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Encyclopedia > Internal combustion engine
A colored automobile engine
A colored automobile engine

The internal combustion engine is an engine in which the combustion of fuel and an oxidizer (typically air) occurs in a confined space called a combustion chamber. This exothermic reaction creates gases at high temperature and pressure, which are permitted to expand. The defining feature of an internal combustion engine is that useful work is performed by the expanding hot gases acting directly to cause movement of solid parts of the engine, by acting on pistons, rotors, or even by pressing on and moving the entire engine itself. ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 597 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Internal combustion engine ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 597 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Internal combustion engine ... Car redirects here. ... This article is about the chemical reaction combustion. ... For other uses, see Fuel (disambiguation). ... An oxidizing agent is a substance that oxidizes another substance in electrochemistry or redox chemical reactions in general. ... A combustion chamber is part of an engine in which fuel is burned. ... In chemistry, an exothermic reaction is one that releases heat. ... For other uses, see Temperature (disambiguation). ... This article is about pressure in the physical sciences. ...


This contrasts with external combustion engines, such as steam engines and Stirling engines, which use an external combustion chamber to heat a separate working fluid, which then in turn does work, for example by moving a piston or a turbine. An external combustion engine is an engine which burns its fuel to heat a separate working fluid which then in turn performs work. ... A steam engine is a heat engine that makes use of the thermal energy that exists in steam, converting it to mechanical work. ... A Stirling engine and generator set with 55 kW electrical output, for combined heat and power applications. ...


The term Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) is almost always used to refer specifically to reciprocating piston engines, Wankel engines and similar designs in which combustion is intermittent. However, continuous combustion engines, such as jet engines, most rockets and many gas turbines are also internal combustion engines. Wankel Engine in Deutsches Museum Munich, Germany The Wankel rotary engine is a type of internal combustion engine, invented by German engineer Felix Wankel, which uses a rotor instead of reciprocating pistons. ...

Contents

History

Early internal combustion engines were used to power farm equipment similar to these models.
Early internal combustion engines were used to power farm equipment similar to these models.

The first internal combustion engines did not have compression, but ran on an air/fuel mixture sucked or blown in during the first part of the intake stroke. The most significant distinction between modern internal combustion engines and the early designs is the use of compression and, in particular, in-cylinder compression. ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1918x2500, 1073 KB) Summary Models of early gasoline-powered internal combustion engines being used to run farm equipment. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1918x2500, 1073 KB) Summary Models of early gasoline-powered internal combustion engines being used to run farm equipment. ... Physical compression is the result of the subjection of a material to compressive stress, resulting in reduction of volume. ...

  • 1206: Al-Jazari described a double-acting reciprocating piston pump with a crankshaft-connecting rod mechanism.
  • 1509: Leonardo da Vinci described a compressionless engine.
  • 1673: Christiaan Huygens described a compressionless engine.
  • 17th century: English inventor Sir Samuel Morland used gunpowder to drive water pumps, essentially creating the first rudimentary internal combustion engine.
  • 1780's: Alessandro Volta built a toy electric pistol ([1]) in which an electric spark exploded a mixture of air and hydrogen, firing a cork from the end of the gun.
  • 1794: Robert Street built a compressionless engine whose principle of operation would dominate for nearly a century.
  • 1806: Swiss engineer François Isaac de Rivaz built an internal combustion engine powered by a mixture of hydrogen and oxygen.
  • 1823: Samuel Brown patented the first internal combustion engine to be applied industrially. It was compressionless and based on what Hardenberg calls the "Leonardo cycle," which, as the name implies, was already out of date at that time.
  • 1824: French physicist Sadi Carnot established the thermodynamic theory of idealized heat engines. This scientifically established the need for compression to increase the difference between the upper and lower working temperatures.
  • 1826 April 1: American Samuel Morey received a patent for a compressionless "Gas or Vapor Engine."
  • 1838: a patent was granted to William Barnet (English). This was the first recorded suggestion of in-cylinder compression.
  • 1854: The Italians Eugenio Barsanti and Felice Matteucci patented the first working efficient internal combustion engine in London (pt. Num. 1072) but did not go into production with it. It was similar in concept to the successful Otto Langen indirect engine, but wasn't so well worked out in detail.
  • 1856: in Florence at Fonderia del Pignone (now Nuovo Pignone, a subsidiary of General Electric), Pietro Benini realized a working prototype of the Barsanti-Matteucci engine, supplying 5 HP. In subsequent years he developed more powerful engines—with one or two pistons—which served as steady power sources, replacing steam engines.
  • 1860: Belgian Jean Joseph Etienne Lenoir (1822–1900) produced a gas-fired internal combustion engine similar in appearance to a horizontal double-acting steam beam engine, with cylinders, pistons, connecting rods, and flywheel in which the gas essentially took the place of the steam. This was the first internal combustion engine to be produced in numbers.
  • 1862: German inventor Nikolaus Otto designed an indirect-acting free-piston compressionless engine whose greater efficiency won the support of Langen and then most of the market, which at that time was mostly for small stationary engines fueled by lighting gas.
  • 1870: In Vienna, Siegfried Marcus put the first mobile gasoline engine on a handcart.
  • 1876: Nikolaus Otto, working with Gottlieb Daimler and Wilhelm Maybach, developed a practical four-stroke cycle (Otto cycle) engine. The German courts, however, did not hold his patent to cover all in-cylinder compression engines or even the four-stroke cycle, and after this decision, in-cylinder compression became universal.
Karl Benz
Karl Benz
  • 1879: Karl Benz, working independently, was granted a patent for his internal combustion engine, a reliable two-stroke gas engine, based on Nikolaus Otto's design of the four-stroke engine. Later, Benz designed and built his own four-stroke engine that was used in his automobiles, which became the first automobiles in production.
  • 1882: James Atkinson invented the Atkinson cycle engine. Atkinson’s engine had one power phase per revolution together with different intake and expansion volumes, making it more efficient than the Otto cycle.
  • 1891: Herbert Akroyd Stuart built his oil engine, leasing rights to Hornsby of England to build them. They built the first cold-start compression-ignition engines. In 1892, they installed the first ones in a water pumping station. In the same year, an experimental higher-pressure version produced self-sustaining ignition through compression alone.
  • 1892: Rudolf Diesel developed his Carnot heat engine type motor burning powdered coal dust.
  • 1893 February 23: Rudolf Diesel received a patent for the diesel engine.
  • 1896: Karl Benz invented the boxer engine, also known as the horizontally opposed engine, in which the corresponding pistons reach top dead center at the same time, thus balancing each other in momentum.
  • 1900: Rudolf Diesel demonstrated the diesel engine in the 1900 Exposition Universelle (World's Fair) using peanut oil (see biodiesel).
  • 1900: Wilhelm Maybach designed an engine built at Daimler Motoren Gesellschaft—following the specifications of Emil Jellinek—who required the engine to be named Daimler-Mercedes after his daughter. In 1902 automobiles with that engine were put into production by DMG.
  • 1908: New Zealand inventor Ernest Godward started a motorcycle business in Invercargill and fitted the imported bikes with his own invention – a petrol economiser. His economisers worked as well in cars as they did in motorcycles.

Diagram from The Book of Knowledge of Ingenious Mechanical Devices by al-Jazari. ... “Da Vinci” redirects here. ... Christiaan Huygens (pronounced in English (IPA): ; in Dutch: ) (April 14, 1629 – July 8, 1698), was a Dutch mathematician, astronomer and physicist; born in The Hague as the son of Constantijn Huygens. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Samuel Morland Sir Samuel Morland (1625 – 30 December 1695) was a notable English academic, diplomat, spy, inventor and mathematician of the 17th century, a polymath credited with early developments in relation to computing, hydraulics and steam power. ... A modern black powder substitute for muzzleloading rifles in FFG size Gunpowder (also called black powder) is a pyrotechnic composition, an explosive mixture of sulfur, charcoal and potassium nitrate (also known as saltpetre or saltpeter) that burns rapidly, producing volumes of hot solids and gases which can be used as... A pump is a mechanical device used to move liquids or gases. ... For the concept car, see Toyota Alessandro Volta. ... Air redirects here. ... This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. ... François Isaac de Rivaz (Paris, December 19, 1752 – Sion, July 30, 1828) was a Swiss inventor. ... Samuel Brown is an English engineer who developed an internal combustion engine. ... Sadi Carnot in the dress uniform of a student of the École polytechnique Nicolas Léonard Sadi Carnot (June 1, 1796 - August 24, 1832) was a French physicist and military engineer who gave the first successful theoretical account of heat engines, now known as the Carnot cycle, thereby laying the... Thermodynamics (Greek: thermos = heat and dynamic = change) is the physics of energy, heat, work, entropy and the spontaneity of processes. ... The oldest surviving photograph, Nicéphore Niépce, circa 1826 1826 (MDCCCXXVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Samuel Morely (October 23, 1762 - April 17, 1843) was an American inventor, who invented an internal combustion engine and was a pioneer in steamships who accumulated a total of 20 patents. ... For other uses, see Patent (disambiguation). ... Father Eugenio Barsanti (born Pietrasanta, October 12th 1821; died Searing, Belgium, April 19th 1864), also named Nicolò, was the Italian inventor of the Internal combustion engine. ... Felice Matteucci (born Lucca, february 12th 1808 - died Capannori, september 13th 1887) was an italian hydraulic engineer co-inventor with Eugenio Barsanti of the internal combustion engine. ... Florence (or Firenze, Florentia and Fiorenza) is the capital city of the Italian region of Tuscany, and of the province of Florence. ... GE redirects here. ... This article is about a unit of measurement. ... National motto: Dutch: Eendracht maakt macht; French: Lunion fait la force; German: Einigkeit macht stark (English: Strength lies in unity) Official language Dutch, French, German Capital Brussels Largest City Brussels King Albert II Prime Minister Guy Verhofstadt Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 148th 30,528 km² 6. ... Jean Joseph Etienne Lenoir (1822-1900) was born in Mussy-la-Ville, Belgium, in 1822. ... For other uses, see Steam (disambiguation). ... The remains of a beam engine at Wanlockhead A beam engine is a design of stationary steam engine. ... Cylinder with piston in a steam engine A cylinder in the central working part of a reciprocating engine, the space in which a piston travels. ... For the American composer, see Walter Piston. ... piston (top) and connecting rod from typical automotive engine (scale is in centimetres) Components of a typical, four stroke cycle, DOHC piston engine. ... Spoked flywheel Flywheel from stationary engine. ... Nikolaus August Otto (June 14, 1832 - January 28, 1891) was the German inventor of the internal-combustion engine. ... Langen is the name of several places in Germany and Austria. ... Siegfried Marcus 1831-1898 Siegfried Samuel Marcus (born in Malchin, Mecklenburg, Germany, on 1831-09-18, died in Vienna on 1898-07-01) was a German – Austrian inventor and automobile pioneer of Jewish ancestry. ... Nikolaus August Otto (June 14, 1832 - January 28, 1891) was the German inventor of the internal-combustion engine. ... Gottlieb Daimler Gottlieb Wilhelm Daimler (March 17, 1834 - March 6, 1900) was an engineer, industrial designer and industrialist, born in Schorndorf (Kingdom of Württemberg), in what is now Germany. ... Wilhelm Maybach Wilhelm Maybach (February 9, 1846 – December 29, 1929), was an early German engine designer and industrialist. ... Today Internal combustion engines in cars, trucks, motorcycles, construction machinery and many others, most commonly use a four-stroke cycle. ... This image is in the public domain in the United States and possibly other jurisdictions. ... This image is in the public domain in the United States and possibly other jurisdictions. ... Karl Benz Karl Friedrich Benz, sometimes spelled Carl, (November 25, 1844, Karlsruhe, Germany – April 4, 1929, Ladenburg, Germany) was a German engine designer and automobile engineer, generally regarded as the inventor of the gasoline-powered automobile. ... For other uses, see Patent (disambiguation). ... The two-stroke cycle of an internal combustion engine differs from the more common four-stroke cycle by having only two strokes (linear movements of the piston) instead of four, although the same four operations (intake, compression, power, exhaust) still occur. ... The four-stroke cycle of an internal combustion engine is the cycle most commonly used for automotive and industrial purposes today (cars and trucks, generators, etc). ... Car redirects here. ... James Atkinson is the name of: James Atkinson (software developer), founder of the phpBB project. ... The Atkinson cycle engine is a type of Internal combustion engine invented by James Atkinson in 1882. ... Herbert Akroyd-Stuart (January 28, 1864, Halifax Yorkshire, England - February 19, 1927) Inventor of the hot bulb oil engine. ... The company bearing the name of Richard Hornsby (1790-1864), the agricultural engineer, was founded when Richard opened a blacksmithy in Grantham, Lincolnshire in 1815. ... Rudolf Christian Karl Diesel (pronounced ; March 18, 1858 – September 30, 1913) was a German inventor and mechanical engineer, famous for the invention of the diesel engine. ... A Carnot heat engine is a hypothetical engine that operates on the reversible Carnot cycle. ... Coal dust is a fine powdered form of coal. ... is the 54th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Diesel engines in a museum Diesel generator on an oil tanker A diesel engine is an internal combustion engine which operates using the Diesel cycle. ... Karl Benz Karl Friedrich Benz, sometimes spelled Carl, (November 25, 1844, Karlsruhe, Germany – April 4, 1929, Ladenburg, Germany) was a German engine designer and automobile engineer, generally regarded as the inventor of the gasoline-powered automobile. ... Diagram of the opposing pistons in a boxer engine A flat engine or boxer engine or horizontally opposed engine is a type of engine where the pistons lie horizontally opposed, with pairs of cylinders on the left and the right, as opposed to most modern engines where all pistons are... For other uses, see Engine (disambiguation). ... For the American composer, see Walter Piston. ... The Exposition Universelle of 1900 was a worlds fair held in Paris, France, to celebrate the achievements of the past century and to accelerate development into the next. ... Worlds Fair is any of various large expositions held since the mid-19th century. ... This article is about transesterified lipids. ... Wilhelm Maybach Wilhelm Maybach (February 9, 1846 – December 29, 1929), was an early German engine designer and industrialist. ... Daimler-Motoren-Gesellschaft (Daimler Motor Company or DMG) was a German engine and later automobile manufacturer that operated from 1890 until 1926. ... Emil Jellinek Emil Jellinek, known after 1903 as Emil Jellinek-Mercedes (6 April 1853 – 1 January 1918) was a wealthy European entrepreneur who sat on the board of Daimler Motoren Gesellschaft (DMG) between 1900 and 1909. ... For other uses, see Inventor (disambiguation). ... Ernest Godward was born in Marylebone, London on April 7, 1869. ... Cnr of Esk and Dee Streets, looking up Esk st, one of the main shopping streets of Invercargill. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Economizer. ...

