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Encyclopedia > Internal conflict in Peru
Internal Conflict in Peru
Date 1980 to present, largely ended by 2000
Location Peru
Result Túpac Amaru Revolutionary Movement destroyed, Shining Path greatly weakened
Casus
belli
Decision by guerrillas to rise against Peruvian state
Territorial
changes
None
Combatants
Republic of Peru Shining Path
Túpac Amaru Revolutionary Movement
Commanders
Fernando Belaúnde Terry
Alan García
Alberto Fujimori
Abimael Guzmán
Óscar Ramírez Comrade ArtemioVíctor Polay
Nestor Cerpa Cartolini

It has been estimated that nearly 70,000 people died in the internal conflict in Peru that started in 1980 and, although still ongoing, had greatly wound down by 2000. The principal actors in the war were the government of Peru, the Shining Path, the Rondas Campesinas, and the Túpac Amaru Revolutionary Movement. However, a great many of the victims of the conflict were ordinary civilians. All of the armed actors in the war deliberately targeted and killed civilians, making the conflict more bloody than any other war that Peru has ever seen. 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday. ... This article is about the year 2000. ... The Túpac Amaru Revolutionary Movement or Movimiento Revolucionario Túpac Amaru (MRTA) was an insurgent guerrilla movement active in Peru from 1984 to 1997. ... The Communist Party of Peru (Spanish: El Partido Comunista del Perú), more commonly known as the Shining Path (Sendero Luminoso), is a Maoist guerrilla organization in Peru. ... Casus belli is a modern Latin language expression meaning the justification for acts of war. ... Look up guerrilla in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Peru_(state). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Sendero_Luminoso. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Peru_(state). ... Fernando Belaúnde Terry (October 7, 1912 – June 4, 2002) was President of Peru for two terms (1963–1968 and 1980–1985). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Peru_(state). ... Alan Gabriel Ludwig García Pérez (born May 23, 1949 in Lima) is the current President of Peru after winning the 2006 elections on June 4, 2006 in a run-off against Union for Peru candidate Ollanta Humala. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Peru_(state). ... Alberto Kenya Fujimori, (born in Peru[1] on July 28, 1938), also known as Kenya Fujimori (藤森 謙也 Fujimori Kenya), was President of Peru from July 28, 1990 to November 17, 2000. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Sendero_Luminoso. ... Guzmán as a prisoner Manuel Rubén Abimael Guzmán Reynoso, also known by his nom de guerre Presidente Gonzalo (English: President Gonzalo), a former professor of philosophy, was the leader of the Maoist insurgency often referred coloquially to as Shining Path (Sendero Luminoso in Spanish). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Sendero_Luminoso. ... Óscar Ramírez Durand, who is commonly known as Comrade Feliciano, was one of the leaders of the Shining Path, a Maoist guerrilla movement in Peru. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Sendero_Luminoso. ... Comrade Artemio is the alias of the man believed by many to be the current leader of the Shining Path, a Maoist guerrilla group in Peru. ... Néstor Cerpa in police mugshot Néstor Cerpa Cartolini — sometimes known by the nom de guerre Evaristo — (August 14, 1953, Lima, Peru - April 22, 1997, Lima) was a Peruvian terrorist leader in the Tupac Amaru Revolutionary Movement. ... 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday. ... This article is about the year 2000. ... ... The Communist Party of Peru (Spanish: El Partido Comunista del Perú), more commonly known as the Shining Path (Sendero Luminoso), is a Maoist guerrilla organization in Peru. ... Ronda Campesina is a name given to autonomous peasant defence forces in rural Peru created in the 1980s during the insurgency by the Maoist group Sendero Luminoso (Shining Path)and by the Tupac Amaru Revolutionary Movement. ... The Túpac Amaru Revolutionary Movement or Movimiento Revolucionario Túpac Amaru (MRTA) was an insurgent guerrilla movement active in Peru from 1984 to 1997. ...

