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Encyclopedia > Interlingua
Interlingua  
Logo:
Interlingua Logo
 
Pronunciation: /inteɾˈliŋɡwa/
Created by: International Auxiliary Language Association  1951 
Setting and usage: Scientific registration of international vocabulary; international auxiliary language
Total speakers: unknown
Category (purpose): international auxiliary language
 Interlingua
 
Writing system: Latin alphabet 
Category (sources): English, French, Italian, Portuguese, Spanish, German, Russian and Latin 
Regulated by: no regulating body
Language codes
ISO 639-1: ia
ISO 639-2: ina
ISO 639-3: ina

Interlingua is an international auxiliary language (IAL) published in 1951 by the International Auxiliary Language Association (IALA). It is the most widely used naturalistic auxiliary language.[1] Interlingua was developed to combine a very simple grammar[2][3] with a vocabulary consisting of words that are common to the widest possible range of languages.[4] Interlingua is unusual for being immediately understandable to populations numbering in the hundreds of millions. Conversely, it can be – and is – used as an introduction to similar natural languages.[1] An international auxiliary language (sometimes abbreviated as IAL or auxlang) is a language used (or to be used in the future) for communication between people from different nations who do not share a common native language. ... The International Auxiliary Language Association that existed from 1924 to 1954 was a notable proponent of international auxiliary languages. ... Interlingua may be one of the following: IALA Interlingua, a constructed language developed by the International Auxiliary Language Association. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... The International Auxiliary Language Association that existed from 1924 to 1954 was a notable proponent of international auxiliary languages. ... Year 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... An international auxiliary language (sometimes abbreviated as IAL or auxlang) is a language used (or to be used in the future) for communication between people from different nations who do not share a common native language. ... An international auxiliary language (sometimes abbreviated as IAL or auxlang) is a language used (or to be used in the future) for communication between people from different nations who do not share a common native language. ... Writing systems of the world today. ... The Latin alphabet, also called the Roman alphabet, is the most widely used alphabetic writing system in the world today. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... ISO 639-1 is the first part of the ISO 639 international-standard language-code family. ... ISO 639-2 is the second part of the ISO 639 standard, which lists codes for the representation of the names of languages. ... ISO 639-3 is an international standard for language codes. ... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... The Unicode Standard, Version 5. ... An international auxiliary language (sometimes abbreviated as IAL or auxlang) is a language used (or to be used in the future) for communication between people from different nations who do not share a common native language. ... Year 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The International Auxiliary Language Association that existed from 1924 to 1954 was a notable proponent of international auxiliary languages. ... An international auxiliary language (sometimes abbreviated as IAL or auxlang) is a language used (or to be used in the future) for communication between people from different nations who do not share a common native language. ...

Contents

Etymology

The name Interlingua comes from the Latin words inter, meaning between, and lingua, meaning tongue or language. Thus, Interlingua would be "between language".


Rationale

Areas where a Romance language is commonly spoken are coloured on the map. Interlingua should be readily comprehensible to at least a large part of the more than 600 million native Romance speakers alone.
Areas where a Romance language is commonly spoken are coloured on the map. Interlingua should be readily comprehensible to at least a large part of the more than 600 million native Romance speakers alone.

The expansive movements of science, technology, trade, diplomacy, and the arts, combined with the historical dominance of the Greek and Latin languages have resulted in a large common vocabulary among Western languages. With Interlingua an objective procedure is used to extract and standardize the most widespread word or words for a concept found in a set of control languages: English, French, Italian, Spanish and Portuguese, with German and Russian as secondary references. Words from any language are eligible for inclusion, so long as their internationality is shown by their presence in these control languages. Hence, Interlingua includes such diverse word forms as Japanese geisha and samurai, Arabic califa, Aboriginal kanguru, and Finnish sauna.[4][5] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1357x628, 42 KB) Summary Romance languages in the World Blue - French Green - Spanish Orange - Portuguese Yellow - Italian Red - Romanian Compilation of Image:Map_Italophone_World. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1357x628, 42 KB) Summary Romance languages in the World Blue - French Green - Spanish Orange - Portuguese Yellow - Italian Red - Romanian Compilation of Image:Map_Italophone_World. ... Latin was the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Arabic redirects here. ... Languages Several hundred Indigenous Australian languages (many extinct or nearly so), Australian English, Australian Aboriginal English, Torres Strait Creole, Kriol Religions Primarily Christian, with minorities of other religions including various forms of Traditional belief systems based around the Dreamtime Related ethnic groups see List of Indigenous Australian group names Indigenous...