Applications

Internal combustion engines are most commonly used for mobile propulsion in automobiles, equipment, and other portable machinery. In mobile equipment, internal combustion is advantageous, since it can provide high power-to-weight ratios together with excellent fuel energy-density. These engines have appeared in transport in almost all automobiles, trucks, motorcycles, boats, and in a wide variety of aircraft and locomotives, generally using petroleum (called All-Petroleum Internal Combustion Engine Vehicles or APICEVs). Where very high power is required, such as jet aircraft, helicopters and large ships, they appear mostly in the form of turbines. Car redirects here. ... For other uses, see Truck (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Motorcycle (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Boat (disambiguation). ... Flying machine redirects here. ... Great Western Railway No. ... Petro redirects here. ... Jet aircraft are aircrafts with jet engines. ... For other uses, see Helicopter (disambiguation). ... WWII era ship propulsion turbine A turbine is a rotary engine that extracts energy from a fluid flow. ...


They are also used for electric generators (i.e., 12V generators) and by industry. Generator redirects here. ...


Operation

Four-stroke cycle (or Otto cycle)1. Intake2. compression3. power4. exhaust
Four-stroke cycle (or Otto cycle)
1. Intake
2. compression
3. power
4. exhaust

All internal combustion engines depend on the exothermic chemical process of combustion: the reaction of a fuel, typically with the oxygen from the air, although other oxidizers such as nitrous oxide may be employed. Also see stoichiometry. Image File history File links animated scheme of a four stroke internal combustion engine, Otto principle Source: self-made: UtzOnBike (3D-model & animation: Autodesk Inventor) File links The following pages link to this file: Four-stroke cycle ... Today Internal combustion engines in cars, trucks, motorcycles, construction machinery and many others, most commonly use a four-stroke cycle. ... In thermodynamics, the word exothermic outside heating describes a process or reaction that releases energy usually in the form of heat, but it can also release energy in form of light (e. ... This article is about the chemical reaction combustion. ... For other uses, see Fuel (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Nitrous oxide (disambiguation). ... Stoichiometry (sometimes called reaction stoichiometry to distinguish it from composition stoichiometry) is the calculation of quantitative (measurable) relationships of the reactants and products in chemical reactions (chemical equations). ...


The most common modern fuels are made up of hydrocarbons and are derived mostly from petroleum. These include the fuels known as dieselfuel, gasoline and petroleum gas, and the rarer use of propane. Most internal combustion engines designed for gasoline can run on natural gas or liquefied petroleum gases without major modifications except for the fuel delivery components. Liquid and gaseous biofuels, such as ethanol and biodiesel (a form of diesel fuel that is produced from crops that yield triglycerides such as soybean oil), can also be used. Some can also run on hydrogen gas. A 3-dimensional rendered Ball-and-stick model of the methane molecule. ... Petro redirects here. ... This article is about the fuel. ... Petrol redirects here. ... 45 kg LPG cylinders Liquefied petroleum gas (also called LPG, LP Gas, or autogas) is a mixture of hydrocarbon gases used as a fuel in heating appliances and vehicles, and increasingly replacing chlorofluorocarbons as an aerosol propellant and a refrigerant to reduce damage to the ozone layer. ... Propane is a three-carbon alkane, normally a gas, but compressible to a liquid that is transportable. ... For other uses, see Natural gas (disambiguation). ... Bio-energy redirects here. ... Information on pump, California. ... This article is about transesterified lipids. ... Triglyceride (blue: fatty acid; red: glycerol backbone) Triglycerides are glycerides in which the glycerol is esterified with three fatty acids. ... Soy redirects here. ... This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. ...


All internal combustion engines must achieve ignition in their cylinders to create combustion. Typically engines use either a spark ignition (SI) method or a compression ignition (CI) system. In the past, other methods using hot tubes or flames have been used. This article or section should include material from Spark gap A spark plug is an electrical device that fits into the cylinder head of some internal combustion engines and ignites compressed aerosol gasoline by means of an electric spark. ... Diesel engines in a museum Diesel generator on an oil tanker A diesel engine is an internal combustion engine which operates using the Diesel cycle. ...


Petroleum internal combustion engines

Main article: Petroleum

Petro redirects here. ...

Gasoline Ignition Process

Electrical/gasoline-type ignition systems (that can also run on other fuels, as previously mentioned) generally rely on a combination of a lead-acid battery and an induction coil to provide a high-voltage electrical spark to ignite the air-fuel mix in the engine's cylinders. This battery can be recharged during operation using an electricity-generating device such as an alternator or generator driven by the engine. Gasoline engines take in a mixture of air and gasoline and compress to less than 185 psi and use a spark plug to ignite the mixture when it is compressed by the piston head in each cylinder. A valve-regulated, sometimes called sealed, lead acid battery Lead-acid batteries, invented in 1859 by French physicist Gaston Planté, are the oldest type of rechargeable battery. ... An induction coil or spark coil (archaically known as a Ruhmkorff coil) is a type of disruptive discharge coil. ... Early 20th century Alternator made in Budapest, Hungary, in the power generating hall of a hydroelectric station. ... Look up generator in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Diesel Ignition Process

Diesel Engine ignition systems, such as the diesel engine and HCCI engines, rely solely on heat and pressure created by the engine in its compression process for ignition. The compression that occurs is usually more than three times higher than a gasoline engine. Diesel engines will take in air only, and shortly before peak compression, a small quantity of diesel fuel is sprayed into the cylinder via a fuel injector that allows the fuel to instantly ignite. HCCI type engines will take in both air and fuel but continue to rely on an unaided auto-combustion process due to higher pressures and heat. This is also why diesel and HCCI engines are also more susceptible to cold starting issues, though they will run just as well in cold weather once started. Most diesels also have battery and charging systems; however, this system is secondary and is added by manufacturers as luxury for ease of starting, turning fuel on and off (which can also be done via a switch or mechanical apparatus), and for running auxiliary electrical components and accessories. Most new engines, however, rely on electrical systems that also control the combustion process to increase efficiency and reduce emissions. Diesel engines in a museum Diesel generator on an oil tanker A diesel engine is an internal combustion engine which operates using the Diesel cycle. ... Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition, or HCCI, is a form of internal combustion in which well mixed fuel and oxidizer (typically air) are compressed to the point of auto-ignition. ...


Energy and pollution

Once ignited and burnt, the combustion products—hot gases—have more available energy than the original compressed fuel/air mixture (which had higher chemical energy). The available energy is manifested as high temperature and pressure which can be translated into work by the engine. In a reciprocating engine, the high-pressure gases inside the cylinders drive the engine's pistons. This article is about the chemical reaction combustion. ... For other uses, see Gas (disambiguation). ... In chemistry, a chemical bond is the force which holds together atoms in molecules or crystals. ... For other uses, see Temperature (disambiguation). ... This article is about pressure in the physical sciences. ... In physics, mechanical work is the amount of energy transferred by a force. ...


Once the available energy has been removed, the remaining hot gases are vented (often by opening a valve or exposing the exhaust outlet) and this allows the piston to return to its previous position (top dead center, or TDC). The piston can then proceed to the next phase of its cycle, which varies between engines. Any heat not translated into work is normally considered a waste product and is removed from the engine either by an air or liquid cooling system. Automobile exhaust Exhaust gas is flue gas which occurs as a result of the combustion of fuels such as natural gas, gasoline/petrol, diesel, fuel oil or coal. ... A poppet valve is a valve consisting of a hole, usually round or oval, and a tapered plug, usually a disk shape on the end of a shaft also called a valve stem. ... For other uses, see Heat (disambiguation) In physics, heat, symbolized by Q, is energy transferred from one body or system to another due to a difference in temperature. ...


Engine Efficiency

Engine efficiency can be discussed in a number of ways but usually involves a comparison of the total chemical energy in the fuels and the useful energy abstracted from the fuels in the form of kinetic energy. The most fundamental and abstract discussion of engine efficiency is the thermodynamic limit for abstracting energy from the fuel defined by a thermodynamic cycle. The most comprehensive is the empirical fuel economy of the total engine system for accomplishing a desired task, for example miles per gallon. The cars of a roller coaster reach their maximum kinetic energy when at the bottom of their path. ... A thermodynamic cycle is a series of thermodynamic processes which returns a system to its initial state. ... Fuel efficiency, sometimes also referred to as fuel economy and commonly gas mileage in the United States, is a numeric measure often used to describe the amount of fuel consumed with regard to the distance travelled in a transportation vehicle, such as an automobile. ... Miles per gallon (MPG, or mpg) is a measure of fuel efficiency - the number of miles the car can run on one gallon of fuel. ...


