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Encyclopedia > Intermediate Range Nuclear Forces Treaty
U.S. President Reagan and Soviet General Secretary Gorbachev signing the INF Treaty, 1987.

The Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces (INF) Treaty was an agreement between the United States and the Soviet Union signed in Washington, D.C. on December 8, 1987 by President Ronald Reagan and General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev. It was ratified by the United States Senate on May 27, 1988 and came into force on June 1 of that year. Image File history File links Reagan_and_Gorbachev_signing. ... Image File history File links Reagan_and_Gorbachev_signing. ... December 8 is the 342nd day (343rd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Ronald Wilson Reagan (February 6, 1911 – June 5, 2004) was the 40th President of the United States (1981 – 1989) and the 33rd Governor of California (1967 – 1975). ... Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev (Russian: ), surname more accurately romanized as Gorbachyov; born March 2, 1931) is a Russian politician. ... Seal of the U.S. Senate Federal courts Supreme Court Chief Justice Associate Justices Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures State Courts Counties, Cities, and Towns Other countries Politics Portal      Senate composition following 2006 elections The United States Senate is... May 27 is the 147th day (148th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 218 days remaining. ... 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... June 1 is the 152nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (153rd in leap years), with 213 days remaining. ...


The treaty eliminated nuclear and conventional ground-launched ballistic and cruise missiles with ranges of 500 to 5,500 kilometers (300-3,400 miles). By the treaty's deadline of June 1, 1991, a total of 2,692 of such weapons had been destroyed, 846 by the U.S. and 1846 by the Soviet Union. Also under the treaty, both nations were allowed to inspect each other's military installations. The full title of the agreement is The Treaty Between the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics on the Elimination of Their Intermediate-Range and Shorter-Range Missiles. The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 kilometers (11 mi) above the hypocenter. ... Diagram of V-2, the first ballistic missile. ... A Taurus KEPD 350 cruise missile of the Luftwaffe A cruise missile is a guided missile which uses a lifting wing and most often a jet propulsion system to allow sustained flight. ... Exocet missile in flight A missile (see also pronunciation differences) is a projectile propelled as a weapon at a target. ... June 1 is the 152nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (153rd in leap years), with 213 days remaining. ... 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Contents

History

The agreement was stimulated by the Soviet deployment of their SS-20 missile from 1975 and the US response. The SS-20 replaced existing SS-4 and SS-5 missiles. The longer range, greater accuracy, mobility and striking power of the new missile was perceived to alter the security of Western Europe. After discussions, NATO agreed to a two part strategy - firstly to pursue arms control negotiations with the Soviet Union to reduce their and the American INF arsenals; secondly to deploy in Europe from 1983 up to 464 ground-launched cruise missiles (GLCM) and 108 Pershing II ballistic missiles. The RT-21M Pioneer was a medium-range ballistic missile with a nuclear warhead deployed by the Soviet Union from 1976 to 1988. ... The R-12 Dvina was a theatre ballistic missile developed and deployed by the Soviet Union during the Cold War. ... The R-14 Usovaya was a theatre ballistic missile developed by the Soviet Union during the Cold War. ... NATO 2002 Summit in Prague. ... A Taurus KEPD 350 cruise missile of the Luftwaffe A cruise missile is a guided missile which uses a lifting wing and most often a jet propulsion system to allow sustained flight. ... The Ground Launched Cruise Missile, or GLCM, (designated BGM-109G, and commonly called Gryphon) was the US Air Forces answer to the portable medium range nuclear missiles deployed by the Soviet Union in Eastern Bloc European countries during the latter years of the Cold War. ... The Pershing II Missile during a test flight The MGM-31 Pershing was a solid-fueled two-stage inertially guided medium range ballistic missile used by the U.S. Armys Missile Command. ...


Despite dissatisfaction with the deployment of US weapons in Europe, the Soviet Union agreed to open negotiations and preliminary discussions began in Geneva in 1980. Formal talks began in September 1981 with the US "zero-zero offer" - the complete elimination of all Pershing, GLCM, SS-20, SS-4 and SS-5 missiles. Following disagreement over the exclusion of British and French delivery systems, the talks were suspended by the Soviet delegation in November, 1983. In 1984, despite public protest, the US began to deploy INF systems in West Germany, Italy, and the United Kingdom. The Ground Launched Cruise Missile, or GLCM, (designated BGM-109G, and commonly called Gryphon) was the US Air Forces answer to the portable medium range nuclear missiles deployed by the Soviet Union in Eastern Bloc European countries during the latter years of the Cold War. ...


