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Encyclopedia > International Criminal Court
The official logo of the ICC
The official logo of the ICC

The International Criminal Court (ICC or ICCt)[1] was established in 2002 as a permanent tribunal to prosecute individuals for genocide, crimes against humanity, war crimes, and the crime of aggression, although it cannot currently exercise jurisdiction over the crime of aggression.[2] The court came into being on July 1, 2002 — the date its founding treaty, the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court, entered into force[3] — and it can only prosecute crimes committed on or after that date.[4] Image File history File links International_Criminal_Court_logo. ... Image File history File links International_Criminal_Court_logo. ... For other uses, see Genocide (disambiguation). ... This article is in need of attention. ... In the context of war, a war crime is a punishable offense under International Law, for violations of the laws of war by any person or persons, military or civilian. ... The Definition of Aggression was a definition of the term aggression adopted by the United Nations General Assembly on December 14, 1974. ... is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court Opened for signature June 17, 1998[1] at Rome Entered into force July 1, 2002 Conditions for entry into force 60 ratifications Parties 99[2] The Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court (or Rome Statute) is the treaty which established the International...


As of October 2007, 105 states are members of the Court.[5] A further 41 countries have signed but not ratified the Rome Statute.[6] However, a number of states, including China, India and the United States, are critical of the Court and have not joined. The States Parties to the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court are those countries that have ratified or acceded to the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court. ... Ratification is the act of giving official sanction to a formal document such as a treaty or constitution. ...


The Court can generally exercise jurisdiction only in cases where the accused is a national of a state party, the alleged crime took place on the territory of a state party, or a situation is referred to the Court by the United Nations Security Council.[7] The Court is designed to complement existing national judicial systems: it can exercise its jurisdiction only when national courts are unwilling or unable to investigate or prosecute such crimes.[8][9] Primary responsibility to investigate and punish crimes is therefore left to individual states.[10] This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A territory (from the word terra, meaning land) is a defined area (including land and waters), usually considered to be a possession of an animal, person, organization, or institution. ... “Security Council” redirects here. ...


To date, the Court has opened investigations into four situations: Northern Uganda, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, the Central African Republic and Darfur.[11] The Court has issued nine public arrest warrants and two suspects are in custody, awaiting trial. For other uses, see Darfur (disambiguation). ...


The official seat of the Court is in The Hague, Netherlands, but its proceedings may take place anywhere.[12] The ICC is sometimes referred to as a "World Court" but it should not be confused with the International Court of Justice, also known as the World Court, which is the United Nations organ that settles disputes between nations.[13] Coordinates: , Country Netherlands Province South Holland Area (2006)  - Municipality 98. ... The International Court of Justice (known colloquially as the World Court or ICJ; French: ) is the primary judicial organ of the United Nations. ... UN and U.N. redirect here. ...

Contents

History

In 1948, following the Nuremberg and Tokyo Tribunals, the United Nations General Assembly recognised the need for a permanent international court to deal with atrocities of the kind committed during World War II.[14] At the request of the General Assembly, the International Law Commission drafted two draft statutes by the early 1950s but these were shelved as the Cold War made the establishment of an international criminal court politically unrealistic.[15] For the 1947 Soviet film about the trials, see Nuremberg Trials (film). ... The International Military Tribunal for the Far East (IMTFE), also known as the Tokyo Trials, the Tokyo War Crimes Tribunal or simply as the Tribunal, was convened to try the leaders of the Empire of Japan for three types of crimes: Class A (crimes against peace), Class B (war crimes... The United Nations General Assembly (GA) is one of the five principal organs of the United Nations. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The International Law Commission was established by the General Assembly of the United Nations in 1948 with the purpose of codifying and promoting international law. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ...


A. N. R. Robinson, then Prime Minister of Trinidad and Tobago, revived the idea during the forty-fourth session of the General Assembly in 1989, proposing the creation of a permanent international court to deal with the international drug trade.[15][16] While work began on a draft statute, the international community established ad hoc tribunals to try war crimes in the former Yugoslavia[17] and Rwanda,[18] further highlighting the need for a permanent international criminal court.[19] Arthur Napoleon Raymond Robinson (born 16 December 1926 in Calder Hall, Tobago) was President of Trinidad and Tobago from 19 March 1997 to 17 March 2003. ... This page lists prime ministers of Trinidad and Tobago. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... Ad hoc is a Latin phrase which means for this [purpose]. It generally signifies a solution that has been tailored to a specific purpose, such as a tailor-made suit, a handcrafted network protocol, and specific-purpose equation and things like that. ...


Following years of negotiations, the General Assembly convened a conference in Rome, Italy, in June 1998, with the aim of finalising a treaty. On July 17, 1998, the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court was adopted by a vote of 120 to 7, with 21 countries abstaining. The seven countries that voted against the treaty were Iraq, Israel, Libya, the People's Republic of China, Qatar, the United States, and Yemen.[20] For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... is the 198th day of the year (199th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court Opened for signature June 17, 1998[1] at Rome Entered into force July 1, 2002 Conditions for entry into force 60 ratifications Parties 99[2] The Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court (or Rome Statute) is the treaty which established the International...


The Rome Statute became a binding treaty on April 11, 2002, when the number of countries that had ratified it reached 60.[3] The Statute legally came into force on July 1, 2002,[3] and the Court can only prosecute crimes committed after that date.[4] The first bench of 18 judges was elected by an Assembly of States Parties in February 2003. They were sworn in at the inaugural session of the Court on March 11, 2003.[21] The Court issued its first arrest warrants on 8 July 2005,[22] and the first pre-trial hearings were held in 2006.[23] is the 101st day of the year (102nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... is the 70th day of the year (71st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... An arrest warrant is a warrant issued by a public officer which authorizes the arrest and detention of an individual. ... is the 189th day of the year (190th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Membership

World map of ICC member states, as of October 2007
World map of ICC member states, as of October 2007

As of October 2007, 105 countries have ratified or acceded to the court, including nearly all of Europe and South America, and roughly half the countries in Africa.[5][6] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 364 pixelsFull resolution (1337 × 608 pixel, file size: 31 KB, MIME type: image/png) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 364 pixelsFull resolution (1337 × 608 pixel, file size: 31 KB, MIME type: image/png) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... The States Parties to the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court are those countries that have ratified or acceded to the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court. ...


A further 41 states have signed but not ratified the treaty;[6] the law of treaties obliges these states to refrain from “acts which would defeat the object and purpose” of the treaty.[24] In 2002, two of these states, the United States and Israel, "unsigned" the Rome Statute, indicating that they no longer intend to become states parties and, as such, they have no legal obligations arising from their signature of the statute.[6][25][26] The Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties (or VCLT), adopted on May 22, 1969 and opened for signature on May 23, 1969, codified the pre-existing customary international law on treaties, with some necessary gap-filling and clarifications. ...

See also: United States and the International Criminal Court

The United States, amid bipartisan consensus, has stated that it does not intend to ratify the treaty creating the International Criminal Court. ...

Jurisdiction

Crimes within the jurisdiction of the Court

Article 5 of the Rome Statute grants the Court jurisdiction over four groups of crimes, which it refers to as the “most serious crimes of concern to the international community as a whole”: the crime of genocide, crimes against humanity, war crimes, and the crime of aggression. The statute defines each of these crimes except for aggression: it provides that the Court will not exercise its jurisdiction over the crime of aggression until such time as the states parties agree on a definition of the crime and set out the conditions under which it may be prosecuted.[2] For other uses, see Genocide (disambiguation). ... This article is in need of attention. ... In the context of war, a war crime is a punishable offense under International Law, for violations of the laws of war by any person or persons, military or civilian. ... The Definition of Aggression was a definition of the term aggression adopted by the United Nations General Assembly on December 14, 1974. ...


Many states wanted to add terrorism and drug trafficking to the list of crimes covered by the Rome Statute; however, the states were unable to agree on a definition for terrorism and it was decided not to include drug trafficking as this might overwhelm the Court's limited resources.[14] India lobbied to have the use of nuclear weapons and other weapons of mass destruction included as war crimes but this move was also defeated.[27] India has expressed concern that “the Statute of the ICC lays down, by clear implication, that the use of weapons of mass destruction is not a war crime. This is an extraordinary message to send to the international community.”[27] Terrorist redirects here. ... Panamanian motor vessel Gatun during the largest cocaine bust in United States Coast Guard history (20 tons), off the coast of Panama. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 km (11 mi) above the epicenter. ... For the Xzibit album, see Weapons of Mass Destruction (album). ...