Contents

National situation before the war

Peruvian history has long been plagued by coup d'états and military dictatorships. General Juan Velasco Alvarado staged a coup in 1968 and led a left-leaning military government until he was thrown out of power by another coup in 1975. Francisco Morales Bermúdez was installed as the new President of Peru in 1975, and allowed elections to be held in 1980. A coup d’état (pronounced ), or simply coup, is the sudden overthrow of a government through unconstitutional means by a part of the state establishment — mostly replacing just the high-level figures. ... General Augusto Pinochet (sitting) as head of the newly established military junta in Chile, September 1973. ... Juan Francisco Velasco Alvarado (June 16, 1910– December 24, 1977) was a left-leaning Peruvian General who ruled Peru from 1968 to 1975 under the title of President of the Revolutionary Government // Early Years Velasco was born on June 16, 1910 in Piura, a city on Perus north coast. ... 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1968 calendar). ... In politics, left-wing, the political left or simply the left are terms that refer to the segment of the political spectrum typically associated with any of several strains of, to varying extents, liberalism, socialism, green politics, anarchism, communism, social democracy, progressivism, American liberalism or social liberalism, and defined in... El Tacnazo was a military coup launched by then Peruvian Prime Minister Francisco Morales Bermúdez against the administration of President Juan Velasco Alvarado in 1975. ... 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday. ... Francisco Morales Bermúdez Cerruti (born 1921) was a centrist Peruvian general who came to power in Peru in 1975 after deposing his predecessor, General Juan Velasco Alvarado. ... Established in the Constitution of 1993, the President of the Republic is the Chief of the State and represents the republic in official international matters. ... An election is a decision making process whereby people vote for preferred political candidates or parties to act as representatives in government. ... 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday. ...


Rise of Shining Path

Shining Path poster supporting an electoral boycott
Shining Path poster supporting an electoral boycott

During the dictatorships of Velasco and Morales, the Shining Path had organized as a Maoist political group based at the San Cristóbal of Huamanga University in Ayacucho Region, Peru. The group was led by Abimael Guzmán, a communist professor of philosophy at the San Cristóbal of Huamanga University. Guzmán had been inspired by the Cultural Revolution, which he had witnessed first-hand during a trip to China. Shining Path members got in street fights with members of other political groups and painted graffiti exhorting people to prepare for the coming "armed struggle" against the Peruvian state. PCP Propaganda File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... PCP Propaganda File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The San Cristóbal of Huamanga National University (in Spanish, Universidad Nacional de San Cristóbal de Huamanga) is a public university located in the city of Ayacucho (formerly known as Huamanga) in southern Perú. The university was first established in 1677 by Cristóbal Castilla y Zamora, the Catholic... Ayacucho is a region of Peru, located in the south-central Andes of the country. ... Guzmán as a prisoner Manuel Rubén Abimael Guzmán Reynoso, also known by his nom de guerre Presidente Gonzalo (English: President Gonzalo), a former professor of philosophy, was the leader of the Maoist insurgency often referred coloquially to as Shining Path (Sendero Luminoso in Spanish). ... Communism is an ideology that seeks to establish a classless, stateless social organization, based upon common ownershipmovement]]. Early forms of human social organization have been described as primitive communism by Marxists. ... For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ... The Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ; literally Proletarian Cultural Great Revolution; often abbreviated to 文化大革命 wénhuà dà gémìng, literally Great Cultural Revolution, or even simpler, to 文革 wéngé, Cultural Revolution) in the Peoples Republic of China was a struggle for power within the... Graffiti (strictly, as singular, graffito, from the Italian — graffiti being the plural) is graphics applied without authorization to publicly viewable surfaces. ...


Outbreak of hostilities

When Peru's military government allowed elections for the first time in a dozen years in 1980, Shining Path was one of the few leftist political groups that declined to take part, and instead opted to launch a guerrilla war in the highlands of the province of Ayacucho. On May 17, 1980, the eve of the presidential elections, it burned ballot boxes in the town of Chuschi, Ayacucho. It was the first "act of war" by Shining Path. However, the perpetrators were quickly caught, additional ballots were shipped to Chuschi, the elections proceeded without further incident, and the incident received very little attention in the Peruvian press.[1] Elections in Peru provides information pertaining to the election process and the results of Peruvian presidencial elections. ... 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday. ... Ayacucho is a region of Peru, located in the south-central Andes of the country. ... May 17 is the 137th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (138th in leap years). ... 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday. ... Chuschi is a town in the Ayacucho Region of Peru. ...