Interlingua combines this pre-existing vocabulary with a minimal grammar based on the control languages. People with a good knowledge of a Romance language, or a smattering of a Romance language plus a good knowledge of the international scientific vocabulary can frequently understand it immediately on reading or hearing it. Educated speakers of English also enjoy this easy comprehension.[6] The immediate comprehension of Interlingua, in turn, makes it unusually easy to learn. Speakers of other languages can also learn to speak and write Interlingua in a short time, thanks to its simple grammar and regular word formation using a small number of roots and affixes.[7] The Romance languages, also called Romanic languages, are a subfamily of the Italic languages, specifically the descendants of the Vulgar Latin dialects spoken by the common people evolving in different areas after the break-up of the Roman Empire. ... International Scientific Vocabulary (or ISV) is a form of vocabulary comprising scientific words whose language of origin may or may not be certain, but which are in current use in several modern languages among scientists. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... See Language (journal) for the linguistics journal. ... For other uses, see Root (disambiguation). ... Look up affix in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Once learned, Interlingua can be used to learn other related languages quickly and easily, and in some studies, even to understand them immediately. Research with Swedish students has shown that, after learning Interlingua, they can translate elementary texts from Italian, Portuguese, and Spanish. In one 1974 study, an Interlingua class translated a Spanish text that students who had taken 150 hours of Spanish found too difficult to understand. Gopsill[1] has suggested that Interlingua's freedom from irregularities allowed the students to grasp quickly the mechanisms of language.[8]


Words in Interlingua retain their natural form; they are never distorted to fit a pre-existing grammar or set of rules. Each word retains its normal spelling, pronunciation, and meanings. For this reason, Interlingua is frequently termed a naturalistic IAL.


History

The History of Interlingua began in the 1920s and concerns the formation of the language itself as well as its community of speakers. ...

International Auxiliary Language Association

One of the many unofficial logo designs created for Interlingua, displaying the main logo with a "control language" flag montage below.
One of the many unofficial logo designs created for Interlingua, displaying the main logo with a "control language" flag montage below.

The American heiress Alice Vanderbilt Morris (1874–1950) became interested in linguistics and the international auxiliary language movement in the early 1920s, and in 1924, Morris and her husband, Dave Hennen Morris, established the non-profit International Auxiliary Language Association (IALA) in New York City. Their aim was to place the study of IALs on a scientific basis. Morris developed the research program of IALA in consultation with Edward Sapir, William Edward Collinson, and Otto Jespersen.[9] Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 418 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1394 × 2000 pixel, file size: 237 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) I, the copyright holder of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 418 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1394 × 2000 pixel, file size: 237 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) I, the copyright holder of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Alice Vanderbilt Morris (1874 - 1950), born Alice Vanderbilt Shepard, was the daughter of Elliot Fitch Shepard (1833-1893) and Margaret Louisa Vanderbilt (1845-1924). ... Linguistics is the scientific study of language, which can be theoretical or applied. ... An international auxiliary language (sometimes abbreviated as IAL or auxlang) is a language used (or to be used in the future) for communication between people from different nations who do not share a common native language. ... For the rap album, see 1924 (album). ... Dave Hennen Morris (24 April 1872-4 May 1944) was born in New Orleans to Cora Hennen and John A. Morris. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... Edward Sapir (IPA: ), (January 26, 1884 – February 4, 1939) was an American anthropologist-linguist, a leader in American structural linguistics, and one of the creators of what is now called the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis. ... Dr. William Edward Collinson directed the International Auxiliary Language Association (IALA) from 1936 to 1939. ... Jens Otto Harry Jespersen or Otto Jespersen (July 16, 1860-April 30, 1943) was a Danish linguist who specialized in the grammar of the English language. ...