Some commentators have argued that the Rome Statute defines crimes too broadly or too vaguely. For example, China has argued that the definition of ‘war crimes’ goes beyond that accepted under customary international law.[28] Customary international law Unwritten law applied to the behaviour of nations. ...


Article 123 of the Rome Statute provides that a Review Conference shall be convened in 2009, and that this conference may review the list of crimes contained in Article 5.[29] The final resolution on adoption of the Rome Statute specifically recommended that terrorism and drug trafficking be reconsidered at this conference.[30] A Review Conference of the International Criminal Court Statute is due to take place sometime after July 2009 to consider amendments to the treaty that founded the International Criminal Court. ...


Territorial jurisdiction

During the negotiations that led to the Rome Statute, a large number of states argued that the Court should be allowed to exercise universal jurisdiction. However, this proposal was defeated due in large part to opposition from the United States.[31] A compromise was reached, allowing the Court to exercise jurisdiction only under certain limited circumstances, namely: Universal jurisdiction or universality principle is a controversial principle in international law whereby states claim criminal jurisdiction over persons whose alleged crimes were committed outside the boundaries of the prosecuting state, regardless of nationality, country of residence, or any other relation with the prosecuting country. ...

  • where the person accused of committing a crime is a national of a state party (or where the person's state has accepted the jurisdiction of the Court);
  • where the alleged crime was committed on the territory of a state party (or where the state on whose territory the crime was committed has accepted the jurisdiction of the Court); or
  • where a situation is referred to the Court by the UN Security Council.[7]

Temporal jurisdiction

The Court's jurisdiction does not apply retroactively: it can only prosecute crimes committed on or after 1 July 2002 (the date on which the Rome Statute entered into force). Where a state becomes party to the Rome Statute after that date, the Court can exercise jurisdiction automatically with respect to crimes committed after the statute enters into force for that state.[4] is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ...


Complementarity

The Court is intended as a court of last resort, investigating and prosecuting only where national courts have failed. Article 17 of the Statute provides that a case is inadmissible if:

‘(a) The case is being investigated or prosecuted by a State which has jurisdiction over it, unless the State is unwilling or unable genuinely to carry out the investigation or prosecution;
(b) The case has been investigated by a State which has jurisdiction over it and the State has decided not to prosecute the person concerned, unless the decision resulted from the unwillingness or inability of the State genuinely to prosecute;
(c) The person concerned has already been tried for conduct which is the subject of the complaint, and a trial by the Court is not permitted under article 20, paragraph 3;
(d) The case is not of sufficient gravity to justify further action by the Court.’[8]

Article 20, paragraph 3, specifies that, if a person has already been tried by another court, the ICC cannot try them again for the same conduct unless the proceedings in the other court:

‘(a) Were for the purpose of shielding the person concerned from criminal responsibility for crimes within the jurisdiction of the Court; or
(b) Otherwise were not conducted independently or impartially in accordance with the norms of due process recognized by international law and were conducted in a manner which, in the circumstances, was inconsistent with an intent to bring the person concerned to justice.’[9]

Structure

Philippe Kirsch, President of the Court

The Court consists of four organs: the Presidency, the Judicial Divisions, the Office of the Prosecutor, and the Registry.[32] Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1920 × 2560 pixels, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1920 × 2560 pixels, file size: 1. ... This article needs to be wikified. ...


Presidency

The Presidency is responsible for the proper administration of the Court (apart from the Office of the Prosecutor).[33] It comprises the President and the First and Second Vice-Presidents — three judges of the Court who are elected to the Presidency by their fellow judges for a maximum of two three-year terms.[34] As of October 2007, the President is Philippe Kirsch,[32] who was elected to a second term on 11 March 2006.[33] This article needs to be wikified. ... is the 70th day of the year (71st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Judicial Divisions

The Judicial Divisions consist of the 18 judges of the Court, organized into three divisions — the Pre-Trial Division, Trial Division and Appeals Division — which carry out the judicial functions of the Court.[35] The Pre-Trial Division (which comprises the First Vice President and six other judges)[35] confirms indictments and issues international arrest warrants. The Trial Division (the Second Vice President and five other judges) presides over trials. Decisions of the Pre-Trial and Trial Divisions may be appealed to the Appeals Division (the President and four other judges). Judges are assigned to divisions according to their qualifications and experience.[32] Judges of the International Criminal Court are elected for a term of up to nine years by the member-countries of the Court. ...


Judges are elected to the Court by the Assembly of States Parties.[35] They serve nine-year terms and are not generally eligible for re-election.[35] All judges must be nationals of states parties to the Rome Statute, and no two judges may be nationals of the same state.[36] They must be “persons of high moral character, impartiality and integrity who possess the qualifications required in their respective States for appointment to the highest judicial offices”.[36]


Office of the Prosecutor

The Office of the Prosecutor is responsible for conducting investigations and prosecutions.[10] It is headed by the Prosecutor, who is assisted by two Deputy Prosecutors.[32] The Rome Statute provides that the Office of the Prosecutor shall act independently;[37] as such, no member of the Office may seek or act on instructions from any external source, such as states, international organisations, non-governmental organisations or individuals.[10] For the political science journal, see: International Organization An international organization (also called intergovernmental organization) is an organization of international scope or character. ... A non-governmental organization (NGO) is an organization which is not a part of a government. ...


The Prosecutor may open an investigation under three circumstances:[10]

  • when a situation is referred to him by a state party;
  • when a situation is referred to him by the United Nations Security Council, acting to address a threat to international peace and security; or
  • when the Pre-Trial Chamber authorises him to open an investigation on the basis of information received from other sources, such as individuals or non-governmental organisations.

Critics of the Court argue that there are “insufficient checks and balances on the authority of the ICC prosecutor and judges” and “insufficient protection against politicized prosecutions or other abuses”.[38] Henry Kissinger says the checks and balances are so weak that the prosecutor “has virtually unlimited discretion in practice”.[39] “Security Council” redirects here. ... Henry Alfred Kissinger (born Heinz Alfred Kissinger on May 27, 1923) is a German-born American politician, and 1973 Nobel Peace Prize laureate. ...


As of October 2007, the Prosecutor is Luis Moreno-Ocampo of Argentina, who was elected by the Assembly of States Parties on 21 April 2003[40] for a term of nine years.[10] Luis Moreno-Ocampo (born 1952, Buenos Aires) is the Chief Prosecutor of the International Criminal Court (ICC). ... is the 111th day of the year (112th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Registry

The Registry is responsible for the non-judicial aspects of the administration and servicing of the Court.[41] This includes, among other things, “the administration of legal aid matters, court management, victims and witnesses matters, defence counsel, detention unit, and the traditional services provided by administrations in international organisations, such as finance, translation, building management, procurement and personnel”.[41] The Registry is headed by the Registrar, who is elected by the judges to a five-year term.[32]


Rights of the accused

The Rome Statute provides that all persons are presumed innocent until proven guilty beyond reasonable doubt,[42] and establishes certain rights of the accused and persons during investigations.[43] These include the right to be fully informed of the charges against him or her; the right to have a lawyer appointed, free of charge; the right to a speedy trial; and the right to examine the witnesses against him or her and to obtain the attendance and examination of witnesses on his or her behalf. In the common law, burden of proof is the obligation to prove allegations which are presented in a legal action. ...


Some argue that the protections offered by the ICC are insufficient. According to the Heritage Foundation, “Americans who appear before the court would be denied such basic constitutional rights as trial by a jury of one's peers, protection from double jeopardy, and the right to confront one's accusers.”[26] However, Human Rights Watch argues that “the ICC has one of the most extensive lists of due process guarantees ever written”, including “presumption of innocence; right to counsel; right to present evidence and to confront witnesses; right to remain silent; right to be present at trial; right to have charges proved beyond a reasonable doubt; and protection against double jeopardy”.[44] According to David Scheffer, who led the US delegation to the Rome Conference (and who voted against adoption of the treaty), “when we were negotiating the Rome treaty, we always kept very close tabs on, ‘Does this meet U.S. constitutional tests, the formation of this court and the due process rights that are accorded defendants?’ And we were very confident at the end of Rome that those due process rights, in fact, are protected, and that this treaty does meet a constitutional test.”[45] The Heritage Foundation is a public policy research institute based in Washington, D.C., in the United States. ... Human Rights Watch Banner Human Rights Watch is a United States-based international non-government organization that conducts research and advocacy on human rights. ... David John Scheffer is an American lawyer and diplomat who served as the first United States Ambassador-at-Large for War Crimes Issues, during President Bill Clintons second term in office. ...