Shining Path opted to fight their war in the style taught by Mao Zedong. They would open up "guerrilla zones" in which their guerrillas could operate, drive government forces out of these zones to create "liberated zones," then use these zones to support new guerrilla zones until the entire country was essentially one big "liberated zone." Shining Path also adhered to Mao's teaching that guerrilla war should be fought primarily in the countryside and gradually choke off the cities. This article does not cite its references or sources. ...


On December 3, 1982, the Shining Path officially formed the "People's Guerrilla Army," it's armed wing. December 3 is the 337th (in leap years the 338th) day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Túpac Amaru Revolutionary Movement

The flag of the MRTA
The flag of the MRTA

In 1982, the Túpac Amaru Revolutionary Movement (MRTA) launched its own guerrilla war. The MRTA used techniques that there more traditional to Latin American leftist organizations than those used by Shining Path. For example, the MRTA wore uniforms, claimed to be fighting for true democracy, and complained of human rights abuses by the state, while Shining Path did not wear uniforms, abhorred democracy, and rejected the very idea of human rights. Indeed, the MRTA and Shining Path fought with one another. The Túpac Amaru Revolutionary Movement or Movimiento Revolucionario Túpac Amaru (MRTA) was an insurgent guerrilla movement active in Peru from 1984 to 1997. ... 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Túpac Amaru Revolutionary Movement or Movimiento Revolucionario Túpac Amaru (MRTA) was an insurgent guerrilla movement active in Peru from 1984 to 1997. ... Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ...


At no point during the war was the MRTA able to become as powerful as Shining Path.


Government response

Gradually the Shining Path made more and more violent attacks on the National Police of Peru, and the Lima-based government could no longer ignore the growing crisis in the Andes. In 1981, Fernando Belaúnde Terry declared a State of Emergency and ordered that the Peruvian Armed Forces fight the Shining Path. Constitutional rights were suspended for 60 days in Huamanga Province, Huanta Province, Cangallo Province, La Mar Province and Víctor Fajardo Province. Later, the Armed Forces created the Ayacucho Emergency Zone, in which military power was superior to civilian power, and many constitutional rights were suspended. The military committed many human rights violations in the area where it had political control. Scores of peasants were massacred by the armed forces. A special US-trained counterterrorist police battalion known as the "Sinchis" were particularly notorious for their human rights violations. The Andes form the longest mountain chain in the world. ... 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Fernando Belaúnde Terry (October 7, 1912 – June 4, 2002) was President of Peru for two terms (1963–1968 and 1980–1985). ... A state of emergency is a governmental declaration that may suspend certain normal functions of government, may work to alert citizens to alter their normal behaviors, or may order government agencies to implement emergency preparedness plans. ... The Military branches of the Republic of Peru are as follows: Ejército del Perú (Peruvian Army) Marina de Guerra del Perú (Peruvian Navy, includes Naval Air, Naval Infantry and Coast Guard) Fuerza Aérea del Perú (Peruvian Air Force) The Peruvian Armed Forces were the second most powerful army... Ayacucho +touristic places ... Huanta is the nothern-most province in Ayacucho, Peru. ... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ... Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from...


After the election of Alan García, death squads such as the Rodrigo Franco Command were formed. Alan Gabriel Ludwig García Pérez (born May 23, 1949 in Lima) is the current President of Peru after winning the 2006 elections on June 4, 2006 in a run-off against Union for Peru candidate Ollanta Humala. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Rodrigo Franco Command was a paramilitary organization that acted as a death squad in Peru from 1985 to 1990. ...