In its early years, IALA concerned itself with three tasks: finding other organizations around the world with similar goals; building a library of books about languages and interlinguistics; and comparing extant IALs, including Esperanto, Esperanto II, Ido, Latino Sine Flexione, Novial, and Occidental. In pursuit of the last goal, it conducted parallel studies of these languages, with comparative studies of national languages, under the direction of scholars at American and European universities.[10] It also arranged conferences with proponents of these IALs, debating features and goals of their representative languages. With a "concession rule" that required participants to make a certain number of concessions, early debates at IALA sometimes grew from heated to explosive.[1] Interlinguistics is the study of various aspects of international communication. ... This article is about the language. ... Esperanto II was a reform of Esperanto proposed by René de Saussure in 1937, the last of a long series of such proposals beginning with his 1907 reform proposal Antido. ... Ido (pronounced ) is a constructed language created with the goal of becoming a universal second language for speakers of different linguistic backgrounds as a language easier to learn than ethnic languages. ... Latino sine flexione (Latin without inflections) is an auxiliary language invented by the mathematician Giuseppe Peano in 1903. ... Novial [nov- (new) + IAL, International Auxiliary Language] is a constructed international auxiliary language (IAL) intended to facilitate international communication and friendship, without displacing anyones native language. ... The language Occidental, later Interlingue, is a planned language created by the Baltogerman naval officer and teacher Edgar de Wahl and published in 1922. ...


In 1933, Professor Herbert N. Shenton of Syracuse University organized an intensive study of the problems encountered with interlanguages when used in international conferences. Later that same year, Dr. Edward L. Thorndike published a paper about the relative learning speeds of "natural" and "modular" constructed languages. Both Shenton and Thorndike were major influences on IALA's work from then on.[10] Herbert Newhard Shenton was a professor of Sociology at Columbia University and later at Syracuse University in New York. ... Syracuse University (SU) is a private nonsectarian research university located in Syracuse, New York. ... Edward Lee Thorndike (August 31, 1874 - August 9, 1949) was an American psychologist whose work on animal behaviour and the learning process led to the theory of connectionism. ...


The first steps towards the finalization of Interlingua were taken in 1937, when a committee of 24 eminent linguists from 19 universities published Some Criteria for an International Language and Commentary. However, the outbreak of World War II in 1939 cut short the intended biannual meetings of the committee.[1] Year 1937 (MCMXXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Development of a new language

Originally, the association had not set out to create its own language. Its goal was to identify which auxiliary language already available was best suited for international communication, and how to promote it most effectively. However, after ten years of research, more and more members of IALA concluded that none of the existing interlanguages were up to the task. By 1937, the members had made the decision to create a new language, to the surprise of the world's interlanguage community. An interlanguage is an emerging linguistic system that has been developed by a learner of a second language who has not become fully proficient yet, but is only approximating the target language: preserving some features of their first language in speaking or writing the target language and creating innovations. ... Year 1937 (MCMXXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


To that point, much of the debate had been equivocal on the decision to use naturalistic (e.g., Novial and Occidental) or systematic (e.g., Esperanto and Ido) words. During the war years, proponents of a naturalistic interlanguage won out. The first support was Dr. Thorndike's paper; the second was a concession by proponents of the systematic languages that thousands of words were already present in many – or even a majority – of the European languages. Their argument was that systematic derivation of words was a Procrustian bed, forcing the learner to unlearn and re-memorize a new derivation scheme when a usable vocabulary was already available. This finally convinced supporters of the systematic languages, and IALA from that point assumed the position that a naturalistic language would be best. Novial [nov- (new) + IAL, International Auxiliary Language] is a constructed international auxiliary language (IAL) intended to facilitate international communication and friendship, without displacing anyones native language. ... The language Occidental, later Interlingue, is a planned language created by the Baltogerman naval officer and teacher Edgar de Wahl and published in 1922. ... This article is about the language. ... Ido (pronounced ) is a constructed language created with the goal of becoming a universal second language for speakers of different linguistic backgrounds as a language easier to learn than ethnic languages. ... In Greek mythology, Procrustes (the stretcher), also known as Damastes (subduer) and Polypemon (harming much), was a bandit from Attica. ...