In order to ensure “equality of arms” between defence and prosecution teams, the ICC has established an independent Office of Public Counsel for the Defence (OPCD) to provide logistical support, advice and information to defendants and their counsel.[46][47] The OPCD also helps to safeguard the rights of the accused during the initial stages of an investigation.[48] However, Thomas Lubanga's defence team say they have been given a smaller budget than the Prosecutor and that evidence and witness statements have been slow to arrive.[49]


Victim participation and reparations

The Rome Statute provides for victim participation in the Court's proceedings.[50][51] Article 43(6) establishes a Victims and Witnesses Unit to provide "protective measures and security arrangements, counseling and other appropriate assistance for witnesses, victims who appear before the Court, and others who are at risk on account of testimony given by such witnesses."[52] Article 68 sets out procedures for the "Protection of the victims and witnesses and their participation in the proceedings."[53] The Court has also established an Office of Public Counsel for Victims, to provide support and assistance to victims and their legal representatives.[54] Article 78 of the Rome Statute establishes a Trust Fund to make financial reparations to victims and their families.[55] In the philosophy of justice, reparation is the idea that a just sentence ought to compensate the victim of a crime appropriately. ...


Relationship with the United Nations

The United Nations Security Council may refer situations to the ICC
The United Nations Security Council may refer situations to the ICC

Unlike the International Court of Justice, the ICC is legally and functionally independent from the United Nations. Nonetheless, the Rome Statute grants the UN a clear role in relation to the Court. The Security Council may refer to the Court situations that would not otherwise fall under the Court's jurisdiction (as it did in relation to the situation in Darfur, which the Court could not otherwise have prosecuted as Sudan is not a state party). Article 16 of the Rome Statute also allows the Security Council to require the Court to defer from investigating a case for a period of 12 months.[56] Such a deferral may be renewed indefinitely by the Security Council. Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Nations. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Nations. ... “Security Council” redirects here. ... The International Court of Justice (known colloquially as the World Court or ICJ; French: ) is the primary judicial organ of the United Nations. ... “Security Council” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Darfur (disambiguation). ...


The Court cooperates with the UN in many different areas, including the exchange of information and logistical support.[57] The Court reports to the UN each year on its activities,[57][58] and some meetings of the Court's governing body, the Assembly of States Parties, are held at UN facilities. The relationship between the Court and the UN is governed by a “Relationship Agreement between the International Criminal Court and the United Nations”.[59][60]


Amnesties and national reconciliation processes

It is unclear to what extent the Court is compatible with reconciliation processes that grant amnesty to human rights abusers as part of agreements to end conflict.[61] Article 16 of the Rome Statute allows the Security Council to prevent the Court from investigating or prosecuting a case,[56] and Article 53 allows the Prosecutor the discretion not to initiate an investigation if he or she believes that “an investigation would not serve the interests of justice”.[62] The President of the ICC, Philippe Kirsch, has said that "some limited amnesties may be compatible" with a country's obligations genuinely to investigate or prosecute under the statute.[61] Look up Amnesty in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


It is sometimes argued that amnesties are necessary to allow the peaceful transfer of power from abusive regimes. By denying states the right to offer amnesty to human rights abusers, the International Criminal Court may make it more difficult to negotiate an end to conflict and a transition to democracy. For example, the outstanding arrest warrants for four leaders of the Lord's Resistance Army are regarded as an obstacle to ending the insurgency in Uganda.[63][64] Czech politician Marek Benda argues that “[t]he ICC as a deterrent will in our view only mean the worst dictators will try to retain power at all costs.”[65] However, the United Nations[66] and the International Committee of the Red Cross[67] maintain that granting amnesty to those accused of war crimes and other serious crimes is a violation of international law. Combatants Uganda Peoples Defence Force Lords Resistance Army Commanders Yoweri Museveni Joseph Kony The Lords Resistance Army (LRA),[1] formed in 1987, is a rebel guerrilla army operating mainly in northern Uganda and parts of Sudan. ... The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) is a private humanitarian institution based in Geneva, Switzerland. ...


Headquarters and detention unit

The ICC's interim premises in The Hague

As of 29 September 2006, the ICC’s staff consisted of 444 persons from 74 states.[54] The official seat of the Court is in The Hague, Netherlands, but its proceedings may take place anywhere.[12][68]. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2616 × 3488 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2616 × 3488 pixel, file size: 1. ... Coordinates: , Country Netherlands Province South Holland Area (2006)  - Municipality 98. ... is the 272nd day of the year (273rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Coordinates: , Country Netherlands Province South Holland Area (2006)  - Municipality 98. ...


The Court is currently housed in interim premises on the eastern edge of The Hague.[69] A number of options are being considered for the Court's permanent headquarters; the Court is currently focusing on a proposal to construct a facility in Alexanderkazerne, on a site currently used as a Dutch army barracks near a beach on the north of The Hague.[69][70]


The ICC currently has twelve detention cells in a Dutch prison in Scheveningen, The Hague.[71] Suspects held by the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia are held in the same prison and share some facilities, like the fitness room, but have no contact with suspects held by the ICC.[71] The detention unit is close to the ICC's proposed permanent headquarters in Alexanderkazerne.[72] Scheveningen pier Scheveningen is part of Den Haag, the Netherlands. ... The Tribunal building in The Hague. ...


As of October 2007, the ICC's detention unit houses three suspects: Thomas Lubanga, Germain Katanga and former Liberian President Charles Taylor. Taylor is being tried under the mandate and auspices of the Special Court for Sierra Leone, but his trial is being held at the ICC's facilities in The Hague because of political and security concerns about holding the trial in Freetown.[73][74] Thomas Lubanga Thomas Lubanga Dyilo was the founder and leader of the Union of Congolese Patriots (UPC), an armed militia in Ituri, northeastern Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). ... Germain Katanga (born 28 April 1978 in Ituri, the Democratic Republic of the Congo),[1] also known as Simba,[2] is a former leader of the Patriotic Resistance Force in Ituri (FRPI). ... For other persons named Charles Taylor, see Charles Taylor (disambiguation). ... The Special Court for Sierra Leone is an independent judicial body set up to try those who bear greatest responsibility for the war crimes and crimes against humanity committed in Sierra Leone after 30 November 1996 during the Sierra Leone Civil War. ... For other places with the same name, see Freetown (disambiguation). ...


Situations before the Court

Summary of investigations and prosecutions by the International Criminal Court (as of 18 October 2007)
Situation Referral
(date)
Investigation
opened
Arrest warrants
issued
Surrendered
to the ICC
Trial
commenced
Verdict Comments
Flag of Uganda Northern Uganda Government of Uganda
(December 2003)
July 2004 Joseph Kony
Vincent Otti
Raska Lukwiya Died 12 August 2006
Okot Odhiambo
Dominic Ongwen
Flag of the Democratic Republic of the Congo Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) Government of the DRC
(March 2004)
June 2004 Thomas Lubanga 17 March 2006
Germain Katanga 17 October 2007
Flag of the Central African Republic Central African Republic (CAR) Government of the CAR
(December 2004)
May 2007
Flag of Sudan Darfur, Sudan UN Security Council
(March 2005)
June 2005 Ahmed Haroun
Ali Kushayb

As of 1 February 2006, the Office of the Prosecutor had received 1732 communications about alleged crimes in 139 countries.[75] After initial review, however, 80% of these communications were found to be “manifestly outside the jurisdiction of the Court”.[75] The Prosecutor has so far opened investigations into just four situations: Uganda, Democratic Republic of Congo, Central African Republic and Darfur.[11] Current cases before the International Criminal Court include three situations where the Chief Prosecutor has opened an official investigation, one other referral that has been received from a state and a number of complaints received from individuals. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Uganda. ... Joseph Kony Joseph Kony (born 1961 in Odek, a village to east of Gulu in northern Uganda) is the primary leader of a guerrilla paramilitary group, and possibly new religious movement, called the Lords Resistance Army (LRA), that is engaged in a violent campaign to establish a theocratic government... Vincent Otti (born ca. ... Raska Lukwiya is the third highest ranking leader of the Lords Resistance Army rebel group founded in northern Uganda. ... is the 224th day of the year (225th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Okot Odhiambo is a senior leader of the Lords Resistance Army rebel group founded in northern Uganda in 1987. ... Dominic Ongwen (d. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Democratic_Republic_of_the_Congo. ... Motto Justice – Paix – Travail(French) Justice – Peace – Work Anthem Debout Congolais Capital (and largest city) Kinshasaa Official languages French Recognised regional languages Lingala, Kongo/Kituba, Swahili, Tshiluba Demonym Congolese Government Semi-Presidential Republic  -  President Joseph Kabila  -  Prime Minister Antoine Gizenga Independence  -  from Belgium June 30, 1960  Area  -  Total 2,344... Thomas Lubanga Thomas Lubanga Dyilo was the founder and leader of the Union of Congolese Patriots (UPC), an armed militia in Ituri, northeastern Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). ... is the 76th day of the year (77th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Germain Katanga (born 28 April 1978 in Ituri, the Democratic Republic of the Congo),[1] also known as Simba,[2] is a former leader of the Patriotic Resistance Force in Ituri (FRPI). ... is the 290th day of the year (291st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Central_African_Republic. ... Motto Unité, Dignité, Travail(French) Unity, Dignity, Work Anthem La Renaissance(French) E Zingo(Sango) Capital (and largest city) Bangui Official languages Sango, French Government Republic  -  President François Bozizé  -  Prime Minister Élie Doté Independence from France   -  Date August 13, 1960  Area  -  Total 622,984 km² (43rd) 240,534 sq... Image File history File links Flag_of_Sudan. ... For other uses, see Darfur (disambiguation). ... “Security Council” redirects here. ... Ahmed Mohammed Haroun (or Ahmad Harun) is one of two Sudanese men wanted by the International Criminal Court (ICC) for war crimes and crimes against humanity in Darfur. ... Ali Muhammad Ali Abd-Al-Rahman, commonly known as Ali Kushayb, is a former senior Janjaweed commander and current International Criminal Court (ICC) war crimes suspect. ... is the 32nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Uganda