Esclation of the war

The reaction of the Shining Path to the Peruvian government's use of the military in the war was not to back down, but instead to ramp up the level of violence in the countryside. Shining Path attacked police, military, and civilians that it considered to be "class enemies," often using particularly gruesome methods of killing their victims. These killings, along with Shining Path's disrespect for the culture of indigenous peasants it claimed to represent, turned many people in the sierra away from the Shining Path. Faced with a hostile population, the Shining Path's guerrilla war began to falter. In some areas, peasants formed anti-Shining Path patrols, called rondas. They were generally poorly-equipped despite donations of guns from the armed forces. Nevertheless, Shining Path guerrillas were militarily attacked by the rondas. The first such reported attack was in January 1983 near Huata, when some rondas killed 13 senderistas; in February in Sacsamarca, rondas stabbed and killed the Shining Path commanders of that area. In March 1983, rondas brutally killed Olegario Curitomay, one of the commanders of the town of Lucanamarca. They took him to the town square, stoned him, stabbed him, set him on fire, and finally shot him.[2] As a response, in April, Shining Path entered the province of Huancasancos and the towns of Yanaccollpa, Ataccara, Llacchua, Muylacruz and Lucanamarca, and killed 69 people, many of whom were children, including at one who was only six months old.[2] Also killed were several women, some of them pregnant.[2] Most of them died by machete hacks, and some were shot at close range in the head[2] This was the first massacre by Shining Path of the peasant community. Other incidents followed, such as the one in Hauyllo, Tambo District, La Mar Province, Ayacucho Department. In that community, Shining Path killed 47 peasants, including 14 children aged between four and fifteen.[3] Huanca Sancos is a province in central Ayacucho, Peru. ...


Additional massacres by Shining Path occurred, such as the one in Marcas on 29 August 1985.[4][5] August 29 is the 241st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (242nd in leap years), with 124 days remaining. ... 1985 (MCMLXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The Shining Path, like the government, filled its ranks by conscription. The Shining Path also kidnapped children and forced them to fight as child soldiers in their war.


The administration of Alberto Fujimori

President Alberto Fujimori

Under the administration of Alberto Fujimori the pace at which the armed forces committed wide-spread atrocities such as massacres was slowed. Additionally, the state began the wide-spread use of intelligence agencies in its fight against Shining Path. However, atrocities were committed by the National Intelligence Service, notably the La Cantuta massacre and the Barrios Altos massacre, both of which were committed by Grupo Colina. Alberto Fujimori - President of Peru This work is copyrighted. ... Alberto Fujimori - President of Peru This work is copyrighted. ... Alberto Kenya Fujimori, (born in Peru[1] on July 28, 1938), also known as Kenya Fujimori (藤森 謙也 Fujimori Kenya), was President of Peru from July 28, 1990 to November 17, 2000. ... The La Cantuta massacre, in which a university professor and nine students from Limas La Cantuta University were abducted and disappeared by a military death squad, took place in Peru on 18 July 1992 during the presidency of Alberto Fujimori. ... The Barrios Altos massacre took place on 3 November 1991, in the Barrios Altos neighborhood of Lima, Peru. ... Grupo Colina is a paramilitary death squad created in Peru under the administration of Alberto Fujimori. ...


On April 5, 1992, Alberto Fujimori ordered tanks to occupy the groups of the Congress of Peru and declared the Congress to be dissolved and the Constitution to be abolished, starting the Peruvian Constitutional Crisis of 1992. The pretext for these actions was that the Congress was slow to pass anti-terrorism legislation. Fujimori set up military courts to try suspected members of the Shining Path and MRTA, and ordered that an "iron fist" approach be used. Fujimori also announced that Peru would no longer accept the jurisdiction of the Inter-American Court of Human Rights. April 5 is the 95th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (96th in leap years). ... 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday. ... Congress (Spanish: Congreso) is the name given to Perus unicameral legislature under the current (1993) constitution. ... The Peruvian Constitutional Crisis of 1992 was a series of events that took place after President Alberto Fujimori dissolved Congress. ... The Inter-American Court of Human Rights is an autonomous judicial institution based in the city of San José, Costa Rica. ...