Internal combustion engines are primarily heat engines and as such the phenomenon that limits their efficiency is described by thermodynamic cycles. None of these cycles exceed the limit defined by the Carnot cycle which states that the overall efficiency is dictated by the difference between the lower and upper operating temperatures of the engine. A terrestrial engine is usually fundamentally limited by the upper thermal stability of the material used to make the engine. All metals and alloys eventually melt or decompose, there is significant research into ceramic materials that can be made with higher thermal stabilities and desirable structural properties. Higher thermal stability allows for greater temperature difference between the lower and upper operating temperatures and thus greater thermodynamic efficiency. A heat engine performs the conversion of heat energy to work by exploiting the temperature gradient between a hot source and a cold sink. Heat is transferred to the sink from the source, and in this process some of the heat is converted into work. ... The Carnot cycle is a particular thermodynamic cycle, modeled on the Carnot heat engine, studied by Nicolas Léonard Sadi Carnot in the 1820s and expanded upon by Benoit Paul Émile Clapeyron in the 1830s and 40s. ... This article is about metallic materials. ... An alloy is a homogeneous hybrid of two or more elements, at least one of which is a metal, and where the resulting material has metallic properties. ... This article is about ceramic materials. ...


The thermodynamic limits assume that the engine is operating in ideal conditions. A frictionless world, ideal gases, perfect insulators, and operation at infinite time. The real world is substantially more complex and all the complexities reduce efficiency. In addition real engines run best at specific loads and rates as described by their power curve. For example a car cruising on a highway is usually operating significantly below its ideal load. The engine is designed for the higher loads desired for rapid acceleration. The application engines are used for contribute drag on the total system reducing overall efficiency, for example wind resistance for vehicles. These and many other losses result in an engines real world fuel economy, usually measured in the units of miles per gallon (or kilometers per liter) for automobiles. In the MPG the miles represents a meaningful amount of work and the volume of hydrocarbon implies a standard energy content. Wind resistance is overall drag on a body due to its interaction with the atmosphere. ...


Most steel engines have a thermodynamic limit of at most 37%. Even when aided with turbochargers and stock efficiency aids most engines retain an average efficiency of about 20% [1][2].


There are many inventions concerned with increasing the efficiency of IC-Engines. In general, practical engines are always compromises, or trade-off's, between different properties, such as efficiency, weight, power, response, exhaust emissions, noise etc. etc. Sometimes economy also plays a role, not only as the cost of manufacturing the engine itself, but also manufacturing and distribution of the fuel. Increasing the engine efficiency brings a better fuel economy, but only if the fuel cost per energy content is the same.


Air and noise pollution

Internal combustion engines—particularly reciprocating internal combustion engines—produce air pollution emissions, due to incomplete combustion of carbonaceous fuel. The main derivatives of the process are carbon dioxide CO2, water and some soot, also called particulate matter (PM). The effects of inhaling particulate matter have been widely studied in humans and animals and include asthma, lung cancer, cardiovascular issues, and premature death. There are however some additional products of the combustion process that include nitrogen oxides and sulfur and some uncombusted hydrocarbons, depending on the operating conditions and the fuel/air ratio. Air pollution is the modification of the natural characteristics of the atmosphere by a chemical, particulate matter, or biological agent. ... For other uses, see Carbon (disambiguation). ... Carbon dioxide (chemical formula: ) is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ... Soot, also called lampblack, Pigment Black 7, carbon black or black carbon, is a dark powdery deposit of unburned fuel residues, usually composed mainly of amorphous carbon, that accumulates in chimneys, automobile mufflers and other surfaces exposed to smoke—especially from the combustion of carbon-rich organic fuels in the... Particulates, alternately referred to as Particulate Matter (PM) , aerosols or fine particles are tiny particles of solid or liquid suspended in the air. ... // The term nitrogen oxide typically refers to any binary compound of oxygen and nitrogen, or to a mixture of such compounds: Nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen(II) oxide Nitrogen dioxide (NO2), nitrogen(IV) oxide Nitrous oxide (N2O), nitrogen (I) oxide Dinitrogen trioxide (N2O3), nitrogen(II, IV) oxide Dinitrogen tetroxide (N2O4), nitrogen... This article is about the chemical element. ...


The fuel does not get completely burned in the engine and passes through the exhaust unchanged. The primary causes of this are the need to operate near the stoichiometric ratio for gasoline engines in order to achieve combustion (the fuel would burn more completely in excess air) and the "quench" of the flame by the relatively cool cylinder walls. Quenching is commonly observed in diesel (compression ignition) engines that run on natural gas, when running at lower speed. It reduces the efficiency and increases knocking and sometimes causes the engine to stall. Increasing the amount of air in the engine reduces the amount of the first two pollutants but tends to encourage the oxygen and nitrogen in the air to combine to produce Nitrogen Oxides (NOx), demonstrated to be hazardous to both plant and animal health. Further chemicals released are Benzene and 1,3-Butadiene that are particularly harmful. Not all the fuel burns up completely, so Carbon Monoxide (CO) is also produced. In chemistry, stoichiometry is the study of the combination of elements in chemical reactions. ... // The term nitrogen oxide typically refers to any binary compound of oxygen and nitrogen, or to a mixture of such compounds: Nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen(II) oxide Nitrogen dioxide (NO2), nitrogen(IV) oxide Nitrous oxide (N2O), nitrogen (I) oxide Dinitrogen trioxide (N2O3), nitrogen(II, IV) oxide Dinitrogen tetroxide (N2O4), nitrogen... Benzene, or Benzol (see also Benzine), is an organic chemical compound and a known carcinogen with the molecular formula C6H6. ... Butadiene can refer to either one of two hydrocarbon chemical compounds which are alkenes that are isomers of each other. ... Carbon monoxide, with the chemical formula CO, is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas. ...


Carbon fuels contain sulfur and impurities, leading to sulfur oxides (SOx) and Sulphur Dioxide (SO2) in the exhaust, promoting acid rain. One final element in exhaust pollution is Ozone (O3). This is not emitted directly but made in the air by the action of sunlight on other pollutants to form "ground level Ozone", which, unlike the "Ozone Layer" in the high atmosphere, is regarded as a bad thing if levels are too high. Ozone is actually broken down by Nitrogen Oxides, so one tends to be lower where the other is higher. Pick one: sulfur monoxide sulfur dioxide sulfur trioxide This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Sulfur dioxide (or Sulphur dioxide) has the chemical formula SO2. ... The term acid rain is commonly used to mean the deposition of acidic components in rain, snow, fog, dew, or dry particles. ... For other uses, see Ozone (disambiguation). ...


For the pollutants described above (Nitrogen Oxides, Carbon Monoxide, Sulphur Dioxide, and Ozone) there are accepted levels, set by legislation, at which no harmful effects are observed even in sensitive population groups. For the other three (Benzene, 1:3 butadiene and particulates) there is no way of proving they are safe at any level, so the experts set standards where the risk to health is "exceedingly small".


Finally, significant contributions to noise pollution are made by internal combustion engines. Most of this noise produced is due to automobile and truck traffic operating on highways and street systems. Noise pollution (or environmental noise in technical venues) is displeasing human or machine created sound that disrupts the environment. ...


Parts

An illustration of several key components in a typical four-stroke engine
An illustration of several key components in a typical four-stroke engine

For a four-stroke engine, key parts of the engine include the crankshaft (purple), one or more camshafts (red and blue), and valves. For a two-stroke engine, there may simply be an exhaust outlet and fuel inlet instead of a valve system. In both types of engines, there are one or more cylinders (grey and green), and for each cylinder, there is a spark plug (darker-grey), a piston (yellow), and a crank (purple). A single sweep of the cylinder by the piston in an upward or downward motion is known as a stroke. The downward stroke that occurs directly after the air/fuel mix passes from the carburetor or fuel injector to the cylinder where it is ignited is known as a power stroke. Image File history File links Four_stroke_cycle_compression. ... Image File history File links Four_stroke_cycle_compression. ... Today Internal combustion engines in cars, trucks, motorcycles, construction machinery and many others, most commonly use a four-stroke cycle. ... Today Internal combustion engines in cars, trucks, motorcycles, construction machinery and many others, most commonly use a four-stroke cycle. ... Crankshaft (red), pistons (gray) in their cylinders (blue), and flywheel (black) Continental engine marine crankshafts, 1942 Components of a typical, four stroke cycle, DOHC piston engine. ... For the fictional characters of the same name, see Camshaft (Transformers). ... A poppet valve is a valve consisting of a hole, usually round or oval, and a tapered plug, usually a disk shape on the end of a shaft also called a valve stem. ... The two-stroke cycle of an internal combustion engine differs from the more common four-stroke cycle by completing the same four processes (intake, compression, power, exhaust) in only two strokes of the piston rather than four. ... This article or section should include material from Spark gap A spark plug is an electrical device that fits into the cylinder head of some internal combustion engines and ignites compressed aerosol gasoline by means of an electric spark. ... For the American composer, see Walter Piston. ... A crank is a bent portion of an axle, or shaft, or an arm keyed at right angles to the end of a shaft, by which motion is imparted to or received from it; also used to change circular into reciprocating motion, or reciprocating into circular motion. ...


A Wankel engine has a triangular rotor that orbits in an epitrochoidal (figure 8 shape) chamber around an eccentric shaft. The four phases of operation (intake, compression, power, exhaust) take place in what is effectively a moving, variable-volume chamber. Wankel Engine in Deutsches Museum Munich, Germany The Wankel rotary engine is a type of internal combustion engine, invented by German engineer Felix Wankel, which uses a rotor instead of reciprocating pistons. ... An epitrochoid is a roulette traced by a point attached to a circle of radius b rolling around the outside of a fixed circle of radius a, where the point is a distance h from the center of the exterior circle. ...


A Bourke Engine uses a pair of pistons integrated to a Scotch Yoke that transmits reciprocating force through a specially designed bearing assembly to turn a crank mechanism. Intake, compression, power, and exhaust occur in each stroke. The Bourke engine was designed by Russell Bourke in the late 1930s, who endeavored to improve upon the Otto cycle engine. ... The Scotch Yoke is a mechanism for converting the horizontal motion of a slider into rotational motion or vice-versa. ...


Classification

At one time, the word "engine" (from Latin, via Old French, ingenium, "ability") meant any piece of machinery — a sense that persists in expressions such as siege engine. A "motor" (from Latin motor, "mover") is any machine that produces mechanical power. Traditionally, electric motors are not referred to as "engines," but combustion engines are often referred to as "motors." (An electric engine refers to locomotive operated by electricity). For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... Old French was the Romance dialect continuum spoken in territories corresponding roughly to the northern half of modern France and parts of modern Belgium and Switzerland from around 1000 to 1300. ... A machine is any mechanical or electrical device that transmits or modifies energy to perform or assist in the performance of tasks. ... Replica battering ram at Château des Baux, France. ... In physics, power (symbol: P) is the rate at which work is performed or energy is transmitted, or the amount of energy required or expended for a given unit of time. ... For other kinds of motors, see motor. ... Modern AC locomotive (DBAG Class 152). ... Great Western Railway No. ...


However, many people consider engines as those things which generate their power from within, and motors as requiring an outside source of energy to perform their work.


Principles of operation

A 1906 gasoline engine
A 1906 gasoline engine

Reciprocating: Download high resolution version (702x1230, 482 KB)Single cylinder, 1906 Lyons engine ad from May 1906 issue of Gleanings in Bee Culture. ... Download high resolution version (702x1230, 482 KB)Single cylinder, 1906 Lyons engine ad from May 1906 issue of Gleanings in Bee Culture. ... Internal combustion piston engine Components of a typical, four stroke cycle, internal combustion piston engine. ...