In March 1985 negotiations between the US and the Soviet Union resumed, covering not only the INF issue but also separate discussions on strategic weapons (START) and space issues (NST). In late 1985 both sides were moving towards limiting INF systems in Europe and Asia. On January 15, 1986, Gorbachev announced a Soviet proposal for a ban on all nuclear weapons by 2000, which included INF missiles in Europe. This was dismissed by the US and countered with a phased reduction of INF launchers in Europe and Asia to none by 1989. There would be no constraints on British and French nuclear forces. Look up start in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... January 15 is the 15th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...


A series of meetings in August and September 1986 culminated in a summit between Reagan and Gorbachev in Reykjavik, Iceland, on October 11 1986. To the immense surprise of both men's advisors the two agreed in principle to removing INF systems from Europe and to equal global limits of 100 INF missile warheads. Gorbachev also proposed deeper and more fundamental changes in the strategic relationship. The Reykjavik Summit was a summit between Ronald Reagan and Mikhail Gorbachev held in Reykjavik on October 11, 1986. ... October 11 is the 284th day of the year (285th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


More detailed negotiations extended throughout 1987, aided by the decision of Helmut Kohl in August to unilaterally remove the joint US-German Pershing IA systems in his country. The treaty text was finally agreed in September 1987. Helmut Josef Michael Kohl (born April 3, 1930) is a German conservative politician and statesman. ...


On February 10, 2007, Russian President Vladimir Putin declared that the INF Treaty no longer serves Russia's interests. On February 14, 2007, ITAR-Tass and Interfax quoted Gen. Yuri Baluyevsky, the chief of the Russian military's General Staff, as saying that Russia could pull out of the INF, and that the decision would depend on the United States' actions with its proposed missile defense system, parts of which the U.S. plans to deploy in Poland and the Czech Republic. Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin (Russian: ) (born October 7, 1952) is the incumbent President of Russia. ...


Affected programs

Specific missiles destroyed:

  • United States
    • Pershing Ib
    • Pershing II
    • BGM-109 Tomahawk (Ground-launched version only)
  • Soviet Union
    • SS-4 'Sandal'
    • SS-5 'Skean'
    • SS-12 'Scaleboard'
    • SS-23 'Spider'
    • SS-20 'Saber'
    • SSC-X-4

Pershing was a family of solid-fueled two-stage medium-range ballistic missiles designed and built by Martin Marietta to replace the PGM-11 Redstone missile as the Armys primary theater-level weapon. ... Pershing was a family of solid-fueled two-stage medium-range ballistic missiles designed and built by Martin Marietta to replace the PGM-11 Redstone missile as the Armys primary theater-level weapon. ... The Tomahawk Land Attack Missile (TLAM) is a long-range, all-weather, subsonic cruise missile with stubby wings. ... The R-12 Dvina was a theatre ballistic missile developed and deployed by the Soviet Union during the Cold War. ... The R-14 Usovaya was a theatre ballistic missile developed by the Soviet Union during the Cold War. ... The TR-1 Temp was a mobile theatre ballistic missile developed and deployed by the Soviet Union during the Cold War. ... The R-400 Oka (Russian: ; named after Oka River) was a mobile theatre ballistic missile deployed by the Soviet Union near the end of the Cold War. ... The RT-21M Pioneer was a medium-range ballistic missile with a nuclear warhead deployed by the Soviet Union from 1976 to 1988. ... The Raduga Kh-55 Granat (Russian: (Pomegranate), NATO reporting name AS-15 Kent) is a Soviet/CIS subsonic long-range cruise missile capable of delivering a nuclear warhead. ...

See also

Hollanditis was a term coined in 1981 by the American historian Walter Laqueur. ... Woensdrecht is a municipality and a town in the southern Netherlands. ... The NATO Double-Track Decision is the decision of the NATO from December 12, 1979 to offer the Warsaw Pact a mutual limitation of Medium-range ballistic missiles and Intermediate-range ballistic missiles combined with the threat that in case of disagreement the NATO would deploy more middle range nuclear...

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