FACTOID # 7: The top five best educated states are all in the Northeast.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Internal conversion coefficient

The internal conversion coefficient may be empirically determined by the following formula:

α = # de-excitations via electron emission / # de-excitations via gamma-ray emission

There is no valid "conversion coefficient" for E0 transitions.


There are theoretical calculations that can be used to derive internal conversion coefficients. Their accuracy is not generally under dispute, but it should be understood that since they depend on quantum mechanical models involving purely electromagnetic interactions between nuclei and electrons, there may be unforeseen effects which result in a conversion coefficient differing from one that is empirically determined.


Internal conversion coefficients can be looked up from tables, but this is time-consuming. Computer programs have been developed (see the ICC Program (http://ie.lbl.gov/programs/icc/icc.htm)) which will present internal conversion coefficients quickly and easily.


The three theoretical calculations of interest are the Rösel (see note 1), Hager-Seltzer (see note 2), and the Band (see note 3).


The Hager-Seltzer calculations omit the M and higher-energy shells on the grounds (usually valid) that those orbitals have little electron density at the nucleus and can be neglected. To first approximation this assumption is valid, upon comparing several internal conversion coefficients for different isotopes for transitions of about 100 keV.


The Band calculation assumes that the M shell may contribute to internal conversion to a non-negligible extent, and incorporates a general term (called "N+") which takes into account the small effect of any higher shells there may be, while the Rösel calculation works like the Band, but does not assume that all shells contribute and so generally terminates at the N shell.


Note 1: F. Rösel, H.M. Fries, K. Alder, H.C. Pauli: At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 21 (1978) 91.


Note 2: R.S. Hager and E.C. Seltzer, Nucl. Data Tables A4 (1968) 1.


Note 3: I.M. Band, M.B. Trzhaskovskaya: Tables of the gamma–ray internal conversion coefficients for the K, L, M shells, 10<Z<104 (Leningrad: Nuclear Physics Institute, 1978).


  Results from FactBites:
 
Internal conversion - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (360 words)
Internal conversion is a radioactive decay process where an excited nucleus interacts with an electron in one of the lower electron shells causing the electron to be emitted.
The internal conversion process is not actually the photoelectric ejection of an atomic electron, as the nucleus does not actually emit a gamma ray in the first place in this process.
The tendency towards internal conversion can be determined by the internal conversion coefficient, which is empirically determined by the ratio of de-excitations that go by the emission of electrons to those that go by gamma emission.
Mills, William Raymond (1955-01-01) Absolute measurements of internal conversion coefficients. ... (384 words)
The combination of conversion electron and gamma yield measurements constitutes an experimental determination of an internal conversion coefficient, and by comparison with theory it is possible to make gamma-ray multipole order assignments.
We have measured the conversion coefficients and found the 1.06-Mev line to be M4 with E2 indicated for the 0.57-Mev line.
We have measured the conversion coefficient of the 440-kev transition and assign it either E1 or M1, the experimental uncertainties preventing a definite assignment.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m