At the outbreak of World War II, IALA's research activities were moved from Liverpool to New York, where E. Clark Stillman established a new research staff. Stillman, with the assistance of Dr. Alexander Gode, developed a prototyping technique – an objective methodology for selecting and standardizing vocabulary based on a comparison of control languages. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Ezra Clark Stillman (1907-1995) laid out the criteria for extracting and standardizing the vocabulary of Interlingua. ... Alexander Gottfried Friedrich Gode-von-Aesch or simply Alexander Gode (October 30, 1906 in Bremen - August 10, 1970 in Mount Kisco, New York) was a German-American linguist, translator and the driving force behind the creation of the constructed language Interlingua. ...


In 1943 Stillman left for war work and Gode became Acting Director of Research. In 1945, IALA published a General Report – largely Morris's work – which presented three models for IALA's language: Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ...

  • Model P was a naturalistic model that made no attempt to regularize the prototyped vocabulary.
  • Model E was lightly schematicized along the lines of Occidental.
  • Model K was moderately schematicized along the lines of Ido (i.e., somewhat less schematicized than Esperanto).

From 1946 to 1948, the renowned French linguist André Martinet was Director of Research. During this period IALA continued to develop models and conducted polling to determine the optimal form of the final language. An initial survey gauged reactions to the three models of 1945. In 1946, IALA sent an extensive survey to more than 3,000 language teachers and related professionals on three continents. The language Occidental, later Interlingue, is a planned language created by the Baltogerman naval officer and teacher Edgar de Wahl and published in 1922. ... Ido (pronounced ) is a constructed language created with the goal of becoming a universal second language for speakers of different linguistic backgrounds as a language easier to learn than ethnic languages. ... This article is about the language. ... Year 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the 1948 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... André Martinet (Saint-Alban-des-Villards, 12 April 1908 - Ch�tay-Malabry, 16 July 1999) was a French linguist who was influential for his work on structural linguistics. ...


The vocabulary and grammar of Interlingua were first presented in 1951, when IALA published the finalized Interlingua Grammar and the 27,000-word Interlingua-English Dictionary (IED). In 1954, IALA published an introductory manual entitled Interlingua a Prime Vista ("Interlingua at First Sight"). Year 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Interlingua-English Dictionary (IED), developed by the International Auxiliary Language Association (IALA) and published by Storm Publishers in 1951, is the first Interlingua dictionary. ... IED is a three-letter abbreviation which may refer to: Improvised explosive device, an explosive devices often used in unconventional warfare. ... Year 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Interlingua a Prime Vista (Interlingua at First Sight; published 1954) is a manual developed by Alexander Gode as a basic introduction to Interlingua. ...


Success, decline, and resurgence

An early practical application of Interlingua was the scientific newsletter Spectroscopia Molecular, published from 1952 to 1980.[11] In 1954 Interlingua was used at the Second World Cardiological Congress, in Washington DC, for both written summaries and oral interpretation. Within a few years, it found similar use at nine further medical congresses. Between the mid-1950s and the late 1970s, some thirty scientific and especially medical journals provided article summaries in Interlingua. Science Service, the publisher of Science Newsletter at the time, published a monthly column in Interlingua from the early 1950s until Gode's death in 1970. In 1967, the powerful International Organization for Standardization, which normalizes terminology, voted almost unanimously to adopt Interlingua as the basis for its dictionaries.[1] Flag Seal Nickname: DC, The District Motto: Justitia Omnibus (Justice for All) Location Location of Washington, D.C., with regard to the surrounding states of Maryland and Virginia. ... Science Service is a non-profit organization for the promotion of science. ... “ISO” redirects here. ...


The IALA closed its doors in 1953 but was not formally dissolved until 1956 or later.[12] Its role in promoting Interlingua was largely taken on by Science Service,[13] which hired Gode as head of its newly formed Interlingua Division.[14] Hugh E. Blair, Gode's close friend and colleague, became his assistant.[15] A successor organization, the Interlingua Institute,[16] was founded in 1970 to promote Interlingua in the US and Canada. The new institute supported the work of other linguistic organizations, made considerable scholarly contributions and produced Interlingua precis for scholarly and medical publications. One of its largest achievements was two immense volumes on phytopathology produced by the American Phytopathological Society in 1976 and 1977.[12] The International Auxiliary Language Association that existed from 1924 to 1954 was a notable proponent of international auxiliary languages. ... Science Service founded its Interlingua Division in 1953. ... Hugh Edward Blair (May 23, 1909 – February 28, 1967) was a recognized linguist and an able artist. ...