In December 2003, the government of Uganda, a state party, referred to the Prosecutor the situation concerning the Lord’s Resistance Army in Northern Uganda.[76] On 8 July 2005, the Court issued its first arrest warrants for the Lord's Resistance Army leader Joseph Kony, his deputy Vincent Otti, and LRA commanders Raska Lukwiya, Okot Odiambo, and Dominic Ongwen.[22] The LRA's leaders have repeatedly demanded immunity from ICC prosecution in return for an end to the insurgency,[77] and the government of Uganda has promised not to turn them over to the ICC if they sign a peace deal.[77] Image File history File links Flag_of_Uganda. ... The Lords Resistance Army (LRA)[1], formed in 1987, is a rebel paramilitary group operating mainly in northern Uganda. ... is the 189th day of the year (190th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Joseph Kony Joseph Kony (born 1961 in Odek, a village to east of Gulu in northern Uganda) is the primary leader of a guerrilla paramilitary group, and possibly new religious movement, called the Lords Resistance Army (LRA), that is engaged in a violent campaign to establish a theocratic government... Vincent Otti (born ca. ... Raska Lukwiya is the third highest ranking leader of the Lords Resistance Army rebel group founded in northern Uganda. ... Okot Odhiambo is a senior leader of the Lords Resistance Army rebel group founded in northern Uganda in 1987. ... Dominic Ongwen (d. ...


Democratic Republic of Congo

In March 2004, the government of the Democratic Republic of Congo, a state party, referred to the Prosecutor “the situation of crimes within the jurisdiction of the Court allegedly committed anywhere in the territory of the DRC since the entry into force of the Rome Statute, on 1 July 2002.”[78][79] Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Democratic_Republic_of_the_Congo. ...


On 17 March 2006, Thomas Lubanga, former leader of the Union of Congolese Patriots militia in Ituri, became the first person to be arrested under a warrant issued by the court, for allegedly “conscripting and enlisting children under the age of fifteen years and using them to participate actively in hostilities”.[80] On 17 October 2007, a second suspect, Germain Katanga, was transferred to the Court by the Congolese authorities.[81] He is charged with six counts of war crimes and three counts of crimes against humanity.[81][82] The charges include murder, sexual slavery and using children under the age of fifteen to participate actively in hostilities.[81] is the 76th day of the year (77th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Thomas Lubanga Thomas Lubanga Dyilo was the founder and leader of the Union of Congolese Patriots (UPC), an armed militia in Ituri, northeastern Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). ... The Union of Congolese Patriots (French: Union des Patriotes Congolais, UPC) is an armed group in Ituri, northeastern Democratic Republic of the Congo. ... Combatants Lendu tribe, Nationalist and Integrationist Front (FNI) Hema tribe, Uganda, Union of Congolese Patriots, Democratic Republic of Congo United Nations Mission in the Democratic Republic of Congo RCD-K Commanders Etienne Lona (FNI) James Kazini (UDPF) Casualties Civilians killed: 60,000 (estimate as of Nov. ... is the 290th day of the year (291st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Germain Katanga (born 28 April 1978 in Ituri, the Democratic Republic of the Congo),[1] also known as Simba,[2] is a former leader of the Patriotic Resistance Force in Ituri (FRPI). ...


Central African Republic

In December 2004, the government of the Central African Republic, a state party, referred to the Prosecutor “the situation of crimes within the jurisdiction of the Court committed anywhere on the territory of the Central African Republic since 1 July 2002, the date of entry into force of the Rome Statute.”[83] On 22 May 2007, the Prosecutor announced his decision to open an investigation,[84][85] focusing on allegations of killing and rape in 2002 and 2003, a period of intense fighting between government and rebel forces.[86] Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Central_African_Republic. ... is the 142nd day of the year (143rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ...


Darfur, Sudan

On 31 March 2005, the United Nations Security Council passed Resolution 1593, referring “the situation prevailing in Darfur since 1 July 2002” to the Prosecutor.[87] In February 2007 the Prosecutor announced that two men — Sudanese humanitarian affairs minister Ahmad Muhammad Harun and Janjaweed militia leader Ali Kushayb — had been identified as key suspects, accused of war crimes and crimes against humanity.[88] On 2 May 2007, the Court issued arrest warrants for the two men.[89] However, Sudan says the court has no jurisdiction over this matter,[88] and refuses to hand over the suspects.[89] Image File history File links Flag_of_Sudan. ... is the 90th day of the year (91st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... United Nations Security Council Resolution 1593 was adopted by the United Nations Security Council on 31 March 2005,[1] by a vote of eleven to none with four abstentions (Algeria, Brazil, China and the United States of America). ... Combatants JEM factions NRF alliance Janjaweed SLM (Minnawi)  Sudan African Union Mission in Sudan (AMIS) United Nations African Union Mission in Darfur (UNAMID) Commanders Ibrahim Khalil Ahmed Diraige Omar al-Bashir Minni Minnawi Luke Aprezi Strength N/A N/A 7,000 The Darfur conflict is a crisis in the... Ahmed Mohammed Haroun (or Ahmad Harun) is one of two Sudanese men wanted by the International Criminal Court (ICC) for war crimes and crimes against humanity in Darfur. ... A Janjaweed miltiaman mounted The Janjaweed (Arabic: جنجويد; variously transliterated Janjawid, Janjawed, Jingaweit, Jinjaweed, Janjawiid, Janjiwid, Janjaweit, etc. ... Ali Muhammad Ali Abd-Al-Rahman, commonly known as Ali Kushayb, is a former senior Janjaweed commander and current International Criminal Court (ICC) war crimes suspect. ... May 2 is the 122nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (123rd in leap years). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ...


Other situations

On 10 February 2006, the Prosecutor published a letter answering complaints connected with the 2003 invasion of Iraq.[90] He noted that the Court's jurisdiction in Iraq was limited to the actions of nationals of states parties, and that he did not have authority to consider complaints about the legality of the invasion. He concluded that the available information constituted a reasonable basis to believe that a limited number of instances of willful killing and/or inhuman treatment had occurred, but that the crimes allegedly committed by nationals of states parties in Iraq did not appear to meet the gravity threshold required for an ICC investigation.[54] is the 41st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the 2003 invasion of Iraq. ...

See also: The International Criminal Court and the 2003 invasion of Iraq

In March 2003, the United States and its allies, the United Kingdom, Australia and Poland invaded Iraq. ...

See also

Current cases before the International Criminal Court include three situations where the Chief Prosecutor has opened an official investigation, one other referral that has been received from a state and a number of complaints received from individuals. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Peace Palace in The Hague Command responsibility, sometimes referred to as the Yamashita standard, or the Medina standard is the doctrine of hierarchical accountability in cases of war crimes. ... Human security refers to an emerging paradigm for understanding global vulnerabilities whose proponents challenge the traditional notion of national security by arguing that the proper referent for security should be the individual rather than the state. ... It has been suggested that World Federation be merged into this article or section. ... The World Federalist Movement (WFM) is a global citizens movement with member and associated organizations around the globe. ... The American Non-Governmental Organizations Coalition for the International Criminal Court (also AMICC) is an umbrella group of United States based non-governmental organizations that works to build support for the International Criminal Court (ICC) in the United States. ...

