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Encyclopedia > International Atomic Energy Agency
International Atomic Energy Agency

The IAEA flag
The IAEA flag Image File history File links Flag_of_IAEA.svg en: Description: Flag of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), an organization of the United Nations. ...

IAEA members
IAEA members Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1357x628, 46 KB) I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ...

Formation 1957
Headquarters Vienna, Austria
Membership 144 member states
Official languages Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian and Spanish
Secretary General Mohamed ElBaradei
Website http://www.iaea.org

The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) seeks to promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy and to inhibit its use for military purposes. It was established as an autonomous organization on July 29, 1957. In 1953, U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower envisioned the creation of this international body to control and develop the use of atomic energy, in his "Atoms for Peace" speech before the UN General Assembly. The organization and its Director General, Mohamed ElBaradei, were jointly awarded the Nobel Peace Prize announced on 7 October 2005. The date of establishment or date of founding of an institution is the date on which that institution chooses to claim as its starting point. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Vienna (disambiguation). ... An official language is a language that is given a unique legal status in the countries, states, and other territories. ... “Arabic” redirects here. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... A large number of international organizations and other bodies have a secretary general or secretary-general as their chief administrative officers or in other administrative capacities. ... Mohamed ElBaradei (Arabic: محمد البرادعي) (born June 17, 1942) is an Egyptian diplomat and the Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), an inter-governmental organization under the auspices of the United Nations. ... A website (alternatively, Web site or web site) is a collection of Web pages, images, videos and other digital assets that is hosted on one or several Web server(s), usually accessible via the Internet, cell phone or a LAN. A Web page is a document, typically written in HTML... Nuclear energy is energy released from the atomic nucleus. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 kilometers (11 mi) above the hypocenter A nuclear weapon derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions of fusion or fission. ... is the 210th day of the year (211th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1957 Gregorian calendar). ... Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... Dwight David Eisenhower (October 14, 1890 – March 28, 1969) was an American General and politician, who served as the thirty-fourth President of the United States (1953–1961). ... Atoms for Peace was the title of a speech delivered by Dwight D. Eisenhower to the UN General Assembly in New York City on December 8, 1953. ... United Nations General Assembly The United Nations General Assembly is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations. ... Mohamed ElBaradei (Arabic: محمد البرادعي) (born June 17, 1942) is an Egyptian diplomat and the Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), an inter-governmental organization under the auspices of the United Nations. ... Lester B. Pearson after accepting the 1957 Nobel Peace Prize The Nobel Peace Prize (Swedish and Norwegian: Nobels fredspris) is the name of one of five Nobel Prizes bequeathed by the Swedish industrialist and inventor Alfred Nobel. ... is the 280th day of the year (281st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Media often refer to the IAEA as "the UN's Nuclear Watchdog". While this describes one of the Agency's roles, it is by no means the only one.


The IAEA has its headquarters in Vienna, Austria. Two "Regional Safeguards Offices" are located in Toronto, Canada; and Tokyo, Japan. The IAEA has two liaison offices, located in New York, USA; and Geneva, Switzerland. In addition, it has laboratories in Seibersdorf and Vienna, Austria; Monaco; and Trieste, Italy. For other uses, see Vienna (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Tokyo (disambiguation). ... This article is about the state. ... Geneva (pronunciation //; French: Genève //, German:   //, Italian: Ginevra //, Romansh: Genevra) is the second most populous city in Switzerland (after Zürich), and is the most populous city of Romandy (the French-speaking part of Switzerland). ... Seibersdorf is an Austrian market town with 1,283 residents in the District of Baden in Lower Austria. ... For other uses, see Vienna (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Trieste (disambiguation). ...

Contents

History

IAEA headquarters since 1979, Vienna, Austria

The IAEA serves as an intergovernmental forum for scientific and technical co-operation in the peaceful use of nuclear technology worldwide. The IAEA's programmes encourage the development of the peaceful applications of nuclear technology, provide international safeguards against its misuse, and facilitate the application of safety measures in its use. IAEA expanded its nuclear safety efforts in response to the Chernobyl disaster in 1986. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... This diagram demonstrates the defense in depth quality of nuclear power plants. ... Chernobyl area. ...


The IAEA was headed by Hans Blix from 1981 to 1997. The current head of the organization is the Egyptian Mohamed ElBaradei. At the 49th General Conference, ElBaradei was confirmed as Director General until 2009.   (born 28 June 1928 in Uppsala, Sweden) is a Swedish diplomat and politician. ...


The IAEA's mission is guided by the interests and needs of Member States, strategic plans and the vision embodied in the IAEA Statute (see below). Three main pillars - or areas of work - underpin the IAEA's mission: Safety and Security; Science and Technology; and Safeguards and Verification.


