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Encyclopedia > International Code of Botanical Nomenclature

The International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (ICBN) is the set of rules that governs plant nomenclature, i.e. the formal botanical names (scientific names) that are given to plants. Its intent is that each taxonomic group ("taxon", plural "taxa") of plants has only one formal botanical name, accepted worldwide. As these names are treated as if Latin they are sometimes called 'Latin names'. Divisions Land plants (embryophytes) Non-vascular plants (bryophytes) Hepatophyta - liverworts Anthocerophyta - hornworts Bryophyta - mosses Vascular plants (tracheophytes) Lycopodiophyta - clubmosses Equisetophyta - horsetails Pteridophyta - true ferns Psilotophyta - whisk ferns Ophioglossophyta - adderstongues Seed plants (spermatophytes) †Pteridospermatophyta - seed ferns Pinophyta - conifers Cycadophyta - cycads Ginkgophyta - ginkgo Gnetophyta - gnetae Magnoliophyta - flowering plants Adiantum pedatum (a fern... Nomenclature is a system of naming and categorizing objects in a given category. ...


The guiding principle in botanical nomenclature is priority. The ICBN sets the formal starting date of plant nomenclature at 1 May 1753, the publication of Species Plantarum by Linnaeus (or at later dates for specified groups). To avoid undesirable effects of priority conservation of a name is possible. May 1 is the 121st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (122nd in leap years). ... 1753 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Writing the Species Plantarum was one of Carolus Linnaeus two great contributions to the Scientific community. ... Carolus Linnaeus Carolus Linnaeus (May 23, 1707 – January 10, 1778), also known by his noble title Carl von Linné   listen?, was a Swedish naturalist who laid the foundations for binary nomenclature. ... Conservation may refer to the following: Conservation ethic in relation to preserving ecosystems Conservationist Conservation movement Conservation ecology Conservation law of physics Conservation of energy Conservation of mass Conservation in genetics Conservation in psychology Prolonging the material integrity of cultural and artistic objects Art conservation Architectural conservation or immovable object...


A botanical name is fixed to a taxon by a "type". This is almost invariably dried plant material and is usually deposited and preserved in a herbarium. Many type collections can be viewed online at the website of the herbarium in question. In Botany, a herbarium is a collection of preserved plants or plant parts, mainly in a dried form. ...


Botanical nomenclature is independent of zoological and bacteriological nomenclature. However, it follows the same general principles as the other two Codes including the use of a binary name (or binomial name) for each species. For a general account of the use of scientific names across botany, zoology and bacteriology, see binomial nomenclature. An attempt is made to come to a single Code for all organisms, to replace all three existing Codes. This is named the BioCode, but it will not be implemented in the near future. Another attempt to displace is the PhylloCode, but this gets more publicity than support. Botany is the scientific study of plant life. ... Zoology (Greek zoon = animal and logos = word) is the biological discipline which involves the study of animals. ... Microbiology (in Greek micron = small and biologia = studying life) is the study of microorganisms, including unicellular (single-celled) eukaryotes and prokaryotes, fungi, and viruses. ... In biology, binomial nomenclature is a standard convention used for naming species. ...


The ICBN can only be changed by an International Botanical Congress, although the International Association for Plant Taxonomy provides supporting infrastructure. The first more or less internationally accepted Code was the Vienna Rules of 1906. The present Code is the "St Louis Code" (2000), available online. This is based on the decisions of the XVI IBC at St. Louis 1999. The preceding Code was the "Tokyo Code" (1994), which is also available online. Following the XVII IBC in Vienna in 2005, the "Vienna Code" (2006) will supersede the current St. Louis Code. Each Code supersedes the earlier versions and is retroactive back to 1753 (except where expressly limited). The International Association for Plant Taxonomy (IAPT) is devoted to plant systematics, taxonomy and nomenclature. ... 1999 is a common year starting on Friday Anno Domini (or the Current Era), and was designated the International Year of Older Persons by the United Nations. ... Vienna (German: Wien [viːn]; Hungarian: Bécs) is the capital of Austria, and also one of Austrias nine federal states (Bundesland Wien). ... 2005 is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Note that botanical nomenclature should not be confused with taxonomy . Taxonomy is a science which determines which taxa (taxonomic groupings) should be recognized (e.g. "What plants belong to this species?") and how these taxa relate to each other (e.g. "What species belong to this family?"). Nomenclature concerns itself only with the question which name should be used for any taxon that is recognized by taxonomy. Where taxonomists differ in opinion more than one name may be used for one and the same plant. Within any taxonomic viewpoint only one name can be correct, but somebody holding a different taxonomic viewpoint may be using a different name, although for him too there is only one correct name (in his taxonomic viewpoint). This means that if there is confusion over a plant name this can be nomenclatural confusion or taxonomic confusion. If confusion is nomenclatural (for example an older name is discovered which has priority and threatens to displace a well-known name) the Code offers means to set things right (at least sometimes): see conservation. If confusion is taxonomic (taxonomists differ in opinion on the circumscription or the relationships of taxa) then only more scientific reasearch can settle this. Taxonomy (from Greek ταξινομία (taxinomia) from the words taxis = order and nomos = law) may refer to either the classification of things, or the principles underlying the classification. ... Conservation may refer to the following: Conservation ethic in relation to preserving ecosystems Conservationist Conservation movement Conservation ecology Conservation law of physics Conservation of energy Conservation of mass Conservation in genetics Conservation in psychology Prolonging the material integrity of cultural and artistic objects Art conservation Architectural conservation or immovable object...


See also

The International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN) is a set of rules in zoology that have one fundamental aim: to provide the maximum universality and continuity in classifying all animals according to taxonomic judgment. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
International Code of Botanical Nomenclature - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (563 words)
The International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (ICBN) is the set of rules and recommendations dealing with the formal botanical names that are given to plants.
Botanical nomenclature is independent of zoological and bacteriological nomenclature, which are governed by their own Codes (see Nomenclature Codes).
Nomenclature concerns itself only with the question which name should be used for any taxon that is recognized by taxonomy: see correct name.
International Code of Zoological Nomenclature - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (763 words)
The International Code of Zoological Nomenclature is a set of rules in zoology that have one fundamental aim: to provide the maximum universality and continuity in classifying all animals according to taxonomic judgment.
The Code is meant to guide the nomenclature of animals, while leaving the zoologists some degree of freedom in naming and classifying new species.
The rules in the Code determine what names are potentially valid for any taxon including the ranks of subspecies and superfamily.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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