Notes and references

  1. ^ International Criminal Court is sometimes abbreviated as ICCt to distinguish it from several other organizations abbreviated as ICC. However, the more common abbreviation ICC is used in this article.
  2. ^ a b Article 5 of the Rome Statute. Accessed 23 November 2006.
  3. ^ a b c Amnesty International, 11 April 2002. The International Criminal Court — a historic development in the fight for justice. Accessed 18 June 2007.
  4. ^ a b c Article 11 of the Rome Statute. Accessed 23 November 2006.
  5. ^ a b International Criminal Court, 2006. The States Parties to the Rome Statute. Accessed 23 November 2006.
  6. ^ a b c d United Nations. Multilateral treaties deposited with the Secretary-General: Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court. Accessed 8 June 2007.
  7. ^ a b Articles 12 & 13 of the Rome Statute. Accessed 23 November 2006.
  8. ^ a b Article 17 of the Rome Statute. Accessed 4 December 2006.
  9. ^ a b Article 20 of the Rome Statute. Accessed 4 December 2006.
  10. ^ a b c d e International Criminal Court. Office of the Prosecutor. Accessed 21 July 2007.
  11. ^ a b International Criminal Court, 2007. Situations and Cases. Accessed 31 May 2007.
  12. ^ a b Article 3 of the Rome Statute. Accessed 3 May 2007.
  13. ^ International Criminal Court. Frequently asked questions. Accessed 18 September 2007.
  14. ^ a b United Nations Department of Public Information, December 2002. The International Criminal Court. Accessed 5 December 2006.
  15. ^ a b Gary T. Dempsey, 16 July 1998. Reasonable Doubt: The Case Against the Proposed International Criminal Court. The Cato Institute. Accessed 31 December 2006.
  16. ^ International Criminal Court, 20 June 2006. Election of Mr Arthur N.R. Robinson to the Board of Directors of the Victims Trust Fund. Accessed 3 May 2007.
  17. ^ The International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia, established in 1993.
  18. ^ The International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda, established in 1994.
  19. ^ Coalition for the International Criminal Court. History of the ICC. Accessed 31 December 2006.
  20. ^ Michael P. Scharf, August 1998. Results of the Rome Conference for an International Criminal Court. The American Society of International Law. Accessed 4 December 2006.
  21. ^ Coalition for the International Criminal Court. Judges and the Presidency. Accessed 5 December 2006.
  22. ^ a b International Criminal Court, 14 October 2005. Warrant of Arrest unsealed against five LRA Commanders. Accessed 5 December 2006.
  23. ^ International Criminal Court, 9 November 2006. Prosecutor presents evidence that could lead to first ICC trial. Accessed 5 December 2006.
  24. ^ The 1969 Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties, Article 18. Accessed 23 November 2006.
  25. ^ John R Bolton, 6 May 2002. International Criminal Court: Letter to UN Secretary General Kofi Annan. US Department of State. Accessed 23 November 2006.
  26. ^ a b Brett D. Schaefer, 9 January 2001. Overturning Clinton's Midnight Action on the International Criminal Court. The Heritage Foundation. Accessed 23 November 2006.
  27. ^ a b Dilip Lahiri, 17 July 1998. Explanation of vote on the adoption of the Statute of the International Criminal Court. Embassy of India, Washington, D.C. Accessed 31 December 2006.
  28. ^ Lu Jianping and Wang Zhixiang. “China's Attitude Towards the ICC” in Journal of International Criminal Justice, July 2005.
  29. ^ Article 123 of the Rome Statute. Accessed 5 December 2006. (See also Rolf Einar Fife, 21 November 2006, Review Conference: scenarios and optionsPDF (69.4 KiB). Accessed 5 December 2006.)
  30. ^ Amnesty International, 2 November 2006. International Criminal Court: Concerns at the fifth session of the Assembly of States Parties. Accessed 5 December 2006.
  31. ^ Elizabeth Wilmhurst, 1999. ‘Jurisdiction of the Court’, p. 136. In Roy S Lee (ed.), The International Criminal Court: The Making of the Rome Statute. The Hague: Kluwer Law International. ISBN 90-411-1212-X.
  32. ^ a b c d e International Criminal Court. Structure of the Court. Accessed 23 November 2006.
  33. ^ a b International Criminal Court. The Presidency. Accessed 21 July 2007.
  34. ^ Article 38 of the Rome Statute. Accessed 21 July 2007.
  35. ^ a b c d International Criminal Court. Chambers. Accessed 21 July 2007.
  36. ^ a b Article 36 of the Rome Statute. Accessed 23 November 2006.
  37. ^ Article 42 of the Rome Statute. Accessed 21 July 2007.
  38. ^ US Department of State, 30 July 2003. Frequently Asked Questions About the U.S. Government's Policy Regarding the International Criminal Court (ICC). Accessed 31 December 2006.
  39. ^ Henry A. Kissinger. “The Pitfalls of Universal Jurisdiction”. Foreign Affairs, July/August 2001, p. 95. Accessed 31 December 2006.
  40. ^ International Criminal Court, 24 April 2003. Election of the Prosecutor. Accessed 21 July 2007.
  41. ^ a b International Criminal Court. The Registry. Accessed 21 July 2007.
  42. ^ Article 66 of the Rome Statute. Accessed 3 May 2007.
  43. ^ The rights of persons during an investigation are provided in Article 55. Rights of the accused are provided in Part 6, especially Article 67. See also Amnesty International, 1 August 2000. “The International Criminal Court: Fact sheet 9 — Fair trial guarantees”. Accessed 3 May 2007.
  44. ^ Human Rights Watch. Myths and Facts About the International Criminal Court. Accessed 31 December 2006.
  45. ^ CNN, 2 January 2000. Burden of Proof transcript. Accessed 31 December 2006.
  46. ^ Katy Glassborow, 21 August 2006. Defending the Defenders. Global Policy Forum. Accessed 3 May 2007.
  47. ^ International Criminal Court. Rights of the Defence. Accessed 3 May 2007.
  48. ^ International Criminal Court, 2005. Report of the International Criminal Court for 2004. Accessed 3 May 2007.
  49. ^ Stephanie Hanson, 17 November 2006. Africa and the International Criminal Court. Council on Foreign Relations. Accessed 23 November 2006.
  50. ^ International Criminal Court. Victims and witnesses. Accessed 22 June 2007.
  51. ^ Ilaria Bottigliero, April 2003. "The International Criminal Court — Hope for the Victims", 32 SGI Quarterly, pp. 13-15. Accessed 24 July 2007.
  52. ^ Article 43(6) of the Rome Statute. Accessed 23 November 2006.
  53. ^ Article 68 of the Rome Statute. Accessed 23 November 2006.
  54. ^ a b c International Criminal Court, 17 October 2006. Report on the activities of the CourtPDF (151 KiB). Accessed 18 June 2007.
  55. ^ International Criminal Court. Trust Fund for Victims. Accessed 22 June 2007.
  56. ^ a b Article 16 of the Rome Statute. Accessed 23 November 2006.
  57. ^ a b International Criminal Court, 1 February 2007. UN Secretary-General visits ICC. Accessed 1 February 2007.
  58. ^ International Criminal Court, August 2006. Report of the International Criminal Court for 2005-2006PDF (68.5 KiB). Accessed 14 May 2007.
  59. ^ Negotiated Relationship Agreement between the International Criminal Court and the United NationsPDF (130 KiB). Accessed 23 November 2006.
  60. ^ Coalition for the International Criminal Court, 12 November 2004. Q&A: The Relationship Agreement between the ICC and the UNPDF (64.8 KiB). Accessed 23 November 2006.
  61. ^ a b Anthony Dworkin, December 2003. "Introduction" in The International Criminal Court: An End to Impunity? Crimes of War Project. Accessed 18 September 2007.
  62. ^ Article 53 of the Rome Statute. Accessed 31 December 2006.
  63. ^ Tim Cocks, 30 May 2007. “Uganda urges traditional justice for rebel crimes”. Reuters. Accessed 31 May 2007.
  64. ^ Alasdair Palmer, 14 January 2007. “When victims want peace, not justice”. The Sunday Telegraph. Accessed 15 January 2007.
  65. ^ Alena Skodova, “Czech parliament against ratifying International Criminal Court”. Radio Prague, 12 April 2002. Accessed 11 January 2007.
  66. ^ See, for example, Kofi Annan, 4 October 2000. Report of the Secretary-General on the establishment of a Special Court for Sierra Leone, para. 22. Accessed 31 December 2006.
  67. ^ Jean-Marie Henckaerts & Louise Doswald-Beck, 2005. Customary International Humanitarian Law, Volume I: Rules, pp. 613-614. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521005280
  68. ^ The legal relationship between the ICC and the host state will be governed by a headquarters agreement, see International Criminal Court, 9 November 2006: Report on the draft headquarters agreement between the International Criminal Court and the host StatePDF (263 KiB). Accessed 18 June 2007
  69. ^ a b Coalition for the International Criminal Court, 2006. Building — ICC Premises. Accessed 18 June 2007.
  70. ^ Assembly of States Parties, 7 December 2006. Resolution: Permanent PremisesPDF (322 KiB). Accessed 18 June 2007.
  71. ^ a b Emma Thomasson, 28 February 2006. ICC says cells ready for Uganda war crimes suspects. Reuters. Accessed 18 June 2007.
  72. ^ International Criminal Court, 18 October 2005. Report on the future permanent premises of the International Criminal Court: Project PresentationPDF (537 KiB), p. 23. Accessed 18 June 2007.
  73. ^ BBC News, 20 June 2006. Q&A: Trying Charles Taylor. Accessed 11 January 2007.
  74. ^ Alexandra Hudson, 31 May 2007. "Warlord Taylor's home is lonely Dutch prison". Reuters. Accessed 27 July 2007.
  75. ^ a b International Criminal Court, 10 February 2006. Update on communications received by the Office of the Prosecutor of the ICCPDF (236 KiB). Accessed 22 June 2007.
  76. ^ International Criminal Court, 29 January 2004. President of Uganda refers situation concerning the Lord's Resistance Army (LRA) to the ICC. Accessed 11 January 2007.
  77. ^ a b Associated Press, 30 May 2007. “Human Rights Watch: Ugandan rebels must face justice, even if not before international court”. Accessed 31 May 2007.
  78. ^ International Criminal Court, 19 April 2004. Prosecutor receives referral of the situation in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Accessed 11 January 2007.
  79. ^ International Criminal Court, 23 June 2004. The Office of the Prosecutor of the International Criminal Court opens its first investigation. Accessed 11 January 2007.
  80. ^ International Criminal Court, 17 March 2006. First arrest for the International Criminal Court. Accessed 11 January 2007.
  81. ^ a b c International Criminal Court, 18 October 2007. Second arrest: Germain Katanga transferred into the custody of the ICC. Accessed 18 October 2007.
  82. ^ International Criminal Court, 2 July 2007. Warrant of arrest for Germain KatangaPDF (202 KiB). Accessed 18 October 2007.
  83. ^ International Criminal Court, 15 December 2006. Prosecution's Report Pursuant to Pre-Trial Chamber Ill's 30 November 2006 Decision Requesting Information on the Status of the Preliminary Examination of the Situation in the Central African RepublicPDF (359 KiB). Accessed 11 January 2007.
  84. ^ International Criminal Court, 22 May 2007. Prosecutor opens investigation in the Central African Republic. Accessed 31 May 2007.
  85. ^ International Criminal Court, 22 May 2007. Background: Situation in the Central African RepublicPDF (141 KiB). Accessed 31 May 2007.
  86. ^ Nora Boustany, 23 May 2007. “Court Examines Alleged Abuses in Central African Republic”, The Washington Post, p. A16. Accessed 31 May 2007.
  87. ^ United Nations Security Council, 31 March 2006. Security Council Refers Situation in Darfur, Sudan, To Prosecutor of International Criminal Court. Accessed 11 January 2007.
  88. ^ a b Sonja Pace, 27 February 2007. "International Court Names Top Suspects in Darfur War Crimes". Voice of America. Accessed 27 February 2007.
  89. ^ a b Alexandra Hudson, 2 May 2007. ICC judges issue arrest warrants for Darfur suspects. Reuters. Accessed 3 May 2007.
  90. ^ Luis Moreno-Ocampo, 9 February 2006. Letter concerning the situation in IraqPDF (158 KiB). Accessed 23 November 2006.