Rotary: The crude oil engine is a type of internal combustion engine similar to the hot bulb engine. ... The two-stroke cycle of an internal combustion engine differs from the more common four-stroke cycle by completing the same four processes (intake, compression, power, exhaust) in only two strokes of the piston rather than four. ... Today Internal combustion engines in cars, trucks, motorcycles, construction machinery and many others, most commonly use a four-stroke cycle. ... A six stroke engine is an automobile engine in which the piston of the engine move up and down an additional time for each injection of fuel. ... 1939 Lanz Bulldog tractor with hot bulb engine. ... Diesel engines in a museum Diesel generator on an oil tanker A diesel engine is an internal combustion engine which operates using the Diesel cycle. ... A poppet valve is a valve consisting of a hole, usually round or oval, and a tapered plug, usually a disk shape on the end of a shaft also called a valve stem. ... piston engine Bristol Perseus The sleeve valve is a type of valve mechanism for piston engines which have traditionally relied on the more common poppet valve. ... The Atkinson cycle engine is a type of Internal combustion engine invented by James Atkinson in 1882. ... The Bourke engine was designed by Russell Bourke in the late 1930s, who endeavored to improve upon the Otto cycle engine. ... Controlled Combustion Engine (CCE) is a type of internal combustion engine designed by Brad Howell-Smith in 1995. ... A pistonless rotary engine is an internal combustion engine that does not use pistons in the way a reciprocating engine does, but instead uses one or more rotors, sometimes called rotary pistons. ...

Continuous combustion: Wankel Engine in Deutsches Museum Munich, Germany The Wankel rotary engine is a type of internal combustion engine, invented by German engineer Felix Wankel, which uses a rotor instead of reciprocating pistons. ... An orbital engine is a type of internal combustion engine, featuring rotary rather than reciprocating motion of its internal parts. ... The Quasiturbine or Qurbine engine is a proposed pistonless rotary engine using a four-sided rhomboid rotor whose sides are hinged at the vertices. ... The Atkinson cycle engine is a type of Internal combustion engine invented by James Atkinson in 1882. ... The Toroidal engine design is a form of internal combustion engine that features pistons that rotate within a toroidal space. ... The trochilic engine is composed of two mirror image gull wing segments intermeshed and rotating about a common central axis. ...

This machine has a single-stage centrifugal compressor and turbine, a recuperator, and foil bearings. ... A Pratt and Whitney turbofan engine for the F-15 Eagle is tested at Robins Air Force Base, Georgia, USA. The tunnel behind the engine muffles noise and allows exhaust to escape. ... RS-68 being tested at NASAs Stennis Space Center, note the relatively transparent exhaust, this is due to this engines use of hydrogen fuel A rocket engine is a reaction engine that takes all its reaction mass from within tankage and forms it into a high speed jet...

Engine cycle

Two-stroke

Main article: Two-stroke cycle

Engines based on the two-stroke cycle use two strokes (one up, one down) for every power stroke. Since there are no dedicated intake or exhaust strokes, alternative methods must be used to scavenge the cylinders. The most common method in spark-ignition two-strokes is to use the downward motion of the piston to pressurize fresh charge in the crankcase, which is then blown through the cylinder through ports in the cylinder walls. The two-stroke cycle of an internal combustion engine differs from the more common four-stroke cycle by completing the same four processes (intake, compression, power, exhaust) in only two strokes of the piston rather than four. ... Harvestman eating the tail of a five-lined skink The word scavenger, in zoology, refers to animals that consume already dead organic life-forms. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Internal combustion engine. ... A cast 6-cylinder BMW engine block For the G.I. Joe character, see List of G.I. Joe ARAH characters. ...


Spark-ignition two-strokes are small and light for their power output and mechanically very simple; however, they are also generally less efficient and more polluting than their four-stroke counterparts. However, in single-cylinder small motor applications, cc for cc, (cc meaning cubic centimeter), a two-stroke engine produces much more power than equivalent 4 strokes, due to the enormous advantage of having 1 power stroke for every 360 degrees of crankshaft rotation (compared to 720 degrees in a 4 stroke motor).


Small displacement, crankcase-scavenged two-stroke engines have been less fuel-efficient than other types of engines when the fuel is mixed with the air prior to scavenging, allowing some of it to escape out of the exhaust port. Modern designs (Sarich and Paggio) use air-assisted fuel injection, which avoids this loss, and are more efficient than comparably sized four-stroke engines. Fuel injection is essential for a modern two-stroke engine in order to meet ever more stringent emission standards.


Research continues into improving many aspects of two-stroke motors, including direct fuel injection, amongst other things. Initial results have produced motors that are much cleaner burning than their traditional counterparts.


Two-stroke engines are widely used in snowmobiles, lawnmowers, weed-whackers, chain saws, jet skis, mopeds, outboard motors, and many motorcycles. A snowmobile tour at Yellowstone National Park. ... A lawn mower (often spelled as one word—lawnmower) is a machine (electric or mechnical) used to cut grass to an even length. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Alternative meaning: Chainsaw (computer program) A chainsaw (also spelled chain saw) is a portable mechanical, motorized saw. ... Jet ski is the brand name of Kawasaki Heavy Industries personal water craft. ... Mopeds (pronounced as 2 syllables) are a class of low-powered motorized vehicles, generally two-wheeled. ... Bolinders two cylinder Trim outboard engine. ... For other uses, see Motorcycle (disambiguation). ...


The largest compression-ignition engines are two-strokes and are used in some locomotives and large ships. These engines use forced induction to scavenge the cylinders. An example of this type of motor is the Wartsila-Sulzer turbocharged 2 stroke diesel as used in large container ships. It is the most efficient and powerful engine in the world, with over 50% thermal efficiency. For comparison, the most efficient small 4-stroke motors are around 43% thermal efficiency (SAE 900648), and size is an advantage for efficiency due to the increase in the ratio of volume to area. Forced induction is a term used to describe internal combustion engines that are not naturally aspirated. ... The Wärtsilä RT-flex96C turbocharged two-stroke diesel engine is currently considered the largest reciprocating engine in the world, designed for large container ships, running on cheap, heavy fuel oil. ...


Four-stroke

Main article: Four-stroke cycle
engines are two-strokes and are used in some locomotives and large ships. These engines use forced induction to scavenge the cylinders. An example of this type of motor is the Wartsila-Sulzer turbocharged 2 stroke diesel as used in large container ships. It is the most efficient and powerful engine in the world, with over 50% thermal efficiency. For comparison, the most efficient small 4-stroke motors are around 43% thermal efficiency (SAE 900648), and size is an advantage for efficiency due to the increase in the ratio of volume to area.

Engines based on the four-stroke or Otto cycle have one power stroke for every four strokes (up-down-up-down) and are used in cars, larger boats, some motorcycles, and many light aircraft. They are generally quieter, more efficient, and larger than their two-stroke counterparts. There are a number of variations of these cycles, most notably the Atkinson and Miller cycles. Most truck and automotive diesel engines use a four-stroke cycle, but with a compression heating ignition system. This variation is called the diesel cycle. The steps involved here are: Today Internal combustion engines in cars, trucks, motorcycles, construction machinery and many others, most commonly use a four-stroke cycle. ... Forced induction is a term used to describe internal combustion engines that are not naturally aspirated. ... The Wärtsilä RT-flex96C turbocharged two-stroke diesel engine is currently considered the largest reciprocating engine in the world, designed for large container ships, running on cheap, heavy fuel oil. ... For other uses, see Boat (disambiguation). ... Flying machine redirects here. ... The Atkinson cycle engine is a type of Internal combustion engine invented by James Atkinson in 1882. ... kill them In engineering, the Miller cycle is a combustion process used in a type of four-stroke internal combustion engine. ... The Diesel cycle is the combustion process of a type of reciprocating internal combustion engine, in which the fuel is ignited by the heat generated in first compressing air in the combustion chamber, into which is then injected the fuel, as opposed to it being ignited by a spark plug...

  1. Intake stroke: Air and vaporized fuel are drawn in.
  2. Compression stroke: Fuel vapor and air are compressed and ignited.
  3. Combustion stroke: Fuel combusts and piston is pushed downwards.
  4. Exhaust stroke: Exhaust is driven out. During the 1st, 2nd, and 4th, stroke the piston is relying on power and momentum generated by the other pistons. In that case a four cylinder engine would be less powerful than a six or eight cylinder engine.

Five-stroke

Engines based on the five-stroke cycle are a variant of the four-stroke cycle. Normally the four cycles are intake, compression, combustion, and exhaust. The fifth cycle added by Delautour[3] is refrigeration. Engines running on a five-stroke cycle are claimed to be up to 30 percent more efficient than equivalent four-stroke engines.


Six-stroke

The six stroke engine captures the wasted heat from the 4-stroke Otto cycle and creates steam, which simultaneously cools the engine while providing a free power stroke. This removes the need for a cooling system, making the engine lighter while giving 40% increased efficiency over the Otto Cycle. A six stroke engine is an automobile engine in which the piston of the engine move up and down an additional time for each injection of fuel. ...


Beare Head Technology combines a four-stroke engine bottom end with a ported cylinder, which closely resembles that of a two-stroke: thus, 4+2 = six-stroke. It has an opposing piston that acts in unison with auxiliary low pressure reed and rotary valves, allowing variable compression and a range of tuning options.


Bourke engine

Main article: Bourke engine

In this engine, two opposed cylinders are linked to the crank by a Scotch yoke. The Scotch yoke mechanism prevents side thrust, preventing any piston slap, allowing operation as a detonation or "explosion" engine. This also greatly reduces friction between pistons and cylinder walls. The Bourke engine uses fewer moving parts and has to overcome less friction than conventional crank and slider engines with poppet valves. However no independent testing of this engine has ever borne out any of these claims. The Bourke engine was designed by Russell Bourke in the late 1930s, who endeavored to improve upon the Otto cycle engine. ... The Scotch Yoke is a mechanism for converting the horizontal motion of a slider into rotational motion or vice-versa. ... Knocking (also called pinking or pinging)— colloquially detonation—in internal combustion engines occurs when air/fuel mixture in the cylinder detonates or ignites prior to the timed pre-set conditions in the engines cylinder(s). ... The Bourke engine was designed by Russell Bourke in the late 1930s, who endeavored to improve upon the Otto cycle engine. ... For other uses, see Friction (disambiguation). ...


Controlled Combustion Engine

These are also cylinder-based engines, which may be one or two-stroke but use, instead of a crankshaft and piston rods, two gear-connected, counterrotating concentric cams to convert reciprocating motion into rotary movement. These cams practically cancel out sideward forces that would otherwise be exerted on the cylinders by the pistons, greatly improving mechanical efficiency. The number of lobes of the cams (always an odd number not less than 3) determines the piston travel versus the torque delivered. In this engine, there are two cylinders that are 180 degrees apart for each pair of counterrotating cams. For single-stroke versions, there are as many cycles per cylinder pair as there are lobes on each cam, and twice as many for two-stroke engines. Controlled Combustion Engine (CCE) is a type of internal combustion engine designed by Brad Howell-Smith in 1995. ...


Wankel

Main article: Wankel engine

The Wankel engine (rotary engine) does not have piston strokes, so is more properly called a four-phase, rather than a four-stroke, engine. It operates with the same separation of phases as the four-stroke engine, with the phases taking place in separate locations in the engine. This engine provides three power 'strokes' per revolution per rotor (while it is true that 3 power strokes occur per ROTOR revolution, due to the 3/1 revolution ratio of the rotor to the eccentric shaft, only 1 power stroke per shaft revolution actually occurs), typically giving it a greater power-to-weight ratio than piston engines. This type of engine is most notably used in the current Mazda RX-8, the earlier RX-7, and other models. Wankel Engine in Deutsches Museum Munich, Germany The Wankel rotary engine is a type of internal combustion engine, invented by German engineer Felix Wankel, which uses a rotor instead of reciprocating pistons. ... The Mazda RX-8 is a sports car manufactured by Mazda Motor Corporation. ... The Mazda RX-7 (also called the Ẽfini RX-7) is a sports car produced by the Japanese automaker Mazda from 1978 to 2002. ...


