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Encyclopedia > International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights
Parties to the ICCPR: members in green, non-members in grey
Parties to the ICCPR: members in green, non-members in grey

The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights is a United Nations treaty based on the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, created in 1966 and entered into force on 23 March 1976. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 352 pixelsFull resolution (1427 × 628 pixel, file size: 48 KB, MIME type: image/png) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): International Covenant on Civil and Political... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 352 pixelsFull resolution (1427 × 628 pixel, file size: 48 KB, MIME type: image/png) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): International Covenant on Civil and Political... The foundation of the U.N. The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. ... Single European Act A treaty is a binding agreement under international law entered into by actors in international law, namely states and international organizations. ... Eleanor Roosevelt with the Spanish version of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. ... Coming into force refers to the date and process by which legislation, or part of legislation, becomes a law. ... is the 82nd day of the year (83rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1976 Pick up sticks(MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Because the Universal Declaration of Human Rights contained both first-generation civil and political rights and second-generation economic, social, and cultural rights, it could not garner the international consensus necessary to become a binding treaty. Particularly, a divide developed between capitalist nations such as the USA, which favored civil and political rights, and communist nations which favored economic, social and cultural rights.[citation needed] To solve this problem, two binding Covenants were created instead of one: the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights and the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights. The division of human rights into three generations was initially proposed in 1979 by the Czech jurist Karel Vasak at the International Institute of Human Rights in Strasbourg. ... The division of human rights into three generations was initially proposed in 1979 by the Czech jurist Karel Vasak at the International Institute of Human Rights in Strasbourg. ... This page is a candidate to be moved to Wikisource. ...


The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights is monitored by the Human Rights Committee, a group of 18 experts who meet three times a year to consider periodic reports submitted by member States on their compliance with the treaty. Members of the Human Rights Committee are elected by member states, but do not represent any State. The Covenant contains two Optional Protocols. The first optional protocol creates an individual complaints mechanism whereby individuals in member States can submit complaints, known as communications, to be reviewed by the Human Rights Committee. Its rulings under the first optional protocol have created the most complex jurisprudence in the UN international human rights law system. The second optional protocol abolishes the death penalty. The Human Rights Committee is a group of 18 experts who meet three times a year to consider the five-yearly reports submitted by United Nations member states on their compliance with the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. ...

Contents

National implementation and effects

The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights currently has 160 States Parties and a further 5 signatories (pending ratification). A country-by-country list of declarations and reservations made upon ratification, accession or succession can be seen at http://www.unhchr.ch/html/menu3/b/treaty5_asp.htm.


New Zealand

New Zealand's Parliament implemented the ICCPR in domestic law by passing the New Zealand Bill of Rights Act in 1990. The New Zealand Bill of Rights Act 1990 is an enactment of the New Zealand Parliament setting out the rights and fundamental freedoms of the citizens of New Zealand. ...


United States

The United States Senate ratified the ICCPR in 1992, with a number of reservations, understandings, and declarations. In particular, the Senate declared that "the provisions of Article 1 through 27 of the Covenant are not self-executing." 138 Cong. Rec. S4781-84 (1992). The Senate stated that the declaration was meant to "clarify that the Covenant will not create a private cause of action in U.S. Courts." S. Exec. Rep., No. 102-23, at 15 (1992). Where a treaty or covenant is not self-executing, and where Congress has not acted to implement the agreement with legislation, no private right of action is created by ratification. Sei Fujii v. State 38 Cal.2d 718, 242 P.2d 617 (1952); also see Buell v. Mitchell 274 F.3d 337 (6th Cir., 2001) (discussing ICCPR's relationship to death penalty cases, citing to other ICCPR cases). Thus while the ICCPR is binding upon the United States as a matter of international law, it does not form part of the domestic law of the nation. Federal courts Supreme Court Chief Justice Associate Justices Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Politics Portal      The United States Senate is one of the two chambers of the bicameral United States Congress, the... Capital punishment, or the death penalty, is the execution of a convicted criminal by the state as punishment for crimes known as capital crimes or capital offences. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...


External links

Wikisource has original text related to this article:
International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights

  Results from FactBites:
 
International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (487 words)
The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights is a United Nations treaty based on the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, created in 1966 and entered into force on 23 March 1976.
Because the Universal Declaration of Human Rights contained both first-generation civil and political rights and second-generation economic, social, and cultural rights, it could not garner the international consensus necessary to become a binding treaty.
Thus while the ICCPR is binding upon the United States as a matter of international law, it does not form part of the domestic law of the nation.
International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (1966) (1208 words)
The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly on 16 December 1966.
The States Parties to the present Covenant undertake to ensure the equal right of men and women to the enjoyment of all civil and political rights set forth in the present Covenant.
This right shall include freedom to have or to adopt a religion or belief of his choice, and freedom, either individually or in community with others and in public or private, to manifest his religion or belief in worship, observance, practice and teaching.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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