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Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 327th day of the year (328th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 159th day of the year (160th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 327th day of the year (328th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 338th day of the year (339th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 338th day of the year (339th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 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Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 339th day of the year (340th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 197th day of the year (198th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... The Cato Institute is a libertarian think tank headquartered in Washington, D.C. The Institutes stated mission is to broaden the parameters of public policy debate to allow consideration of the traditional American principles of limited government, individual liberty, free markets, and peace by striving to achieve greater involvement... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 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Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 338th day of the year (339th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 339th day of the year (340th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 287th day of the year (288th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 339th day of the year (340th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 339th day of the year (340th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 327th day of the year (328th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 126th day of the year (127th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... is the 327th day of the year (328th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 9th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... The Heritage Foundation is a public policy research institute based in Washington, D.C., in the United States. ... is the 327th day of the year (328th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 198th day of the year (199th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 339th day of the year (340th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 325th day of the year (326th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... “PDF” redirects here. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to... is the 339th day of the year (340th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Amnesty international Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is an international non-governmental organization which defines its mission as to undertake research and action focused on preventing and ending grave abuses of the rights to physical and mental integrity, freedom of conscience... is the 306th day of the year (307th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 339th day of the year (340th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 327th day of the year (328th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 202nd day of the year (203rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 202nd day of the year (203rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 202nd day of the year (203rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 327th day of the year (328th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 202nd day of the year (203rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 211th day of the year (212th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about a journal. ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 114th day of the year (115th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 202nd day of the year (203rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 202nd day of the year (203rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 123rd day of the year (124th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 123rd day of the year (124th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 2nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 233rd day of the year (234th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Global Policy Forum, or GPF, is an organization seeking to promote accountability of international organizations such as the United Nations and strengthen international law. ... is the 123rd day of the year (124th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 123rd day of the year (124th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 123rd day of the year (124th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... 17 November is also the name of a Marxist group in Greece, coinciding with the anniversary of the Athens Polytechnic uprising. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 327th day of the year (328th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 205th day of the year (206th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 327th day of the year (328th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 327th day of the year (328th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 290th day of the year (291st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... “PDF” redirects here. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to... is the 169th day of the year (170th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 327th day of the year (328th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 32nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 32nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... “PDF” redirects here. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to... May 14 is the 134th day of the year (135th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... “PDF” redirects here. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to... is the 327th day of the year (328th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 316th day of the year (317th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... “PDF” redirects here. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to... is the 327th day of the year (328th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 261st day of the year (262nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 150th day of the year (151st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 151st day of the year (152nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 14th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 15th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Radio Prague (Czech: Český rozhlas 7 - Radio Praha) is the official international broadcasting station of the Czech Republic. ... is the 102nd day of the year (103rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... is the 11th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Kofi Atta Annan (born April 8, 1938) is a Ghanaian diplomat who served as the seventh Secretary-General of the United Nations from January 1, 1997 to January 1, 2007, serving two five-year terms. ... is the 277th day of the year (278th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The headquarters of the Cambridge University Press, in Trumpington Street, Cambridge. ... is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... “PDF” redirects here. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to... is the 169th day of the year (170th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 169th day of the year (170th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 341st day of the year (342nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... “PDF” redirects here. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to... is the 169th day of the year (170th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... February 28 is the 59th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 169th day of the year (170th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 291st day of the year (292nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... “PDF” redirects here. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to... is the 169th day of the year (170th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 171st day of the year (172nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 11th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 151st day of the year (152nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 208th day of the year (209th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 41st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... “PDF” redirects here. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to... is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 29th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 11th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 150th day of the year (151st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 151st day of the year (152nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 109th day of the year (110th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 11th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 174th day of the year (175th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 11th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 76th day of the year (77th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 11th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 291st day of the year (292nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 291st day of the year (292nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 183rd day of the year (184th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... “PDF” redirects here. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to... is the 291st day of the year (292nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... “PDF” redirects here. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to... is the 11th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 142nd day of the year (143rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 151st day of the year (152nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 142nd day of the year (143rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... “PDF” redirects here. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to... is the 151st day of the year (152nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 143rd day of the year (144th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... The Washington Post is the largest newspaper in Washington, D.C.. It is also one of the citys oldest papers, having been founded in 1877. ... is the 151st day of the year (152nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 90th day of the year (91st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 11th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 58th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Voice of America logo Voice of America (VOA), is the official external radio and television broadcasting service of the United States federal government. ... is the 58th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... May 2 is the 122nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (123rd in leap years). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 123rd day of the year (124th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 40th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... “PDF” redirects here. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to... is the 327th day of the year (328th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further reading