Gas turbine

Main article: Gas turbine

Gas turbines cycles (notably jet engines) do not use the same system to both compress and then expand the gases; instead, separate compression and expansion turbines are employed, giving continuous power. Essentially, the intake gas (normally air) is compressed and then combusted with a fuel, which greatly raises the temperature and volume. The larger volume of hot gas from the combustion chamber is then fed through the gas turbine, which is then able to power the compressor. The exhaust gas may be used to provide thrust, supplying only sufficient power to the turbine to compress incoming air (jet engine); or as much energy as possible can be supplied to the turboshaft (gas turbine proper). This machine has a single-stage centrifugal compressor and turbine, a recuperator, and foil bearings. ... A Pratt and Whitney turbofan engine for the F-15 Eagle is tested at Robins Air Force Base, Georgia, USA. The tunnel behind the engine muffles noise and allows exhaust to escape. ... Thrust is a reaction force described quantitatively by Newtons Second and Third Laws. ... Schematic diagram showing the operation of a simplified turboshaft engine. ...


Disused methods

In some old noncompressing internal combustion engines: In the first part of the piston downstroke, a fuel/air mixture was sucked or blown in. In the rest of the piston downstroke, the inlet valve closed and the fuel/air mixture fired. In the piston upstroke, the exhaust valve was open. This was an attempt at imitating the way a piston steam engine works. Since the explosive mixture was not compressed, the heat and pressure generated by combustion was much less, causing lower overall efficiency. // The term steam engine may also refer to an entire railroad steam locomotive. ...


Fuels and oxidizers

Nowadays, fuels used include:

Even fluidized metal powders and explosives have seen some use. Engines that use gases for fuel are called gas engines, and those that use liquid hydrocarbons are called oil engines. However, gasoline engines are also often colloquially referred to as 'gas engines.' Petro redirects here. ... North American English is a collective term used for the varieties of the English language that are spoken in the United States and Canada. ... Petrol redirects here. ... This article is about the fuel. ... Autogas is the common name for liquified petroleum gas when it is used as a fuel in internal combustion engines in vehicles. ... 45 kg LPG cylinders Spherical Gas Container typically found in Refineries. ... Typical North America vehicles carry this diamond shape symbol, meaning it is running on compressed natural gas fuel. ... Jet fuel is a type of aviation fuel designed for use in jet-engined aircraft. ... An aviation fuel truck. ... Coal Example chemical structure of coal Coal is a fossil fuel formed in ecosystems where plant remains were saved by water and mud from oxidization and biodegradation. ... A bottle of peanut oil Peanut oil is an organic oil derived from peanuts, noted to have the slight aroma and taste of its parent legume. ... A vegetable oil or vegoil is an oil extracted from oilseeds or another plant source. ... Butanol (butyl alcohol) is a higher alcohol with a 4 carbon atom structure and a general formula of C4H10O. There are 4 different isomeric structures for butanol (refer to box). ... This article is about transesterified lipids. ... The neutrality of this article is disputed. ... Methanol, also known as methyl alcohol, carbinol, wood alcohol, wood naptha or wood spirits, is a chemical compound with chemical formula CH3OH. It is the simplest alcohol, and is a light, volatile, colourless, flammable, poisonous liquid with a distinctive odor that is somewhat milder and sweeter than ethanol (ethyl alcohol). ... Methanol, also known as methyl alcohol or wood alcohol, is a chemical compound with chemical formula CH3OH. It is the simplest alcohol, and is a light, volatile, colourless, flammable, poisonous liquid that is used as an antifreeze, solvent, fuel, and as a denaturant for ethyl alcohol. ... Bio-energy redirects here. ... For other types of Hybrid Transportation, see Hybrid (disambiguation)#Transportation. ... Biogas-bus in Bern, Switzerland Biogas typically refers to a (biofuel) gas produced by the anaerobic digestion or fermentation of organic matter including manure, sewage sludge, municipal solid waste, biodegradable waste or any other biodegradable feedstock, under anaerobic conditions. ... This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. ...


The main limitations on fuels are that it must be easily transportable through the fuel system to the combustion chamber and that the fuel releases sufficient energy in the form of heat upon combustion to make use of the engine practical. // Fuel injection is a system of fuel delivery for mixture with air in an internal combustion engine. ... A combustion chamber is part of an engine in which fuel is burned. ... For other uses, see Heat (disambiguation) In physics, heat, symbolized by Q, is energy transferred from one body or system to another due to a difference in temperature. ... This article is about the chemical reaction combustion. ...


Diesel engines are generally heavier, noisier, and more powerful at lower speeds than gasoline engines. They are also more fuel-efficient in most circumstances, and are used in heavy road vehicles, some automobiles (increasingly so for their increased fuel efficiency over gasoline engines), ships, railway locomotives, and light aircraft. Gasoline engines are used in most other road vehicles, including most cars, motorcycles and mopeds. Note that in Europe, sophisticated diesel-engined cars have taken over about 40% of the market since the 1990s. There are also engines that run on hydrogen, methanol, ethanol, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and biodiesel. Paraffin and tractor vaporizing oil (TVO) engines are no longer seen. Diesel engines in a museum Diesel generator on an oil tanker A diesel engine is an internal combustion engine which operates using the Diesel cycle. ... Gasoline engine (also referred to as petrol engine or Otto engine) invented at the end of the 19th century by German engineer Nikolaus Otto is a type of internal combustion engine which is often used for automobiles, aircraft, small mobile vehicles such as lawnmowers or motorcycles, and outboard motors for... Fuel efficiency, in its basic sense, is the same as thermal efficiency, meaning the efficiency of a process that converts chemical potential energy contained in a carrier fuel into kinetic energy or work. ... This is the top-level page of WikiProject trains Rail tracks Rail transport refers to the land transport of passengers and goods along railways or railroads. ... Great Western Railway No. ... Flying machine redirects here. ... For other uses, see Motorcycle (disambiguation). ... Mopeds (pronounced as 2 syllables) are a class of low-powered motorized vehicles, generally two-wheeled. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Hydrogen vehicle. ... Methanol, also known as methyl alcohol, carbinol, wood alcohol, wood naphtha or wood spirits, is a chemical compound with chemical formula CH3OH (often abbreviated MeOH). ... Grain alcohol redirects here. ... 45 kg LPG cylinders Liquefied petroleum gas (also called LPG, LP Gas, or autogas) is a mixture of hydrocarbon gases used as a fuel in heating appliances and vehicles, and increasingly replacing chlorofluorocarbons as an aerosol propellant and a refrigerant to reduce damage to the ozone layer. ... This article is about transesterified lipids. ... For other uses, see Paraffin (disambiguation). ...


Oxidizers

Since air is plentiful at the surface of the earth, the oxidizer is typically atmospheric oxygen, which has the advantage of not being stored within the vehicle, increasing the power-to-weight and power to volume ratios. There are other materials that are used for special purposes, often to increase power output or to allow operation under water or in space.

  • Compressed air has been commonly used in torpedoes.
  • Compressed oxygen, as well as some compressed air, was used in the Japanese Type 93 torpedo. Some submarines are designed to carry pure oxygen. Rockets very often use liquid oxygen
  • Nitromethane is added to some racing and model fuels to increase power and control combustion.
  • Nitrous oxide has been used, with extra gasoline, in tactical aircraft and in specially equipped cars, to allow short bursts of added power from engines that otherwise run on gasoline and air. It is also used in the Burt Rutan rocket spacecraft.
  • Hydrogen peroxide power was under development for German World War II submarines and may have been used in some non-nuclear submarines.
  • Black or smokeless gunpowder has been used in diesel engine starters, to deploy or jettison equipment remotely, and by Alphonse Pénaud in pioneering model aircraft.
  • Other chemicals such as chlorine or fluorine have been used experimentally, but have not been found to be practical.

The torpedo, historically called a locomotive torpedo, is a self-propelled explosive projectile weapon, launched above or below the water surface, propelled underwater toward a target, and designed to detonate on contact or in proximity to a target. ... This article is about the chemical element and its most stable form, or dioxygen. ... The Type 93 was a 610 mm (24 inch) diameter torpedo of the Imperial Japanese Navy. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Flash point 35 °C R/S statement R: S: RTECS number PA9800000 Related compounds Related nitro compounds nitroethane Related compounds methyl nitrite methyl nitrate Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Nitromethane is an organic... For other uses, see Nitrous oxide (disambiguation). ... Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is a very pale blue liquid which appears colorless in a dilute solution, slightly more viscous than water. ... A modern black powder substitute for muzzleloading rifles in FFG size Gunpowder (also called black powder) is a pyrotechnic composition, an explosive mixture of sulfur, charcoal and potassium nitrate (also known as saltpetre or saltpeter) that burns rapidly, producing volumes of hot solids and gases which can be used as... Alphonse Pénaud (1850–1880) was a major 19th century pioneer of aviation, inventor of the rubber powered model airplane and founder of the aviation industry. ... A Die Cast Boeing 747-800 static model. ...

Hydrogen engine

Some have theorized that in the future, hydrogen might replace such fuels. Furthermore, with the introduction of hydrogen fuel cell technology, the use of internal combustion engines may be phased out. The advantage of hydrogen is that its combustion produces only water. This is unlike the combustion of fossil fuels, which produce carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide resulting from incomplete combustion; and other local and atmospheric pollutants such as sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides that lead to urban air pollution, acid rain, and ozone layer problems. However, free hydrogen for fuel does not occur naturally, and oxidizing it liberates less energy than it takes to produce hydrogen in the first place, due to the second law of thermodynamics. Note also, that if the atmosphere is used as the oxidizer in high temperature combustion, the resultant nitrogen oxide byproducts must be reduced by an appropriate catalytic converter. This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. ... A hydrogen economy is a hypothetical economy in which the energy needed for motive power (for automobiles or other vehicle types) or electricity (for stationary applications) is derived from reacting hydrogen (H2) with oxygen. ... A fuel cell is an electrochemical device similar to a battery, but differing from the latter in that it is designed for continuous replenishment of the reactants consumed; i. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... Carbon dioxide (chemical formula: ) is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ... Carbon monoxide, with the chemical formula CO, is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas. ... Sulfur dioxide (or Sulphur dioxide) has the chemical formula SO2. ... Nitrogen has six different oxides: Nitric oxide (NO) Nitrous oxide (N2O) Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) Dinitrogen trioxide (N2O3) Dinitrogen tetroxide (N2O4) Dinitrogen pentoxide (N2O5) The term nitrogen oxide is imprecise and can be used to refer to any of these or to a mixture of them. ... The term acid rain is commonly used to mean the deposition of acidic components in rain, snow, fog, dew, or dry particles. ... The ozone layer is a layer in Earths atmosphere which contains relatively high concentrations of ozone (O3). ... The second law of thermodynamics is an expression of the universal law of increasing entropy. ...


Another problem with hydrogen as a fuel in a conventional four-stroke poppet valve engine is a tendency to preignite, due to the presence of a hot exhaust valve. Certain engine types such as the Wankel rotary engine and various uniflow reciprocating types do not have this inherent problem. A recently developed nutating disc engine also appears to offer an alternative solution to this problem[citation needed]. Dr. Felix Heinrich Wankel (August 13, 1902–October 9, 1988) was the German inventor of the Wankel engine. ...


Being a thermodynamic process, the overall efficiency will likely be substantially less than if the hydrogen were converted to electricity in a fuel cell and stored in batteries or supercapacitors for high-demand portions of a vehicle's operating cycle.