Interlingua had attracted many former adherents of other international-language projects, notably Occidental and Ido. The former Occidentalist Ric Berger founded The Union Mundial pro Interlingua (UMI) in 1955,[17] and by the late 1950s, interest in Interlingua in Europe had already begun to overtake that in North America. The language Occidental, later Interlingue, is a planned language created by the Baltogerman naval officer and teacher Edgar de Wahl and published in 1922. ... Ido (pronounced ) is a constructed language created with the goal of becoming a universal second language for speakers of different linguistic backgrounds as a language easier to learn than ethnic languages. ... Richard (Ric) Berger (1894-1984) was a Swiss professor of design, decoration, and art history. ... The Union Mundial Pro Interlingua (World Interlingua Union), or UMI, is a global organization that promotes Interlingua. ... Umi is a town in Fukuoka Prefecture, Japan. ...


Beginning in the 1980s UMI has held international conferences every two years (typical attendance at the earlier meetings was 50 to 100) and launched a publishing programme that eventually produced over 100 volumes. Other Interlingua-language works were published by university presses in Sweden and Italy, and in the 1990s, Brazil and Switzerland.[18][19] Several Scandinavian schools undertook projects that used Interlingua as a means of teaching the international scientific and intellectual vocabulary. For other uses, see Scandinavia (disambiguation). ...


In 2000, the Interlingua Institute was dissolved amid funding disputes with the UMI; the American Interlingua Society, established the following year, succeeded the institute and responded to new interest emerging in Mexico.[20]


In the Soviet bloc

Interlingua was spoken and promoted in the Soviet bloc, despite attempts to suppress the language. In East Germany, government officials confiscated the letters and magazines that the UMI sent to Walter Raédler, the Interlingua representative there.[21] In Czechoslovakia, Július Tomin received threatening letters after his first article on Interlingua was published.[22] Despite continuing persecution, he went on to become the Czech Interlingua representative, teach Interlingua in the school system, and author a long series of published articles and books.[23] Soviet redirects here. ... This article is about the state which existed from 1949 to 1990. ... Július Tomin (1915 - 2003), a high school teacher and well-known author from Czechoslovakia, was persecuted during the Soviet occupation for promoting Interlingua as a second language. ...


Interlingua today

See also: Community

Today, interest in Interlingua has expanded from the scientific community to the general public. Individuals, governments, and private companies use Interlingua for learning and instruction, travel, online publishing, and communication across language barriers.[citation needed] Interlingua is promoted internationally by the Union Mundial pro Interlingua (president: Barbara Rubinstein, Sweden; secretary-general: Petyo Angelov, Bulgaria). Periodicals and books are produced by many national organizations, such as the Societate American pro Interlingua (president: Dr. Stanley Mulaik), the Svenska Sällskapet för Interlingua (secretary: Ingvar Stenström), and the Brazilian Union for Interlingua (president: Gilson Passos).[24] The Union Mundial Pro Interlingua (World Interlingua Union), or UMI, is a global organization that promotes Interlingua. ... The Societate American pro Interlingua (SAI) is an official Interlingua-speaking organization that covers the United States of America, Canada, and Mexico. ... Stanley Mulaik is Professor Emeritus at the School of Psychology at the University of Georgia. ... The Swedish Society for Interlingua (Societate Svedese pro Interlingua, SSI), founded January 1, 1964, is an agency that operates in Sweden to publicize Interlingua and encourage its active use. ... The Brazilian Union for Interlingua (União Brasileira pró Interlíngua, UBI) is the national Interlingua organization in Brazil. ...


Community

It's not certain how many people have an active knowledge of Interlingua, but their numbers have grown consistently over most of the past half-century. As noted above, Interlingua is the most widely spoken naturalistic auxiliary language. An international auxiliary language (sometimes abbreviated as IAL or auxlang) is a language used (or to be used in the future) for communication between people from different nations who do not share a common native language. ...