As Shining Path began to lose ground in the Andes to the Peruvian state and the rondas, it decided to speed up its overall strategic plan. Shining Path declared that, in Maoist jargon, it had reached "strategic equilibrium" and was ready to begin its final assault on the cities of Peru. In 1992, Shining Path set off a powerful bomb in the Miraflores District of Lima in what became known as the Tarata bombing. This was part of a larger bombing campaign in Lima. Miraflores is a district of the Lima Province in Peru. ... Nickname: City of the Kings Location within Lima Province Coordinates: Department Lima Province Lima Province Settled 1535  - Mayor Luis Castaneda Lossio Area    - City 804. ... Destruction on Tarata Street The Tarata Bombing was a terrorist attack against civilian population in Peru on July 16, 1992. ...

Abimael Guzmán after his capture in 1992
Abimael Guzmán after his capture in 1992

On September 12, 1992, Peruvian police captured Guzmán and several Shining Path leaders in an apartment above a dance studio in the Surquillo district of Lima. The police had been monitoring the apartment, as a number of suspected Shining Path militants had visited it. An inspection of the garbage of the apartment produced empty tubes of a skin cream used to treat psoriasis, a condition that Guzmán was known to have. Shortly after the raid that captured Guzmán, most of the remaining Shining Path leadership fell as well.[6] At the same time, Shining Path suffered embarrassing military defeats to campesino self-defense organizations — supposedly its social base — and the organization fractured into splinter groups.[citation needed] Guzmán's role as the leader of Shining Path was taken over by Óscar Ramírez, who himself was captured by Peruvian authorities in 1999. After Ramírez's capture, the group splintered, guerrilla activity diminished sharply, and previous conditions returned to the areas where the Shining Path had been active.[7] Abimael Guzman Screenshot TV Screenshot: Public Domain This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Abimael Guzman Screenshot TV Screenshot: Public Domain This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... September 12 is the 255th day of the year (256th in leap years). ... 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday. ... Surquillo is a district in Lima, Peru. ... Campesino may refer to A simple farmer is referred to as a campesino in Spanish. ... Óscar Ramírez Durand, who is commonly known as Comrade Feliciano, was one of the leaders of the Shining Path, a Maoist guerrilla movement in Peru. ... 1999 (MCMXCIX) was a common year starting on Friday, and was designated the International Year of Older Persons by the United Nations. ...


The ranks of the MRTA were decimated by both an amnesty program for its members and the jailing of several of its key leaders. In late 1996, the MRTA seized the residence of the ambassador of Japan to Peru, starting a 126 day-long hostage crisis in Lima during which the MRTA demanded the release of their prisoners. Ultimately, none of the MRTA's demands were met, and the crisis ended when the Peruvian armed forces raided the building and freed the hostages. All of the MRTA members involved in the crisis were killed, and it soon became apparent that several of them survived the initial raid and were extrajudicially executed hours after the raid began. 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year for the Eradication of Poverty. ... The neutrality of this article is disputed. ... Extrajudicial punishment is physical punishment without the permission of a court or legal authority, generally carried out by a state apparatus needing to rid itself of a dangerously disruptive influence. ...


Peru in transition

After Fujimori fled Peru in 2000 following a scandal, Valentín Paniagua was sworn into office. He rescinded Fujimori's announcement that Peru would leave the Inter-American Court of Human Rights and established a Truth and Reconciliation Commission to investigate the war. Valentín Paniagua Corazao (b. ... The Peruvian Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC) (in Spanish: Comisión de la Verdad y Reconciliación (CVR)) was established in June 2001 to examine atrocities commited in the 1980s and 1990s, when Peru was plagued by the worst political violence in the history of the republic. ...


Causes and victims

The Truth and Reconciliation Commission reported that 75% of the people who were either killed or disappeared spoke Quechua as their native language, despite the fact that the 1993 census found that only 20% of Peruvians speak Quechua or another indigenous language as their native language.[8] Disappear redirects here. ... Quechua Quechua (Runa Simi; Kichwa in Ecuador) is a Native American language of South America. ... 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and marked the Beginning of the International Decade to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination (1993-2003). ...