The Agency and Director General Mohamed ElBaradei were awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 2005. In Dr. ElBaradei's speech he stated that only 1% of the money spent on developing new weapons would be enough to feed the entire world and that, if we hope to escape self-destruction, then nuclear weapons should have no place in our collective conscience, and no role in our security. Nobel Lecture. Lester B. Pearson after accepting the 1957 Nobel Peace Prize The Nobel Peace Prize (Swedish and Norwegian: Nobels fredspris) is the name of one of five Nobel Prizes bequeathed by the Swedish industrialist and inventor Alfred Nobel. ...


Structure and function

IAEA headquarters
IAEA headquarters

The IAEA is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN). The IAEA is not under direct control of any UN body, but reports to both the General Assembly and the Security Council. The IAEA’s structure and function is defined by its founding document: the IAEA’s Statute (see below). The IAEA has three main bodies: the Board of Governors, the General Conference, and the Secretariat. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 768 pixel, file size: 165 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) IAEA headquarters in Vienna, Austria. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 768 pixel, file size: 165 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) IAEA headquarters in Vienna, Austria. ... UN and U.N. redirect here. ... The United Nations General Assembly (GA) is one of the five principal organs of the United Nations. ... A session of the Security Council in progress The United Nations Security Council is the most powerful organ of the United Nations. ... General Conference can refer to: General Conferences, the recurring meetings of Member States for the specialized agencies of the United Nations such as the International Atomic Energy Agency and UNESCO. General conference, a meeting open to all members of a particular Latter Day Saint denomination, most commonly indicating that of...


The Board of Governors is one of two policy making bodies of the IAEA. The Board consists of 13 members designated by the outgoing Board and 22 members elected by the General Conference. The outgoing Board designates the ten members who are the most advanced in atomic energy technology and the remaining three most advanced members from any of the following areas that are not represented by the first ten: North America, Latin America, Western Europe, Eastern Europe, Africa, Middle East and South Asia, South East Asia, the Pacific, and the Far East. These members are designated for one year terms. The General Conference elects 22 members from the remaining nations to two year terms. Eleven are elected each year. The 22 elected members must also represent a stipulated geographic diversity (Statute). The current Board members are: Albania, Algeria, Argentina, Australia, Austria, Bolivia, Brazil, Canada, Chile, the People's Republic of China, Croatia, Ecuador, Ethiopia, Finland, France, Germany, Ghana, India, Iraq, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Lithuania, Mexico, Morocco, Nigeria, Pakistan, Philippines, Russian Federation, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, Switzerland, Thailand, United Kingdom, United States of America, (IAEA Board of Governors 2007–2008). General Conference can refer to: General Conferences, the recurring meetings of Member States for the specialized agencies of the United Nations such as the International Atomic Energy Agency and UNESCO. General conference, a meeting open to all members of a particular Latter Day Saint denomination, most commonly indicating that of... The Statute of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) defines eight areas from which candidate governments for election to the IAEA Board of Governors are chosen. ...


The Board, in its five yearly meetings, is responsible for making most of the policy of the IAEA. The Board makes recommendations to the General Conference on IAEA activities and budget, is responsible for publishing IAEA standards and appoints the Director General subject to General Conference approval (IAEA Fundamentals 2005). Board members each receive one vote. Budget matters require a two-thirds majority. All other matters require only a simple majority. The simple majority also has the power to stipulate issues that will thereafter require a two-thirds majority. Two-thirds of all Board members must be present to call a vote (IAEA Board of Governors 1989). General Conference can refer to: General Conferences, the recurring meetings of Member States for the specialized agencies of the United Nations such as the International Atomic Energy Agency and UNESCO. General conference, a meeting open to all members of a particular Latter Day Saint denomination, most commonly indicating that of... General Conference can refer to: General Conferences, the recurring meetings of Member States for the specialized agencies of the United Nations such as the International Atomic Energy Agency and UNESCO. General conference, a meeting open to all members of a particular Latter Day Saint denomination, most commonly indicating that of...


The General Conference (GC) is the IAEA’s lesser policy making body. The GC is made up of all 144 member states. The GC meets once a year, in September, to approve the actions and budgets passed on from the Board of Governors. The GC also approves the nominee for Director General and requests reports from the Board on issues in question (Statute). Each member receives one vote. Issues of budget, Statute amendment and suspension of a member’s privileges require a two- thirds majority and all other issues require a simple majority. Similar to the Board, the GC can, by simple majority, designate issues to require a two- thirds majority. The GC elects a President at each annual in order to facilitate an effective meeting. The President only serves for the duration of the session (Statute). General Conference can refer to: General Conferences, the recurring meetings of Member States for the specialized agencies of the United Nations such as the International Atomic Energy Agency and UNESCO. General conference, a meeting open to all members of a particular Latter Day Saint denomination, most commonly indicating that of...