Interlingua's greatest advantage is that it is the most widely understood International Auxiliary Language (IAL) by virtue of its naturalistic (as opposed to schematic) grammar and vocabulary, allowing those familiar with a Romance language, and educated speakers of English, to read and understand it without prior study. An international auxiliary language (sometimes abbreviated as IAL or auxlang) is a language used (or to be used in the future) for communication between people from different nations who do not share a common native language. ...


Interlingua has active speakers on all continents, especially in South America and in Eastern and Northern Europe, most notably Scandinavia; also in Russia and Ukraine. In Africa, Interlingua has official representation in the Republic of the Congo. There are copious Interlingua web pages, including editions of Wikipedia and Wiktionary, and a number of periodicals, including Panorama in Interlingua from the Union Mundial pro Interlingua (UMI) and magazines of the national societies allied with it. There are several active mailing lists, and Interlingua is also in use in certain Usenet newsgroups, particularly in the europa.* hierarchy. Interlingua is presented on CDs, radio, and television.[25] In recent years, samples of Interlingua have also been seen in music and anime. South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... Pre-1989 division between the West (grey) and Eastern Bloc (orange) superimposed on current national boundaries: Russia (dark orange), other countries of the former USSR (medium orange),members of the Warsaw pact (light orange), and other former Communist regimes not aligned with Moscow (lightest orange). ... Northern Europe Northern Europe is the northern part of the European continent. ... For other uses, see Scandinavia (disambiguation). ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... The Union Mundial Pro Interlingua (World Interlingua Union), or UMI, is a global organization that promotes Interlingua. ... Usenet (USEr NETwork) is a global, decentralized, distributed Internet discussion system that evolved from a general purpose UUCP architecture of the same name. ...


Interlingua is taught in many high schools and universities, sometimes as a means of teaching other languages quickly, presenting interlinguistics, or introducing the international vocabulary. The prestigious University of Granada in Spain, for example, offers an Interlingua course in collaboration with the Centro de Formación Continua.[26] Interlinguistics is the study of various aspects of international communication. ... The University of Granada is a university at Granada, Spain, first founded by the Moors in 1349 and then officially founded in 1531 by the Emperor Carlos V, with support of Pope Clemente VII. The University is home to foreign students from around the world at the Universitys Modern...


Every two years, the UMI organizes an international conference in a different country; the most recent conference (2005), in Sweden, was attended by slightly over 250 people. In the year between, the Scandinavian Interlingua societies co-organize a conference in Sweden. National organizations such as the Union Brazilian pro Interlingua also organize regular conferences. [27] Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Phonology and orthography

Phonology

The following tables illustrate Interlingua's consonants and vowels respectively:

Bilabial Labio-
dental
Alveolar Post-
alveolar
Palatal Labial-
velar
Velar Glottal
Plosive p b   t d       k g  
Nasal   m     n          
Tap       ɾ          
Fricative   f v s z ʃ ʒ       h  
Affricate     ʦ            
Approximant           j   w    
Lateral approximant       l          
Front Back
Close i u
Close-mid e o
Open a  

In phonetics, a bilabial consonant is a consonant articulated with both lips. ... In phonetics, labiodentals are consonants articulated with the lower lips and the upper teeth, or viceversa. ... Alveolar consonants are articulated with the tongue against or close to the superior alveolar ridge, which is called that because it contains the alveoli (the sockets) of the superior teeth. ... Postalveolar (or palato-alveolar) consonants are consonants articulated with the tip of the tongue between the alveolar ridge (the place of articulation for alveolar consonants) and the palate (the place of articulation for palatal consonants). ... Palatal consonants are consonants articulated with the body of the tongue raised against the hard palate (the middle part of the roof of the mouth). ... Labial-velar consonants are doubly articulated at the velum and the lips. ... Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate (the back part of the roof of the mouth, known also as the velum). ... Glottal consonants are consonants articulated with the glottis. ... A stop or plosive or occlusive is a consonant sound produced by stopping the airflow in the vocal tract. ... A nasal consonant is produced when the velum—that fleshy part of the palate near the back—is lowered, allowing air to escape freely through the nose. ... In phonetics, a flap or tap is a type of consonantal sound, which is produced with a single contraction of the muscles so that one articulator (such as the tongue) is thrown against another. ... Fricatives (or spirants) are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together. ... Affricate consonants begin as stops (most often an alveolar, such as or ) but release as a fricative (such as or or, in a couple of languages, into a fricative trill) rather than directly into the following vowel. ... Approximants are speech sounds that could be regarded as intermediate between vowels and typical consonants. ... Laterals are L-like consonants pronounced with an occlusion made somewhere along the axis of the tongue, while air from the lungs escapes at one side or both sides of the tongue. ... Vowels Near-close Close-mid Mid Open-mid Near-open Open Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a rounded vowel. ... A back vowel is a type of vowel sound used in some spoken languages. ... A close vowel is a type of vowel sound used in many spoken languages. ... A close-mid vowel is a type of vowel sound used in some spoken languages. ... An open vowel is a vowel sound of a type used in most spoken languages. ...