Although there are multiple ways of producing free hydrogen, those require converting combustible molecules into hydrogen or consuming electric energy, so hydrogen does not solve any energy crisis (unless the energy is produced from a renewable source). Moreover, it only addresses the issue of portability and some pollution issues. The disadvantage of hydrogen in many situations is its storage. Liquid hydrogen has extremely low density (14 times lower than water) and requires extensive insulation, whilst gaseous hydrogen requires heavy tankage. Although hydrogen has a higher specific energy, the volumetric energetic storage is still roughly five times lower than petrol, even when liquefied. The 'Hydrogen on Demand' process (see direct borohydride fuel cell), designed by Steven Amendola, creates hydrogen as it is needed, but has other issues, such as the high price of the sodium borohydride, the raw material. Sodium borohydride is renewable and could become cheaper if more widely produced. This article is about energy crises in general. ... A hydrogen economy is a hypothetical economy in which the energy needed for motive power (for automobiles or other vehicle types) or electricity (for stationary applications) is derived from reacting hydrogen (H2) with oxygen. ... Liquid hydrogen is the liquid state of the element hydrogen. ... Direct Borohydride Fuel Cell or DBFCs are a subcategory of Proton-exchange fuel cells where the fuel is a solution of Sodium borohydride. ... Sodium borohydride, also known as sodium tetrahydroborate, has the chemical formula NaBH4. ...

One-cylinder gasoline engine (ca. 1910).
One-cylinder gasoline engine (ca. 1910).

ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (2063x2996, 1445 KB) Summary Early gasoline-powered internal combustion engine with one cylinder (c. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (2063x2996, 1445 KB) Summary Early gasoline-powered internal combustion engine with one cylinder (c. ...

Cylinders

Internal combustion engines can contain any number of cylinders, with numbers between one and twelve being common, though as many as 36 (Lycoming R-7755) have been used. Having more cylinders in an engine yields two potential benefits: first, the engine can have a larger displacement with smaller individual reciprocating masses (that is, the mass of each piston can be less), thus making a smoother-running engine (since the engine tends to vibrate as a result of the pistons' moving up and down). Second, with a greater displacement and more pistons, more fuel can be combusted and there can be more combustion events (that is, more power strokes) in a given period of time, meaning that such an engine can generate more torque than a similar engine with fewer cylinders. Lycoming XR-7755-3 at the Smithsonian Institute. ...


The downside to having more pistons is that the engine will tend to weigh more and generate more internal friction as the greater number of pistons rub against the inside of their cylinders. This tends to decrease fuel efficiency and robs the engine of some of its power. For high-performance gasoline engines using current materials and technology (such as the engines found in modern automobiles), there seems to be a break point around 10 or 12 cylinders, after which the addition of cylinders becomes an overall detriment to performance and efficiency, although exceptions such as the W16 engine from Volkswagen exist. A W16 engine is a sixteen cylinder piston engine in a W configuration. ... VW redirects here. ...

  • Most car engines have four to eight cylinders, with some high performance cars having ten, twelve, or even sixteen, and some very small cars and trucks having two or three. In previous years, some quite large cars, such as the DKW and Saab 92, had two-cylinder, two-stroke engines.
  • Radial aircraft engines, now obsolete, had from three to 28 cylinders. An example is the Pratt & Whitney R-4360. A row contains an odd number of cylinders, so an even number indicates a two- or four-row engine. The largest of these was the Lycoming R-7755 with 36 cylinders (four rows of nine cylinders), but it did not enter production.
  • Motorcycles commonly have from one to four cylinders, with a few high performance models having six (though some 'novelties' exist with 8, 10 and 12).
  • Snowmobiles usually have two cylinders. Some larger (not necessarily high-performance, but also touring machines) have four.
  • Small portable appliances such as chainsaws, generators, and domestic lawn mowers most commonly have one cylinder, although two-cylinder chainsaws exist.

DKW Auto Union logotype Dampf-Kraft Wagen (German: steam-powered vehicle) or DKW is a historic car and motorcycle marque. ... Saab 92 Saab 92 is an automobile from Saab. ... The radial engine is an internal combustion engine configuration in which the cylinders point outward from a central crankshaft like the spokes on a wheel. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Pratt & Whitney Wasp Major (sectioned) The Pratt & Whitney R-4360 Wasp Major was a large radial piston aircraft engine designed and built during World War II. It was the last of the Wasp family and the culmination of its makers piston engine technology, but the war was over before... Lycoming XR-7755-3 at the Smithsonian Institute. ... For other uses, see Motorcycle (disambiguation). ... A snowmobile tour at Yellowstone National Park. ... For other uses, see Chainsaw (disambiguation). ... A typical modern gasoline-powered mower. ...

Ignition system

An internal combustion engine can be classified by its ignition system. The ignition system of an internal-combustion engine is an important part of the overall engine system that provides for the timely burning of the fuel mixture within the engine. ...


Today most engines use an electrical or compression heating system for ignition. However, outside flame and hot-tube systems have been used historically. Nikola Tesla gained one of the first patents on the mechanical ignition system with U.S. Patent 609,250 , "Electrical Igniter for Gas Engines," on 16 August 1898. ignition systems are classified as follows. This article or section should include material from Spark gap A spark plug is an electrical device that fits into the cylinder head of some internal combustion engines and ignites compressed aerosol gasoline by means of an electric spark. ... The diesel engine is a type of internal combustion engine; more specifically, a compression ignition engine, in which the fuel is ignited by the high temperature of a compressed gas, rather than a separate source of energy (such as a spark plug). ... A hot-tube ignitor was an early device that fit onto the cylinder head of an internal-combustion engine and ignites the compressed fuel/air mixture by means of a flame heating part of the tube red hot. ... Nikola Tesla (Serbian Cyrillic: ) (10 July 1856 – 7 January 1943) was a inventor, physicist, mechanical engineer, and electrical engineer. ... is the 228th day of the year (229th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1898 (MDCCCXCVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


Spark

Main article: ignition system

The mixture is ignited by an electrical spark from a spark plug, the timing of which is very precisely controlled. Almost all gasoline engines are of this type, but not diesel engines. The ignition system of an internal-combustion engine is an important part of the overall engine system that provides for the timely burning of the fuel mixture within the engine. ... Look up Spark in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article or section should include material from Spark gap A spark plug is an electrical device that fits into the cylinder head of some internal combustion engines and ignites compressed aerosol gasoline by means of an electric spark. ... Petrol redirects here. ... Diesel engines in a museum Diesel generator on an oil tanker A diesel engine is an internal combustion engine which operates using the Diesel cycle. ...


Compression

Ignition, after the engine is started, comes from oxidation heat and mechanical compression of the air or mixture. The vast majority of compression ignition engines are diesels, in which the fuel is mixed with the air after the air has reached ignition temperature. In this case, the timing comes from the fuel injection system. Very small model engines, for which simplicity is more important than fuel cost, use special fuels to control ignition timing.


Timing

The point in the cycle at which the fuel/oxidizer mixture is ignited has a direct effect on the efficiency and output of the ICE. The thermodynamics of the idealized Carnot heat engine tells us that an ICE is most efficient if most of the burning takes place at a high temperature, resulting from compression—that is, near top dead center. The speed of the flame front is directly affected by compression ratio, fuel mixture temperature, and octane or cetane rating of the fuel. Leaner mixtures and lower mixture pressures burn more slowly, requiring more advanced ignition timing. It is important to have combustion spread by a thermal flame front (deflagration), not by a shock wave. Combustion propagation by a shock wave is called detonation and, in engines, is also known as pinging or knocking. Thermodynamics (from the Greek θερμη, therme, meaning heat and δυναμις, dynamis, meaning power) is a branch of physics that studies the effects of changes in temperature, pressure, and volume on physical systems at the macroscopic scale by analyzing the collective motion of their particles using statistics. ... A Carnot heat engine is a hypothetical engine that operates on the reversible Carnot cycle. ... Bold text The compression ratio is a single number that can be used to predict the performance of any engine (such as an internal-combustion engine or a Stirling Engine). ... For a fuel to oxidize, or burn, it must have a reagent or oxidizer with which it can react. ... For other uses, see Octane (disambiguation). ... Hexadecane, also called cetane, is an alkane hydrocarbon with the chemical formula CH3(CH2)14CH3. ... Ignition timing in an internal combustion engine is the process of setting the time that a spark will occur in the combustion chamber (during the power stroke) relative to piston position and crankshaft angular velocity. ... A log in a fire place. ... A weapons cache is detonated at the East River Range on Bagram Airfield, Afghanistan Detonation is a process of supersonic combustion in which a shock wave is propagated forward due to energy release in a reaction zone behind it. ... Knocking may refer to: Knocking, Austria, a city in Austria Knocking, a documentary about Jehovahs Witnesses Knocking may also call to mind: Engine knocking, or the sound accompanying automotive combustion malfunction This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ...


So, at least in gasoline-burning engines, ignition timing is largely a compromise between an earlier "advanced" spark—which gives greater efficiency with high octane fuel—and a later "retarded" spark, which avoids detonation with the fuel used. For this reason, high-performance diesel automobile proponents such as Gale Banks believe that

There’s only so far you can go with an air-throttled engine on 91-octane gasoline. In other words, it is the fuel, gasoline, that has become the limiting factor. ... While turbocharging has been applied to both gasoline and diesel engines, only limited boost can be added to a gasoline engine before the fuel octane level again becomes a problem. With a diesel, boost pressure is essentially unlimited. It is literally possible to run as much boost as the engine will physically stand before breaking apart. Consequently, engine designers have come to realize that diesels are capable of substantially more power and torque than any comparably sized gasoline engine. [4]

Fuel systems

Main article: Fuel injection
Animated cut through diagram of a typical fuel injector, a device used to deliver fuel to the internal combustion engine.

Fuels burn faster and more completely when they have lots of surface area in contact with oxygen. In order for an engine to work efficiently, the fuel must be vaporized into the incoming air in what is commonly referred to as a fuel/air mixture. There are two commonly used methods of vaporizing fuel into the air: one is the carburetor, and the other is fuel injection. // Fuel injection is a system of fuel delivery for mixture with air in an internal combustion engine. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 500 pixelsFull resolution (940 × 588 pixel, file size: 63 KB, MIME type: image/gif) Drawn by WikipedianProlific 28/7/2007 for the article on fuel injection and associated mechanical pages. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 500 pixelsFull resolution (940 × 588 pixel, file size: 63 KB, MIME type: image/gif) Drawn by WikipedianProlific 28/7/2007 for the article on fuel injection and associated mechanical pages. ... Bendix-Technico (Stromberg) 1-barrel downdraft carburetor model BXUV-3, with nomenclature A carburetor (North American spelling) or carburettor (Commonwealth spelling), is a device that blends air and fuel for an internal combustion engine. ...


Often, for simpler reciprocating engines, a carburetor is used to supply fuel into the cylinder. However, exact control of the correct amount of fuel supplied to the engine is impossible. Carburetors are the current most widespread fuel mixing device used in lawn mowers and other small engine applications. Prior to the mid-1980s, carburetors were also common in automobiles.


Larger gasoline engines such as used in automobiles have mostly moved to fuel injection systems (see Gasoline Direct Injection). Diesel engines always use fuel injection, because it is the fuel system that controls the ignition timing. Gasoline Direct injection or GDi is a variant of fuel injection employed in modern two- and four- stroke petrol engines. ... Diesel engines in a museum Diesel generator on an oil tanker A diesel engine is an internal combustion engine which operates using the Diesel cycle. ...


Autogas (LPG) engines use either fuel injection systems or open- or closed-loop carburetors. Autogas is the common name for liquified petroleum gas when it is used as a fuel in internal combustion engines in vehicles. ...


Other internal combustion engines like jet engines use burners, and rocket engines use various different ideas, including impinging jets, gas/liquid shear, preburners, and many other ideas. A Pratt and Whitney turbofan engine for the F-15 Eagle is tested at Robins Air Force Base, Georgia, USA. The tunnel behind the engine muffles noise and allows exhaust to escape. ...