The main function of the GC is to serve as a forum for debate on current issues and policies. Any of the other IAEA organs, the Director General, the Board and member states can table issues to be discussed by the GC (IAEA Fundamentals 2005). This function of the GC is almost identical to the General Assembly of the United Nations. The United Nations General Assembly (GA) is one of the five principal organs of the United Nations. ...


The Secretariat is the professional and general service staff of the IAEA. The Secretariat is headed by the Director General. The Director General, currently Dr. Mohamed ElBaradei, is responsible for enforcement of the actions passed by the Board of Governors and the GC. The Director General is selected by the Board and approved by the GC for renewable four year terms. The Director General oversees six departments that do the actual work in carrying out the policies of the IAEA: Nuclear Energy, Nuclear Safety and Security, Nuclear Sciences and Applications, Safeguards, Technical Cooperation, and Management. Dr. ElBaradei, together with the IAEA as an institution, won the 2005 Nobel Peace Prize. Mohamed ElBaradei (Arabic: محمد البرادعي) (born June 17, 1942) is an Egyptian diplomat and the Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), an inter-governmental organization under the auspices of the United Nations. ... Mohamed ElBaradei Mohamed ElBaradei (Arabic: محمد البرادعي) (born June 17, 1942, Egypt) is the Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), an inter-governmental organization under the auspices of the United Nations. ... Lester B. Pearson after accepting the 1957 Nobel Peace Prize The Nobel Peace Prize (Swedish and Norwegian: Nobels fredspris) is the name of one of five Nobel Prizes bequeathed by the Swedish industrialist and inventor Alfred Nobel. ...


The IAEA budget is two-part. The regular budget funds most activities of the IAEA and is assessed to each member nation (€280 million in 2007). The Technical Cooperation Fund is funded by voluntary contributions with a general target in the $70 million range.


The process of joining the IAEA is fairly simple. A State must notify the Director General of its desire to join. The Director then submits the request to the Board for consideration. If the State is approved by the Board, the GC must then consider the State. When the State receives final approval for membership, it must then submit its signed acceptance of the IAEA’s Statute. The State is considered a member when its acceptance letter is deposited; the IAEA’s other members are subsequently notified of the new member.


The IAEA exists to pursue “safe, secure and peaceful uses of nuclear sciences and technology” (Pillars 2005). The IAEA pursues this mission with three main functions: inspections of existing nuclear facilities to ensure peaceful use, information and standards to ensure the stability of nuclear facilities, and as a hub for the sciences seeking peaceful applications of nuclear technology.


Membership

IAEA members
IAEA members

The Vatican City and many of the UN members are parties of the IAEA. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1357x628, 46 KB) I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1357x628, 46 KB) I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... A map of UN member states and their dependencies as recognized by the UN. Regions excluded: Antarctica (regulated by the Antarctic Treaty System), Vatican City (the Holy See is a UN observer), the Palestinian territories (the Palestine Liberation Organization is a UN observer), and Western Sahara (status in dispute between...


Not participating are:

Countries that have withdrawn from the IAEA are: Image File history File links Flag_of_Andorra. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Antigua_and_Barbuda. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Bahamas. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Barbados. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bhutan. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Comoros. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Dominica. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Equatorial_Guinea. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Fiji. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_The_Gambia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Grenada. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Guinea. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Guinea-Bissau. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Guyana. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Kiribati. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Laos. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Lesotho. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Maldives. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Micronesia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Nauru. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Oman. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Papua_New_Guinea. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Rwanda. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_San_Marino. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Saint_Kitts_and_Nevis. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Saint_Lucia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Saint_Vincent_and_the_Grenadines. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Samoa. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Sao_Tome_and_Principe. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Solomon_Islands. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Somalia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Suriname. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Swaziland. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_East_Timor. ... Motto Unidade, Acção, Progresso(Portuguese) Unity, Action, Progress Anthem Pátria Capital (and largest city) Dili Official languages Tetum, Portuguese1 Government Republic  -  President José Ramos Horta  -  Prime Minister Xanana Gusmão Independence from Portugal²   -  Declared November 28, 1975   -  Recognized May 20, 2002  Area  -  Total 15,007 km² (158th) 5... Image File history File links Flag_of_Tonga. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Trinidad_and_Tobago. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Turkmenistan. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Tuvalu. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Vanuatu. ...

Other entities not represented at the IAEA (ineligible due to not being recognised as independent countries): Image File history File links Flag_of_Cambodia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_North_Korea. ...

Image File history File links Flag_of_Western_Sahara. ... Motto: حرية ديمقراطية وحدة (Arabic) Liberty, Democracy, Unity Anthem: Yābaniy Es-Saharā  listen This map indicates the territory claimed by the SADR, viz. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Republic_of_China. ...

