difference is many minor variations in the way words are spelled, for example "colour" rather than "color", "centre" rather than "center" and "behaviour" rather than "behavior." Although ISO granted a special exception to allow VRML to be published initially in American English if necessary to expedite its publication, both sides decided to convert most of the document to International English. The only exceptions were affecting the syntax of a VRML file, such as node names like "Color" and "ColorInterpolator", where a change to "Colour" and ColourInterpolator" would have made existing VRML files incompatible with the new standard.")
  • Goult, Roderick S. W. (2004). Introduction to ISO 9000:2000 Handbook. Edition of August, 2004. Methuen, MA: The Victoria Group. (PDF. From page 6: "An ISO standard which has been 'adopted' by a national standards body of a country will undergo some minor changes for reasons of translation, use of language or local interpretation. Hence, in the ANSI/ISO/ASQ standards, the spelling varies from international English, and the words 'International Standard' have been changed to 'American National Standard.'")
  • Xerox: Phaser 740/740L: Product Brochures (Brochures available for download in either "U.S. English" or "International English".)

  Results from FactBites:
International English (709 words)
International English is a phenomenon that deals with the English language being spoken on a global scale.
International English will come in a wide variety of dialects, and it is moving in the direction of a standard that must be used in countries around the globe.
International English is a phenomenon that is only expected to become more prominent as we move further into the 21st century.
  More results at FactBites »



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