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Encyclopedia > Internal passport

An internal passport is an identification document issued in some countries. Its main purpose is similar to that of an identity card, however in some countries internal passports had other restrictive functions. Examples of countries that used or use internal passports include the former Soviet Union and, currently, North Korea. German identity document sample An identity document is a piece of documentation designed to prove the identity of the person carrying it. ...

Contents


Soviet Union

Main article: Passport system of the Soviet Union. The passport system in the Soviet Union underwent a number of transformations in the course of its history. ...


Internal passports were used in the Soviet Union for identification of persons for various purposes. In particular, passports were used to control and monitor the place of residence by means of propiska. Officially, propiska was introduced for statistical reasons: since in the planned economy of the Soviet Union the distribution of goods and services was centralized, the overall distribution of population was to be monitored. For example, a valid propiska was necessary to receive higher education or medical treatment. Propiska (Russian: пропи́ска; the full term is Прописка по месту жительства, The record of place of residence) was a regulation in the Soviet Union designed to control internal population movement by binding a person to his or her permanent place of residence. ... This article is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...


All residents were required by law to record their address on the document, and to report any changes to a local office of the Ministry of Internal Affairs (e.g., by the age of 45, a person has to have three photographs of themself in the passport due to the effects of aging, taken an the age of 16 (when it is issued), 25 and 45). In Ukraine, these laws were struck down by its Constitutional Court in 2001 on the grounds of unconstitutionality. In Russia, similar cases have so far failed, and the system remains in place, although largely reduced. The system of internal passport registration remains strongly in place in Moscow, which uses the recent terrorist attacks on that city as a justification for their continued use. The Interior Minister is a member of a Cabinet in a Government. ... A camera. ... Ageing or aging is the process of getting older. ...


China

In the People's Republic of China, for Hong Kong and Macao residents to enter mainland China, they need a Home Return Permit issued by the PRC government through the Guangdong Public Security Bureau. The system is retained after the sovereignty of Hong Kong and Macao were transferred to the PRC in 1997 and 1999 respectively. The PRC government often deny applications of permits from democracy advocates in Hong Kong. In the other way round, a travelling permit, issued by the PRC government, is required for residents of mainland China to visit Hong Kong or Macao. In this map of China, the light-coloured areas represent Mainland China, while yellow coloured area refers to Taiwan. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Guangdong (Simplified Chinese: 广东; Traditional Chinese: 廣東; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Kuang-tung; Postal System Pinyin: Kwangtung or Canton Province, Jyutping: gwong2 dung1), is a province on the south coast of the Peoples Republic of China. ... 1997 (MCMXCVII) is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1999 (MCMXCIX) is a common year starting on Friday, and was designated the International Year of Older Persons by the United Nations. ... Pro-democracy camp (民主派) is a frequently used jargon by the media and within the academics to refer to the politicians and social activists in Hong Kong who advocate faster pace of democratisation and implementation of universal and equal suffrage. ...


The People's Republic of China also maintains a system of residency registration in mainland China known as hukou, by which government permission is needed to formally change one's place of residency. This system effectively controlled internal migration before the 1980s, but market reforms have caused the system to collapse as a means of migration control and an estimated 150 to 200 million people are part of the blind flow and have unofficially migrated, generally from poor, rural areas to wealthy, urban ones. Unofficial residents are, however, often denied official services such as education and medical care and are sometimes topics of both social and official discrimination. In this map of China, the light-coloured areas represent Mainland China, while yellow coloured area refers to Taiwan. ... A hukou (Chinese: ) is a residency permit issued in the Peoples Republic of China which officially identifies a person as a resident of an area. ...


The Republic of China (Taiwan) also maintains the system of household registration, and proper registration is necessary for holding a national identification card, which, while not restricting travel like in mainland China, is necessary for many practical transactions such as opening bank accounts. National motto: None Official language Mandarin Chinese Capital and largest city Taipei President Chen Shui-bian Premier Frank Hsieh Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 138th 35,980 km² 2. ... In this map of China, the light-coloured areas represent Mainland China, while yellow coloured area refers to Taiwan. ...


Other

Some civil liberties campaigners in western democracies have likened some planned counter-terrorism measures as a akin to the introduction of an internal passport. For instance, Tim Lott, writing in London's Evening Standard in December 2002 said that the proposed British identity card was a possible pre-cursor to an "internal passport". Civil liberties are protections from the power of governments. ... Headlines of the Evening Standard on the day of London bombing on July 7, 2005, in Waterloo station The Evening Standard is a newspaper published in London. ... After many years of discussion through successive governments, in 2003 then British Home Secretary David Blunkett announced that the government intends to introduce a British national identity card linked to a national identity database, the National Identity Register, which will track all residents of the UK throughout their lives. ...


Similar ardent privacy advocates in the United States, such as Bill Scannell of dontspyon.us, called the CAPPS II plan to colour-code air passengers by their potential terrorist status as a prelude to an internal passport. The phrase has not however gained wide currency with the respect to these measures. CAPPS II (Computer-Assisted Airline Passenger Screening System) is a United States aviation security program proposed by the Transportation Security Administration (TSA), a division of the Department of Homeland Security, shortly after the hijackings of September 11, 2001. ...


References

  • Report on Ukraine's Constitutional Court striking down internal passport laws from Ukrainian Weekly
  • Tim Lott writing on British "internal passports"
  • dontspyon.us on CAPPS II

  Results from FactBites:
 
Guide to Doukhobor Passport & Visa Records (1505 words)
An official document issued by a country to one of its citizens, the passport allows an individual to leave and return to his or her country of citizenship and facilitates travel from one country to another.
Internal passports were issued to Russian citizens who traveled within the Empire outside of their registered place of residence.
Issued by district police officers, the internal passport included the following data: the name, patronymic and surname, occupation, age, faith, place of residence, social class and facial features of the citizen, as well as date of issue, destination, duration and purpose of travel.
passport: Definition and Much More from Answers.com (7476 words)
In maritime law, a passport is a document issued to a neutral vessel by its own government during a war that is carried on the voyage as evidence of the nationality of the vessel and as protection against the vessels of the warring nations.
A passport is a travel document issued by a national government that usually identifies the bearer as a national of the issuing state and requests that the bearer be permitted to enter and pass through other countries.
Internal passports have been issued by some countries, as a means of controlling the movement of the population.
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