[Fuel system movie flash][2]


Engine configuration

Internal combustion engines can be classified by their configuration , which affects their physical size and smoothness (with smoother engines producing less vibration). Common configurations include the straight or inline configuration, the more compact V configuration , and the wider but smoother flat or boxer configuration. Aircraft engines can also adopt a radial configuration , which allows more effective cooling. More unusual configurations, such as "H," "U," "X," or "W" have also been used. Engine configuration is an engineering term for the layout of the major components of an internal combustion engine. ... Oscillation is the variation, typically in time, of some measure about a central value (often a point of equilibrium) or between two or more different states. ... Usually found in 4 and 6 cylinder configurations, the straight engine (often designed as inline engine) is an internal-combustion engine with all cylinders aligned in one row, with no or only minimal offset. ... A V engine is a common configuration for an internal combustion engine. ... The Boxer engine, first patented by German engineer Karl Benz A flat engine is an internal combustion engine with pistons that are all relatively horizontal. ... The radial engine is an internal combustion engine configuration in which the cylinders point outward from a central crankshaft like the spokes on a wheel. ... An H engine (or H-block) is an engine configuration in which the cylinders are aligned so that if viewed from the front appear to be in a horizontal letter H. An H engine can be viewed as two flat engines, one atop the other. ... A U engine is a piston engine made up of two separate straight engine engines (complete with separate crankshafts) joined by gears. ... An X engine is a piston engine comprising twinned vee-block engines horizontally-opposed to each other. ... The W engine is an engine configuration in which the cylinder banks resemble the letter W in the same way a V engine resembles the letter V. There have been three entirely different implementations of this concept: one with three banks of cylinders, one with four and one with two...


Multiple-crankshaft configurations do not necessarily need a cylinder head at all, but can instead have a piston at each end of the cylinder, called an opposed piston design. This design was used in the Junkers Jumo 205 diesel aircraft engine, using two crankshafts, one at either end of a single bank of cylinders, and most remarkably in the Napier Deltic diesel engines, which used three crankshafts to serve three banks of double-ended cylinders arranged in an equilateral triangle with the crankshafts at the corners. It was also used in single-bank locomotive engines, and continues to be used for marine engines, both for propulsion and for auxiliary generators. The Gnome Rotary engine, used in several early aircraft, had a stationary crankshaft and a bank of radially arranged cylinders rotating around it. This article is about existing engine designs. ... The Junkers Jumo 205 aircraft engine was the most famous of a series of diesel engines that were the first, and for more than half a century, the only successful diesel aircraft engines. ... Napier Deltic powered British Rail Class 55 Alycidon, at the National Railway Museum, York, UK The term Deltic (meaning in the form of the Greek letter Delta) is used to refer to both the opposed piston high speed diesel engine designed and produced by Napier & Son, and the locomotives produced... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ...


Engine capacity

An engine's capacity is the displacement or swept volume by the pistons of the engine. It is generally measured in liters (L) or cubic inches (c.i.d. or cu in or in³) for larger engines and cubic centimeters (abbreviated cc) for smaller engines. Engines with greater capacities are usually more powerful and provide greater torque at lower rpm but also consume more fuel. One complete cycle of a four cylinder, four stroke engine. ... Engine displacement is defined as the total volume of air/fuel mixture an engine can draw in during one complete engine cycle; it is normally stated in cubic inches, cubic centimeters, or litres. ... The liter (spelled liter in American English and litre in Commonwealth English) is a unit of volume. ... A cubic inch is the volume of a cube which is one inch long on each edge. ... A cubic centimetre (cm3) is an SI derived unit of volume, equal to the volume of a cube with side length of 1 centimetre. ...


Apart from designing an engine with more cylinders, there are two ways to increase an engine's capacity. The first is to lengthen the stroke, and the second is to increase the piston's diameter (See also: Stroke ratio). In either case, it may be necessary to make further adjustments to the fuel intake of the engine to ensure optimal performance. Stroke ratio, bore/stroke ratio and stroke/bore ratio are terms that are used to describe the form of a piston engines cylinder when the piston is at the lowmost point. ...


Lubrication Systems

Internal combustions engines require lubrication in operation to allow moving parts to slide smoothly over each other. Insufficient lubrication will cause the engine to seize up. Lubrication occurs when opposing surfaces are separated by a lubricant film. ...


Several different types of lubrication systems are used. Simple two-stroke engines are lubricated by oil mixed into the fuel or injected into the induction stream as a spray. Early slow-speed stationary and marine engines were lubricated by gravity from small chambers, similar to those used on steam engines at the time, with an engine tender refilling these as needed. As engines were adapted for automotive and aircraft use, the need for a high power-to-weight ratio led to increased speeds, higher temperatures, and greater pressure on bearings, which in turn required pressure lubrication for crank bearings and connecting-rod journals, provided either by a direct lubrication from a pump or indirectly by a jet of oil directed at pickup cups on the connecting rod ends, which had the advantage of providing higher pressures as engine speed increased. Crankshaft (red), pistons (gray) in their cylinders (blue), and flywheel (black) Continental engine marine crankshafts, 1942 Components of a typical, four stroke cycle, DOHC piston engine. ... piston (top) and connecting rod from typical automotive engine (scale is in centimetres) Components of a typical, four stroke cycle, DOHC piston engine. ... A bogie from a railroad car. ...


Diagnosis

Main article: On Board Diagnostics

Engine On Board Diagnostics (also known as OBD) is a computerized system that allows for electronic diagnosis of a vehicle's powerplant. The first generation, known as OBD1, was introduced 10 years after the U.S. Congress passed the Clean Air Act in 1970 as a way to monitor a vehicle's fuel injection system. OBD2, the second generation of computerized on-board diagnostics, was codified and recommended by the California Air Resource Board in 1994 and became mandatory equipment aboard all vehicles sold in the United States as of 1996. On-Board Diagnostics, or OBD, in an automotive context, is a generic term referring to a vehicles self-diagnostic and reporting capability. ...


References

  1. ^ Physics In an Automotive Engine
  2. ^ Improving IC Engine Efficiency
  3. ^ Williams, Tony (2006). 101 Ingenious Kiwis. Reed Publishing (NZ) Ltd, pp.83. 
  4. ^ Diesel — The Performance Choice, Banks Talks Tech, 11.19.04

Bibliography

  • Singer, Charles Joseph; Raper, Richard, A History of Technology : The Internal Combustion Engine, edited by Charles Singer ... [et al.], Clarendon Press, 1954-1978. pp.157-176[3]
  • Hardenberg, Horst O., The Middle Ages of the Internal combustion Engine, Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE), 1999

See also

Energy Portal

Image File history File links Portal. ... William Barnett was a British inventor who, in 1838, applied for a patent for an internal combustion engine design. ... A dynamometer, or dyno for short, is a machine used to measure torque and rotational speed (rpm) from which power produced by an engine, motor or other rotating prime mover can be calculated. ... For battery powered passenger automobiles, see battery electric vehicle. ... An engine test stand is a facility used to develop, characterize and test engines. ... A heat pump is a machine or device that moves heat from one location (the source) to another location (the sink), using work. ... For other types of hybrid transportation, see Hybrid vehicle (disambiguation). ... An external combustion engine is an engine which burns its fuel to heat a separate working fluid which then in turn performs work. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... A thermodynamic cycle is a series of thermodynamic processes which returns a system to its initial state. ... An external combustion engine (EC engine) is a heat engine where an internal working fluid is heated, often from an external source, through the engine wall or a heat exchanger. ... For other uses, see Gas (disambiguation). ... In the physical sciences, a phase is a set of states of a macroscopic physical system that have relatively uniform chemical composition and physical properties (i. ... Illustration of a low temperature differential (LTD) hot air engine. ... The Brayton cycle is a constant-pressure cycle named after George Brayton (1830–1892), the American engineer who developed it. ... The Brayton cycle is a constant-pressure cycle named after George Brayton (1830–1892), the American engineer who developed it. ... The Carnot cycle is a particular thermodynamic cycle, modeled on the Carnot heat engine, studied by Nicolas Léonard Sadi Carnot in the 1820s and expanded upon by Benoit Paul Émile Clapeyron in the 1830s and 40s. ... This article or section seems not to be written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia entry. ... The Stirling engine is a type of hot air engine, invented in 1816 by the Rev. ... The 1919 Stoddard Engine. ... In the physical sciences, a phase is a set of states of a macroscopic physical system that have relatively uniform chemical composition and physical properties (i. ... The Kalina cycle is a thermodynamic cycle for converting thermal energy to mechanical power which utilizes working fluid comprised of at least two different components and a ratio between those components is varied in different parts of the system to increase thermodynamical reversibility and therefore increase overall thermodynamic efficiency. ... The Rankine cycle is a thermodynamic cycle. ... Unlike the traditional steam Rankine Cycle, the Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) uses a high molecular mass organic fluid. ... An internal combustion engine is an engine that is powered by the expansion of hot combustion products of fuel directly acting within an engine. ... The Atkinson cycle engine is a type of Internal combustion engine invented by James Atkinson in 1882. ... The Brayton cycle is a constant-pressure cycle named after George Brayton (1830–1892), the American engineer who developed it. ... The Diesel cycle is the combustion process of a type of reciprocating internal combustion engine, in which the fuel is ignited by the heat generated in first compressing air in the combustion chamber, into which is then injected the fuel, as opposed to it being ignited by a spark plug... The Lenoir cycle is an idealised thermodynamic cycle for the pulse jet engine. ... kill them In engineering, the Miller cycle is a combustion process used in a type of four-stroke internal combustion engine. ... The four-stroke cycle of an internal combustion engine is the cycle most commonly used for automotive and industrial purposes today ( cars and trucks, generators, etc). ... A combined cycle is characteristic of a power producing engine or plant that employs more than one thermodynamic cycle. ... Dual Combustion Cycle(Also known as limited pressure cycle or mixed cycle) is a combination of Otto Cycle and Diesel Cycle, in a way , that heat is added partly at constant volume and partly at constant pressure. ...