  • Bruce Broomhall, International Justice and the International Criminal Court: Between Sovereignty and the Rule of Law. Oxford: Oxford University Press (2003). ISBN 019927424X
  • Anne-Marie de Brouwer, Supranational Criminal Prosecution of Sexual Violence: The ICC and the Practice of the ICTY and the ICTR. Antwerp - Oxford: Intersentia (2005). ISBN 90-5095-533-9
  • Hans Köchler, Global Justice or Global Revenge? International Criminal Justice at the Crossroads. Vienna/New York: Springer, 2003, ISBN 3-211-00795-4
  • Roy S Lee (ed.), The International Criminal Court: The Making of the Rome Statute. The Hague: Kluwer Law International (1999). ISBN 90-411-1212-X
  • Roy S Lee & Hakan Friman (eds.), The International Criminal Court: Elements of Crimes and Rules of Procedure and Evidence. Ardsley, NY: Transnational Publishers (2001). ISBN 1-57105-209-7
  • Madeline Morris (ed.), "The United States and the International Criminal Court", Law and Contemporary Problems, Winter 2001, vol. 64, no. 1. Accessed 2007-07-24.
  • William A Schabas, An Introduction to the International Criminal Court (2nd ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press (2004). ISBN 0-521-01149-3
  • Nicolaos Strapatsas, "Universal Jurisdiction And The International Criminal Court", Manitoba Law Journal, 2002, vol. 29, p. 2.
  • Lyal S. Sunga, "The Crimes within the Jurisdiction of the International Criminal Court (Part II, Articles 5-10)", European Journal of Crime, Criminal Law and Criminal Justice vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 377-399 (April 1998).

Oxford University Press (OUP) is a highly-respected publishing house and a department of the University of Oxford in England. ... Hans Köchler (born October 18, 1948 in Schwaz, Tyrol, Austria) is Full Professor of Philosophy and Chairman of the Department of Philosophy at the University of Innsbruck, Austria. ... Global Justice or Global Revenge? International edition 2003 Global Justice or Global Revenge? Turkish edition 2005 Global Justice or Global Revenge? Indian edition 2005 Global Justice or Global Revenge? International Criminal Justice at the Crossroads (2003) is a book by Austrian philosopher Hans Köchler, who was appointed by the... Dr. Lyal S. Sunga, Senior Lecturer / Director of Research, Raoul Wallenberg Institute of Human Rights and Humanitarian Law, Lund, Sweden, is a specialist on international human rights law, international humanitarian law and international criminal law. ...

External links

Wikisource has original text related to this article:
Rome Statute

Official websites Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ...