The war today

Comrade Artemio makes demands of the Peruvian government
Comrade Artemio makes demands of the Peruvian government

Since the capture of Guzman, Shining Path has greatly declined in strength. It no longer conducts any operations in Lima, and has only been able to mount sporadic small-scale attacks. Nevertheless, Shining Path continues to occasionally kill Peruvian security forces. For example, on June 9, 2003 a Shining Path group attacked a camp in Ayacucho, and took 68 employees of the Argentinean company Techint and three police guards as hostages. They had been working in the Camisea gas pipeline project, a gasoduct that would take natural gas from Cusco to Lima.[9] According to sources from Peru's Interior Ministry, the hostage-takers asked for a sizable ransom to free the hostages. Two days later, after a rapid military response, the hostage-takers abandoned the hostages. According to rumor, the company paid the ransom.[10] June 9 is the 160th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (161st in leap years), with 205 days remaining. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Technical Intelligence (TECHINT) is intelligence about weapons and equipment used by the armed forces of foreign nations. ... The Camisea Gas Project is a controversial natural gas project originating near the Urubamba River in central Perú. The main pipeline begins at the Camisea Gas Field in formerly pristine Amazon Rainforest, traverses through steep Andes mountains, and terminates within the Paracas National Reserve near the port of Pisco. ... See other Peruvian regions President Carlos R. Cuaresma Capital Cusco Area 71,986. ...


The group now appears to be led by a man known as Comrade Artemio. Rather than attempt to destroy the Peruvian state and replace it with a communist state, Artemio has pledged to carry out attacks until the Peruvian government releases Shining Path prisoners and negotiates an end to the war. These demands have been made in various video statements made by Artemio. The vast majority of Peruvians continue to hold the Shining Path in low regard. On October 13, 2006, Guzmán was sentenced to life in prison for terrorism.[11] Comrade Artemio is the alias of the man believed by many to be the current leader of the Shining Path, a Maoist guerrilla group in Peru. ... October 13 is the 286th day of the year (287th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ...


External links

Truth and Reconciliation Commission


References

  1. ^ The Shining Path: A History of the Millenarian War in Peru. p. 17. Gorriti, Gustavo trans. Robin Kirk, The University of North Carolina Press: Chapel Hill and London, 1999 (ISBN 0-8078-4676-7).
  2. ^ a b c d La Comisión de la Verdad y Reconciliación. "La Masacre de Lucanamarca (1983)." August 28, 2003. Available online in Spanish Accessed February 1, 2006.
  3. ^ Amnesty International. "Peru: Human rights in a time of impunity." February 2006. Available online. Accessed September 24, 2006.
  4. ^ La Comisión de la Verdad y Reconciliación. "Ataque del PCP-SL a la Localidad de Marcas (1985)." Available online in Spanish Accessed February 1, 2006.
  5. ^ La Comisión de la Verdad y Reconciliación. "Press Release 170." Available online Accessed February 1, 2006.
  6. ^ Rochlin, James F. Vanguard Revolutionaries in Latin America: Peru, Colombia, Mexico. p. 71. Lynne Rienner Publishers: Boulder and London, 2003. (ISBN 1-58826-106-9).
  7. ^ Rochlin, James F. Vanguard Revolutionaries in Latin America: Peru, Colombia, Mexico. pp. 71-72. Lynne Rienner Publishers: Boulder and London, 2003. (ISBN 1-58826-106-9).
  8. ^ CVR. Tomo VIII. Chapter 2. "El impacto diferenciado de la violencia" "2.1 VIOLENCIA Y DESIGUALDAD RACIAL Y ÉTNICA" pp. 131 - 132[1]
  9. ^ The New York Times. "Pipeline Workers Kidnapped." June 10, 2003. Available online. Accessed September 18, 2006.
  10. ^ Americas.org "Gas Workers Kidnapped, Freed." Available online.
  11. ^ Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. "Shining Path militant leaders given life sentences in Peru." October 13, 2006. Available online. Accessed February 15, 2007.

 
 

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