External links

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Car redirects here. ... Air filter in an Opel Astra car, top side=clean side Air filter in an Opel Astra car, bottom side=dust side Automotive air filter clogged with dust and debris. ... An air-fuel ratio meter is a meter that monitors the air-fuel ratio of an internal combustion engine. ... Automatic Performance Control (APC) is a system that was introduced on turbo charged Saab H engines in 1982. ... A blowoff valve is a pressure release system present in turbocharged engines, its purpose is to prevent compressor surge and reduce wear on the engine. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Manifold_absolute_pressure. ... A boost controller is a device in a turbocharged or supercharged car that regulates boost pressure. ... A butterfly valve is a type of flow control device, typically used to regulate a fluid flowing through a section of pipe. ... Bendix-Technico (Stromberg) 1-barrel downdraft carburetor model BXUV-3, with nomenclature A carburetor (North American spelling) or carburettor (Commonwealth spelling), is a device that blends air and fuel for an internal combustion engine. ... A charge cooler system is a type of intercooler where the cooler uses a form of heat exchanger in line with the turbo, this cools the charge air temperature before entering the engine. ... Cover of Hot Rod magazine showing Ford Flathead V8 engine with centrifugal supercharger (on top) The centrifugal type supercharger is practically identical in operation to a turbocharger, with the exception that instead of exhaust gases driving an impeller, there is only a compressor housing, and that is driven from the... A short ram intake installed in a 2. ... In automotive electronics, an electronic control unit (ECU) is an embedded microcomputer that controls one or more of the electrical subsystems in a vehicle. ... An engine control unit (ECU) is an electronic control unit which controls various aspects of an internal combustion engines operation. ... Forced induction is a term used to describe internal combustion engines that are not naturally aspirated. ... Front mounted intercooler, an IC mount position, which involves mounting the intercooler at the front of the engine, usually in the bumper. ... Found in most internal combustion engines, a fuel filter is a filter in the fuel line that screens out dirt and rust particles from the fuel. ... // Fuel injection is a system of fuel delivery for mixture with air in an internal combustion engine. ... mechanical fuel pump, fitted to cylinder head Electric fuel pump Petro-Canada Fuel Pump used to transfer fuel at a gas station. ... For other uses, see Tank (disambiguation). ... Gasoline Direct injection or GDi is a variant of fuel injection employed in modern two- and four- stroke petrol engines. ... In an internal combustion engine, the term indirect injection refers to a fuel injection where fuel is not directly injected into the combustion chamber. ... An intake is an air intake for an engine. ... For the Australian rock group, see Intercooler (band). ... Left side of a Ford Cologne V6 engine, clearly showing a (rusty) cast iron exhaust manifold - three exhaust ports into one pipe. ... Manifold vacuum, or engine vacuum in an internal combustion engine is the difference in air pressure between the engines intake manifold and Earths atmosphere. ... A mass flow sensor responds to the amount of a fluid (usually a gas) flowing through a chamber containing the sensor. ... A naturally-aspirated engine or normally-aspirated engine (NA - aspiration meaning breathing) refers to an internal combustion engine (normally petrol or diesel powered) that is neither turbocharged nor supercharged. ... For the American composer, see Walter Piston. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... An animation of the operation of a scroll-type supercharger. ... The introduction of this article does not provide enough context for readers unfamiliar with the subject. ... A supercharger (or blower ) is a gas compressor that forces more air into the combustion chamber(s) of an internal combustion engine than is achievable with ambient atmospheric pressure (as seen in a naturally-aspirated engine, see forced induction). ... Throttle body showing throttle position sensor The throttle body is usually located between the air filter box and the intake manifold, and usually attached to, or near, the mass airflow sensor. ... A top mounted intercooler (TMIC) is an automotive intercooler mounted within the engine bay, above the engine. ... Turbo redirects here. ... Turbo Direct Injection (TDI) is the technology used for modern Diesel engines produced by Volkswagen Group, and is widely used in passenger cars produced by the company (especially those sold in Europe). ... Twin-Turbo, also called bi-turbo by some, refers to a turbocharged engine on which two turbochargers compress the intake charge. ... Variable Length Intake Manifold (VLIM) is an automobile engine manifold technology. ... The Variable geometry turbocharger (VGT) exists in several forms, usually designed to allow the effective A/R ratio of the turbo to be altered as the conditions change. ... A warm air intake, or WAI, is a system to decrease the amount of air going into a car for the purpose of decreasing the fuel efficiency of the internal-combustion engine. ... Automobile exhaust Exhaust gas is flue gas which occurs as a result of the combustion of fuels such as natural gas, gasoline/petrol, diesel, fuel oil or coal. ... Catalytic converter on a Dodge Ram Van. ... Vehicle emissions inspection station Automobile emissions control covers all the technologies that are employed to reduce the air pollution-causing emissions produced by automobiles. ... An exhaust pipe is usually a pipe used to guide waste exhaust gases away from a controlled combustion inside an engine or stove. ... Exhaust pipe of a car An exhaust pipe is usually tubing used to guide waste exhaust gases away from a controlled combustion inside an engine or stove. ... A glasspack is a kind of automobile muffler in which the exhaust gas passes straight through the center of the muffler. ... This article is about the engine piece. ... // An oxygen sensor is an electronic device that measures the proportion of oxygen (O2) in the gas or liquid being analyzed. ... Aircooling (also: air cooling) is one method of dissipating heat. ... For other uses, see Antifreeze (disambiguation). ... Ethylene glycol (monoethylene glycol (MEG), IUPAC name: ethane-1,2-diol) is an alcohol with two -OH groups (a diol), a chemical compound widely used as an automotive antifreeze. ... Not to be confused with radiata. ... Bi-metallic thermostat for buildings A thermostat is a device for regulating the temperature of a system so that the systems temperature is maintained near a desired setpoint temperature. ... The ignition system of an internal-combustion engine is an important part of the overall engine system that provides for the timely burning of the fuel mixture within the engine. ... An automobile self-starter is an electric motor that initiates piston motion in a cars internal combustion engine before it can power itself. ... Lead-acid car battery A car battery is a type of rechargeable battery that supplies electric energy to an automobile[1]. Usually this refers to a SLI battery (Starting - Lighting - Ignition) to power the starter motor, the lights and the ignition system of a vehicle’s engine. ... Breaker arm with contact points at the left. ... Distributor cap. ... An automotive (ignition system) ballast resistor An electrical ballast (sometimes called control gear) is a device intended to limit the amount of current flowing in an electric circuit. ... An ignition coil (also called a spark coil) is an electrical device in a automobiles ignition system which transforms a storage batterys 12 volts to the thousands of volts needed to spark the spark plugs. ... A valve-regulated, sometimes called sealed, lead acid battery Lead-acid batteries, invented in 1859 by French physicist Gaston Planté, are the oldest type of rechargeable battery. ... This article is about the engine component. ... The term spark-ignition is normally used to refer to internal combustion engines where the fuel-air mixture is ignited with a spark. ... This article or section should include material from Spark gap A spark plug is an electrical device that fits into the cylinder head of some internal combustion engines and ignites compressed aerosol gasoline by means of an electric spark. ... Balance shaft in Ford Taunus V4 engine. ... A block heater is an electric heater that heats the engine of a car. ... A crank is a bent portion of an axle, or shaft, or an arm keyed at right angles to the end of a shaft, by which motion is imparted to or received from it; also used to change circular into reciprocating motion, or reciprocating into circular motion. ... For other uses, see CAM. Animation showing rotating cams and cam followers producing reciprocating motion. ... For the fictional characters of the same name, see Camshaft (Transformers). ... piston (top) and connecting rod from typical automotive engine (scale is in centimetres) Components of a typical, four stroke cycle, DOHC piston engine. ... A combustion chamber is part of an engine in which fuel is burned. ... Piston and connecting rod from an automobile engine, showing the big end bearing at the bottom. ... Crankshaft (red), pistons (gray) in their cylinders (blue), and flywheel (black) Continental engine marine crankshafts, 1942 Components of a typical, four stroke cycle, DOHC piston engine. ... A crossflow cylinder head is a cylinder head that features the intake and exhaust ports on opposite sides. ... The crossplane or cross-plane is a crankshaft design for V8 engines with a 90° angle between the cylinder banks. ... Desmodromic poppet valve // Desmodromic valves are those which are positively closed by a cam and leverage system, rather than relying on the more conventional valve springs to close them. ... Knocking (also called pinking or pinging)— colloquially detonation—in internal combustion engines occurs when air/fuel mixture in the cylinder detonates or ignites prior to the timed pre-set conditions in the engines cylinder(s). ... Bold text The compression ratio is a single number that can be used to predict the performance of any engine (such as an internal-combustion engine or a Stirling Engine). ... A crank sensor is a component used in an engine (or occasionally on a bicycle) to monitor crank position and/or rotational speed. ... Cylinder with piston in a steam engine A cylinder in the central working part of a reciprocating engine, the space in which a piston travels. ... Piston engines are typically arranged with their pistons in rows, moving inside individual cylinders. ... The cylinder block of a Ford I4 DOHC engine The cylinder block or engine block is a machined casting (or sometimes an assembly of modules) containing cylindrically bored holes for the pistons of a multi-cylinder reciprocating internal combustion engine, or for a similarly constructed device such as a pump. ... The cylinder head from a GMC van. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Dump valves are fitted to the engines of (usually older) turbo charged cars and sit between the turbo outlet and the throttle body. ... Engine balance is the design, construction and tuning of an engine to run smoothly. ... Spin-on oil filter beneath the engine of a Saab 9-5 (2005) Cartridge oil filter for use on a 2006 Volvo S40 An oil filter is a device used to decontaminate oil that contains suspended impurities. ... The firing order is the sequence of sparking of the spark plugs in a reciprocating engine, or the sequence of fuel injection in each cylinder in a Diesel engine. ... Freeze plug is a misnomer for core plug or expansion plug. ... Some seals and gaskets 1. ... Different kinds of gaskets, #4 indicating a V4 head gasket. ... Hypereutectic pistons are cast internal combustion engine pistons made from aluminum with over 16% silicon content for strength and durability. ... In automotive terminology, a hydrolock (short for hydraulic lock) is the immobilization of an engines pistons by a liquid (usually water, hence the prefix hydro-). Hydrolocking occurs when liquid fills a cylinder on the intake stroke and, due to the incompressibility of a liquid, makes the compression stroke impossible. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... In a piston engine, the main bearings are the bearings on which the crankshaft rotates. ... A typical container of motor oil, with some in a glass. ... In automotive engineering, an engine is referred to as multi-valve (or multivalve) when each cylinder has more than two valves. ... Numerous late-model piston engines from many manufacturers have suffered from failures due to oil sludge contamination. ... A cylinder head sliced in half shows two overhead camshafts—one above each of the two valves. ... OHV redirects here. ... The Positive Crankcase Ventilation valve, or PCV Valve, is a one-way valve that ensures continual refreshment of the air inside a gasoline internal combustion engines crankcase. ... For the American composer, see Walter Piston. ... Spring-loaded piston rings. ... Pneumatic Valve Gear uses compressed air to spring valves closed in high-revving types of internal combustion engine. ... A poppet valve is a valve consisting of a hole, usually round or oval, and a tapered plug, usually a disk shape on the end of a shaft also called a valve stem. ... The power band of an engine refers to the range of operating speeds under which the engine is able to operate efficiently. ... Tachometer showing red lines above 14,000 rpm. ... A reverse-flow cylinder head is a cylinder head that locates the intake and exhaust ports on the same side of the engine. ... rocker arm This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... Compression seal example A mechanical seal is a device which helps join systems or mechanisms together by preventing leakage (e. ... piston engine Bristol Perseus The sleeve valve is a type of valve mechanism for piston engines which have traditionally relied on the more common poppet valve. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... Mobil 1 synthetic motor oil Synthetic oil is oil consisting of chemical compounds which were not originally present in crude oil (petroleum) but were artificially made (synthesized) from other compounds. ... In mechanical engineering, a tappet is a projection which imparts a linear motion to some other component within an assembly. ... Timing belt A timing belt, timing chain or cam belt is a part of an internal combustion engine that controls the timing of the engines valves. ... Timing mark on pulley at 6° before TDC. A timing mark is a mark used for setting the timing of the ignition system of an engine, typically found on the crankshaft pulley (as pictured) or the flywheel, being the largest radius rotating at crankshaft speed and therefore the place where... Look up top dead center in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... An Underdrive pulley refers to an aftermarket crankshaft or accessory pulley (such as an alternator pulley) that is designed to drive a vehicles accessories at a slower rate than stock. ... Valve float is a condition which occurs when the valves on an internal combustion engine do not return to the fully closed position under high rpms due to valve springs incapable of overcoming the momentum of the valvetrain. ... Variable valve timing, or VVT, is a generic term for an automobile piston engine technology. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Internal-Combustion Engine - MSN Encarta (1602 words)
Four principal types of internal-combustion engines are in general use: the Otto-cycle engine, the diesel engine, the rotary engine, and the gas turbine.
The Otto-cycle engine, named after its inventor, the German technician Nikolaus August Otto, is the familiar gasoline engine used in automobiles and airplanes; the diesel engine, named after the French-born German engineer Rudolf Christian Karl Diesel, operates on a different principle and usually uses oil as a fuel.
The fourth stroke, as in the Otto-cycle engine, is an exhaust stroke.
Internal combustion engine - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (4128 words)
The internal combustion engine is a heat engine in which the burning of a fuel occurs in a confined space called a combustion chamber.
Internal combustion engines can be classified by their configuration which affects their physical size and smoothness (with smoother engines producing less vibration).
An engine's capacity is the displacement or swept volume by the pistons of the engine.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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