Non-governmental organisations

Coordinates: 52°04′06″N 4°21′13″E / 52.068333, 4.353611 Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Amnesty international Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is an international non-governmental organization which defines its mission as to undertake research and action focused on preventing and ending grave abuses of the rights to physical and mental integrity, freedom of conscience... Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court Opened for signature June 17, 1998[1] at Rome Entered into force July 1, 2002 Conditions for entry into force 60 ratifications Parties 99[2] The Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court (or Rome Statute) is the treaty which established the International... The States Parties to the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court are those countries that have ratified or acceded to the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court. ... Judges of the International Criminal Court are elected for a term of up to nine years by the member-countries of the Court. ... Current cases before the International Criminal Court include three situations where the Chief Prosecutor has opened an official investigation, one other referral that has been received from a state and a number of complaints received from individuals. ... For other uses, see Genocide (disambiguation). ... In the context of war, a war crime is a punishable offense under International Law, for violations of the laws of war by any person or persons, military or civilian. ... In international law, a crime against humanity consists of acts of persecution or any large scale atrocities against a body of people, as being the criminal offence above all others. ... The Definition of Aggression was a definition of the term aggression adopted by the United Nations General Assembly on December 14, 1974. ... Ahmed Mohammed Haroun (or Ahmad Harun) is one of two Sudanese men wanted by the International Criminal Court (ICC) for war crimes and crimes against humanity in Darfur. ... Germain Katanga (born 28 April 1978 in Ituri, the Democratic Republic of the Congo),[1] also known as Simba,[2] is a former leader of the Patriotic Resistance Force in Ituri (FRPI). ... Joseph Kony Joseph Kony (born 1961 in Odek, a village to east of Gulu in northern Uganda) is the primary leader of a guerrilla paramilitary group, and possibly new religious movement, called the Lords Resistance Army (LRA), that is engaged in a violent campaign to establish a theocratic government... Ali Muhammad Ali Abd-Al-Rahman, commonly known as Ali Kushayb, is a former senior Janjaweed commander and current International Criminal Court (ICC) war crimes suspect. ... Thomas Lubanga Thomas Lubanga Dyilo was the founder and leader of the Union of Congolese Patriots (UPC), an armed militia in Ituri, northeastern Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). ... Raska Lukwiya is the third highest ranking leader of the Lords Resistance Army rebel group founded in northern Uganda. ... Okot Odhiambo is a senior leader of the Lords Resistance Army rebel group founded in northern Uganda in 1987. ... Dominic Ongwen (d. ... Vincent Otti (born ca. ... The United States, amid bipartisan consensus, has stated that it does not intend to ratify the treaty creating the International Criminal Court. ... The American Servicemembers Protection Act (ASPA) is a United States federal law introduced by US Senator Jesse Helms as an amendment to the National Defense Authorization Act and passed in August 2002 by Congress. ... In March 2003, the United States and its allies, the United Kingdom, Australia and Poland invaded Iraq. ... International law deals with the relationships between states, or between persons or entities in different states. ... Sources of international law are the materials and processes out of which the rules and principles regulating the international community are developed. ... Customary international law Unwritten law applied to the behaviour of nations. ... A peremptory norm (also called jus cogens, Latin for compelling law) is a fundamental principle of international law considered to have acceptance among the international community of states as a whole. ... The Hague Conventions were international treaties negotiated at the First and Second Peace Conferences at The Hague, Netherlands in 1899 and 1907, respectively, and were, along with the Geneva Conventions, among the first formal statements of the laws of war and war crimes in the nascent body of secular international... Original document. ... The London Charter of the International Military Tribunal (usually referred to simply as the London Charter) was the decree that set down the laws and procedures by which the Nuremberg trials were to be conducted. ... The Nuremberg Principles were a set of guidelines for determining what constitues a war crime. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide was adopted by the UN General Assembly in December 1948 and came into effect in January 1951. ... CAT states: members in green, non-members in grey The United Nations Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (UNCAT) is an international human rights instrument, organized by the United Nations and intended to prevent torture and other similar activities. ... Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court Opened for signature June 17, 1998[1] at Rome Entered into force July 1, 2002 Conditions for entry into force 60 ratifications Parties 99[2] The Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court (or Rome Statute) is the treaty which established the International... International law deals with the relationships between states, or between persons or entities in different states. ... In international law, a crime against humanity consists of acts of persecution or any large scale atrocities against a body of people, as being the criminal offence above all others. ... A crime against peace, in international law, consists of starting or waging a war against the territorial integrity, political independence or sovereignty of a state, or in violation of international treaties, agreements or (legally binding) assurances. ... The crime of apartheid is defined by the 2002 Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court which established the International Criminal Court as inhumane acts of a character similar to other crimes against humanity committed in the context of an institutionalised regime of systematic oppression and domination by one racial... For other uses, see Genocide (disambiguation). ... This article is about maritime piracy. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... In the context of war, a war crime is a punishable offense under International Law, for violations of the laws of war by any person or persons, military or civilian. ... In international law, a war of aggression is generally considered to be any war for which the purpose is not to repel an invasion, or respond to an attack on the territory of a sovereign nation. ... The International Criminal Court (ICC) was established in 2002 as a permanent tribunal to prosecute individuals for genocide, crimes against humanity, and war crimes, as defined by several international agreements, most prominently the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court. ... For the 1947 Soviet film about the trials, see Nuremberg Trials (film). ... The International Military Tribunal for the Far East (IMTFE), also known as the Tokyo Trials, the Tokyo War Crimes Tribunal or simply as the Tribunal, was convened to try the leaders of the Empire of Japan for three types of crimes: Class A (crimes against peace), Class B (war crimes... Khabarovsk War Crime Trials - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... The Tribunal building in The Hague. ... Wanted poster for the ICTR The International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR) is a court under the auspices of the United Nations for the prosecution of offenses committed in Rwanda during the genocide which occurred there during April, 1994, commencing on April 6. ... The Special Court for Sierra Leone is an independent judicial body set up to try those who bear greatest responsibility for the war crimes and crimes against humanity committed in Sierra Leone after 30 November 1996 during the Sierra Leone Civil War. ... The Special Tribunal for Lebanon is an international criminal court that has been proposed and approved by the United Nations and the Director-General of the Ministry of Justice on behalf of the Lebanese Republic. ... The history of international law examines the evolution of state practice and the doctrinal developments in international law. ... This article lists and summarizes War Crimes committed since the Hague Conventions of 1907. ... . ... Peace Palace in The Hague Command responsibility, sometimes referred to as the Yamashita standard, or the Medina standard is the doctrine of hierarchical accountability in cases of war crimes. ... The two parts of the laws of war (or Law of Armed Conflict (LOAC)): Law concerning acceptable practices while engaged in war, like the Geneva Conventions, is called jus in bello; while law concerning allowable justifications for armed force is called jus ad bellum. ... Universal jurisdiction or universality principle is a controversial principle in international law whereby states claim criminal jurisdiction over persons whose alleged crimes were committed outside the boundaries of the prosecuting state, regardless of nationality, country of residence, or any other relation with the prosecuting country. ... Supranationalism is a method of decision-making in international organizations, wherein power is held by independent appointed officials or by representatives elected by the legislatures or people of the member states. ... It has been suggested that World Federation be merged into this article or section. ... Supranationalism is a method of decision-making in international organizations, wherein power is held by independent appointed officials or by representatives elected by the legislatures or people of the member states. ... For theological federalism, see Covenant Theology. ... A confederation is an association of sovereign states or communities, usually created by treaty but often later adopting a common constitution. ... Intergovernmentalism is a theory of decision-making in international organizations, where power is possessed by the member-states and decisions are made by unanimity. ... Anti-nationalism is the idea that nationalism is dangerous in one form or another, and sometimes, though less often, the idea that all nationalism is dangerous and unfavourable in all cases. ... A KFC franchise in Kuwait. ... Democratic globalization or mundialization is a movement towards an institutional system of global democracy that would give world citizens a say in world organizations. ... Pax Americana (Latin: American Peace) is a term to describe the period of relative peace in the Western world since the end of World War II in 1945, coinciding with the dominant military and economic position of the United States. ... UN and U.N. redirect here. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... IMF redirects here. ... It has been suggested that World Bank be merged into this article or section. ... “WTO” redirects here. ... Anthem Let Us All Unite and Celebrate Together [1] Administrative Centre Largest city Cairo, Egypt Working languages Arabic English French Portuguese Swahili Membership 53 African states Leaders  -  Chairman John Kufuor  -  Alpha Oumar Konaré Establishment  -  as the OAU May 25, 1963   -  as the African Union July 9, 2002  Area  -  Total 29... Pro Tempore Secretariat Brasília Official languages 4 Spanish Portuguese English Dutch Member states 12 Argentina Bolivia Brazil Chile Colombia Ecuador Guyana Paraguay Peru Suriname Uruguay Venezuela Leaders  -  President Rodrigo Borja  -  Tempore Secretary Jorge Taunay Filho Formation  -  Cuzco Declaration 8 December 2004  Area  -  Total 17,715,335 km² (1st2)  sq... Hymn The ASEAN Hymn Jakarta, Indonesia Membership 10 Southeast Asian states Leaders  -  Secretary General Ong Keng Yong Area  -  Total 4,497,4931 km²  Expression error: Unrecognised punctuation character , sq mi  Population  -   estimate 566. ... Headquarters Washington, D.C. Official languages English, French, Spanish, Portuguese Membership 35 countries Leaders  -  Secretary General José Miguel Insulza (since 26 May 2005) Establishment  -  Charter first signed 30 April 1948 in effect 1 December 1951  Website http://www. ... The United Nations General Assembly (GA) is one of the five principal organs of the United Nations. ... Established 1952, as the Common Assembly President Hans-Gert Pöttering (EPP) Since 16 January 2007 Vice-Presidents 14 Rodi Kratsa-Tsagaropoulou (EPP) Alejo Vidal-Quadras (EPP) Gérard Onesta (Greens – EFA) Edward McMillan-Scott (ED) Mario Mauro (EPP) Miguel Angel Martínez Martínez (PES) Luigi Cocilovo (ALDE) Mechtild... The Pan-African Parliament is the legislative body of the African Union; at present it exercises oversight, and has advisory and consultative powers. ... The Latin American Parliament (Parlatino), is a regional, permanent and unicameral organism, integrated from the national Parliaments of Latin America, elected democratically by means of universal suffrage in countries that ratified the corresponding Treaty of Institutionalization signed on the 16 November 1987 in Lima, Peru, and those whose States adhered... The Central American Parliament, also know by the abbreviation Parlacen (from the Spanish Parlamento Centroamericano) is a political institution devoted to the integration of the Central American countries. ... The Inter-Parliamentary Union is an international organization established in 1889 by William Randal Cremer (United Kingdom) and Frédéric Passy (France). ... The International Court of Justice (known colloquially as the World Court or ICJ; French: ) is the primary judicial organ of the United Nations. ... The Tribunal building in The Hague. ... The African Court of Justice will at some point in the future be merged with the African Court on Human and Peoples Rights and be the African Unions legal organ. ... The Central American Court of Justice was an international court established by five Central American states by a treaty signed December 20, 1907 at Washington, D.C. Categories: Law stubs ... The Caribbean Court of Justice (CCJ) is a regional Caribbean-based institution in Port-of-Spain, Trinidad and Tobago. ... Official emblem of the ECJ The Court of Justice of the European Communities, usually called the European Court of Justice (ECJ), is the highest court in the European Union (EU). ... European Court of Human Rights building in Strasbourg The European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR), often referred to informally as the Strasbourg Court, was created to systematise the hearing of human rights complaints against States Parties to the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, adopted by... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... International law deals with the relationships between states, or between persons or entities in different states. ... Conflict of laws, or private international law, or international private law is that branch of international law and interstate law that regulates all lawsuits involving a foreign law element, where a difference in result will occur depending on which laws are applied as the lex causae. ... Supranational law is a form of international law, based on the limitation of the rights of sovereign nations between one another. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court Opened for signature June 17, 1998[1] at Rome Entered into force July 1, 2002 Conditions for entry into force 60 ratifications Parties 99[2] The Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court (or Rome Statute) is the treaty which established the International... Kyoto Protocol Opened for signature December 11, 1997 in Kyoto, Japan Entered into force February 16, 2005. ... The treaties of the European Union are effectively its constitutional law, making up the EUs primary legislation. ... The Law of the European Union is the unique legal system which operates alongside the laws of Member States of the European Union (EU). ... The League of Nations was an international organization founded as a result of the Paris Peace Conference in 1919–1920. ... The Permanent Court of International Justice, sometimes called World Court, was the international court of the League of Nations established in 1922. ... For the 1947 Soviet film about the trials, see Nuremberg Trials (film). ... The Permanent Court of Arbitration (PCA), also known as the Hague Tribunal is an international organization based in The Hague in the Netherlands. ... It has been suggested that World Federation be merged into this article or section. ... A United Nations Parliamentary Assembly, or United Nations Peoples Assembly (UNPA), is a proposed addition to the United Nations System that eventually would allow for direct election of UN delegates by citizens of member states. ... Proposed Central Asian Union A Central Asian Union was proposed by Kazakhstan President Nursultan Nazarbaev on April 26, 2007, consisting of the five Central Asian republics of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan. ... In 2004, a committee of the Australian Senate called for the formation of a Pacific Union to comprise the member-states of the Pacific Islands Forum, but with a common charter, institutions and currency. ... The United States of Europe is a name given to one version of the hypothetical unification scenarios of Europe, as a sovereign federation of states, similar to the United States of America, both as projected by writers of speculative fiction and by political scientists and politicians. ... Federal Union is a British group launched in November 1938, to advocate a Federal Union of Europe as a post-war aim. ... The World Federalist Movement (WFM) is a global citizens movement with member and associated organizations around the globe. ... A global citizens movement refers to a number of organized and overlapping citizens groups who seek to influence public policy often with the hope of establishing global solidarity on an issue. ... World Union is a non-profit, non-political organisation founded on the 26th November 1958 in Pondicherry, inspired by Sri Aurobindos vision of carrying forward a movement for Human Unity, World Peace and Progress on a Spiritual Foundation. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...


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International Criminal Court - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3165 words)
The International Criminal Court (ICC) was established in 2002 as a permanent tribunal to prosecute individuals for genocide, crimes against humanity, and war crimes, as defined by several international agreements, most prominently the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court.
Also, the ICC is separate and not to be confused from the International Court of Justice, which is a body to settle disputes between nations, and the Belgian War Crimes Law.
The establishment of the court was first proposed in 1949 by the International Law Commission at the request of the UN General Assembly.
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