IAEA and Iran

In February 2003 Mohamed ElBaradei traveled to Iran with a team of inspectors to investigate Iran's nuclear program . In November 2003 Dr. ElBaradei reported to the Board of Governors that Iran had repeatedly and over an extended period failed to meet with its safeguards obligations, including by failing to declare its uranium enrichment program. [1]. Although he stated that there was "no evidence" that Iran was pursuing nuclear weapons, he added that he was "still not in a position to conclude that there are no undeclared nuclear materials or activities in Iran." [2] On December 18, 2003 Iran signed the Additional Protocol at the IAEA headquarters in Vienna, and pledged to act in accord with its provisions pending completion of ratification of the protocol. [3]. Iran also pledged to suspend its plutonium reprocessing and uranium enrichment-related activities, in response to a diplomatic initiative by France, Germany and the UK. [4] [5] However, Iran ended its suspension and ended implementation of the Additional Protocol on August 1, 2005. [6] Mohamed ElBaradei (Arabic: محمد البرادعي) (born June 17, 1942) is an Egyptian diplomat and the Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), an inter-governmental organization under the auspices of the United Nations. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 kilometers (11 mi) above the hypocenter A nuclear weapon derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions of fusion or fission. ... is the 352nd day of the year (353rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Vienna (disambiguation). ... is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


On September 24, 2005, the Board of Governors, acting under Article XII.C of the IAEA Statute, found that Iran’s failures to meet its safeguards obligations constituted non-compliance with Iran's NPT Safeguards agreement. [7] On February 4, 2006 the Board of the International Atomic Energy Agency requested the Director General to make a report concerning Iran to the United Nations Security Council following the March 2006 meeting of the IAEA Board. This resolution was decided by a vote of 27-3 (27 Board members voted for the resolution, 3, Cuba, Syria and Venezuela, voted against the resolution, and the remaining 5, Algeria, Libya, Indonesia, South Africa and Belarus, abstained). [8] is the 267th day of the year (268th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 35th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... “Security Council” redirects here. ...


On December 23, 2006, the UN Security Council passed a resolution [9] requiring Iran to suspend its uranium enrichment activities and requiring all UN members and the IAEA to impose certain sanctions on Iran. In January 2007 IAEA Director General Mohamed ElBaradei proposed a "time out", that Iran suspend enrichment related activity and the United Nations Security Council suspend sanctions simultaneously, with the aim to revive stalled negotiations. At its March 2007 meeting, the Board of Governors agreed to curtail Technical Cooperation activities with Iran, as recommended in the Director General's February 9 report. [10] is the 357th day of the year (358th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Mohamed ElBaradei (Arabic: محمد البرادعي) (born June 17, 1942) is an Egyptian diplomat and the Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), an inter-governmental organization under the auspices of the United Nations. ... “Security Council” redirects here. ... is the 40th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...


However, on September 7, 2007, ElBaradei argued against military action, saying: "We have not seen any weaponization of their program, nor have we received any information to that effect - no smoking gun or information from intelligence. Based on the evidence we have, we do not see ... a clear and present danger that requires that you go beyond diplomacy." [11] is the 250th day of the year (251st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ...


Past and present Directors General

Nationality & Name Duration
Flag of the United States W. Sterling Cole 19571961
Flag of Sweden Sigvard Eklund 19611981
Flag of Sweden Hans Blix 19811997
Flag of Egypt Mohamed ElBaradei 1997 - Present

Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... William Sterling Cole (April 18, 1904 - March 15, 1987) was a Republican member of the United States House of Representatives from New York. ... Year 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1957 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Sweden. ... Dr. Sigvard Arne Eklund was a former director of the IAEA security council born in 1911 in Kiruna, Sweden. ... Year 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981 Gregorian calendar). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Sweden. ...   (born 28 June 1928 in Uppsala, Sweden) is a Swedish diplomat and politician. ... Year 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981 Gregorian calendar). ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Egypt. ... Mohamed ElBaradei (Arabic: محمد البرادعي) (born June 17, 1942) is an Egyptian diplomat and the Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), an inter-governmental organization under the auspices of the United Nations. ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ...

See also

  • Anti-nuclear movement
  • IAEA Areas
  • Global Security Institute
United Nations Portal

CND logo In British politics, the Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament has been at the forefront of the peace movement in the United Kingdom and claims to be Europes largest single-issue peace campaign. ... The Statute of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) defines eight areas from which candidate governments for election to the IAEA Board of Governors are chosen. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1150x1150, 77 KB) Summary square version of Image:Flag_of_the_United_Nations. ...

External links

Works cited

Coordinates: 48°14′8″N, 16°24′51″E Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...


 
 

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