Orthography and pronunciation

Interlingua uses the standard Latin alphabet with all its 26 letters and no diacritics. Despite its naturalistic appearance, Interlingua has a largely phonemic orthography. For the most part, consonants are pronounced as in English, while the vowels are like Spanish. Unstressed vowels should not be pronounced as a schwa ([ə]), as in English. A phonemic orthography is a writing system where the written graphemes correspond to phonemes, the spoken sounds of the language. ... In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a sound in spoken language that is characterized by a closure or stricture of the vocal tract sufficient to cause audible turbulence. ... Note: This page contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ...


Double consonants are pronounced as single. Interlingua has at least three falling diphthongs, /ai/, /au/ and /eu/,[28] but an exhaustive list is not given by either the official dictionary or the grammar. In phonetics, a diphthong (also gliding vowel) (Greek δίφθογγος, diphthongos, literally with two sounds, or with two tones) is a monosyllabic vowel combination involving a quick but smooth movement from one vowel to another, often interpreted by listeners as a single vowel sound or phoneme. ...


Stress

The general rule is that stress falls on the vowel before the last consonant (e.g., lingua, esser, requirimento, 'language', 'to be', 'requirement'), and where that isn't possible, on the first vowel (via, 'way', io crea, 'I create'). There are a few exceptions, and the following rules account for most of them:

  • Adjectives and nouns ending in with a vowel followed by -le, -ne, or -re are stressed on the third-last syllable (fragile, margine, altere 'other', but illa impone 'she imposes').
  • Words ending in -ica/-ico, -ide/-ido and -ula/-ulo, are stressed on the third-last syllable (politica, scientifico, rapide, stupido, capitula, seculo 'century').
  • Words ending in -ic are stressed on the second-last syllable (cubic).

Speakers may pronounce all words according to the general rule mentioned above. For example, kilometro is acceptable, although kilometro is more common.


Exceptions

Whenever the pronunciation or stress of a word varies from above rules, this is in principle indicated in the Interlingua-English Dictionary. Some are words that are (slightly) pronounced irregularly in the control languages of Interlingua and this causes the same to happen in Interlingua. An example is <chocolate>, which starts with a /ʃ/ (and is indicated in the dictionary with a "(sh-)" after the word).


Loanwords

Like its control languages, Interlingua has a number of words that are considered unassimilated foreign loanwords. They are pronounced as in their language of origin, and they can exhibit foreign sounds like the voiceless velar fricative [x] and the close front rounded vowel [y]. Their spelling may contain diacritics or other marks. If the diacritics do not affect pronunciation, they are removed. A loanword (or loan word) is a word directly taken into one language from another with little or no translation. ... The voiceless velar fricative is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages. ... Vowels See also: IPA, Consonants Near‑close Close‑mid Mid Open‑mid Near‑open Open Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a rounded vowel. ... Example of a letter with a diacritic A diacritical mark or diacritic, also called an accent, is a small sign added to a letter to alter pronunciation or to distinguish between similar words. ...


Phonotactics

Interlingua has no explicitly defined phonotactics. However, the prototyping procedure for determining Interlingua words, which strives for internationality, should in general lead naturally to word shapes that are easy for most learners to pronounce. In the process of forming new words, an ending cannot always be added without a modification of some kind in between. A good example is the plural -s, which is always preceded by a vowel to prevent the occurrence of a hard-to-pronounce consonant cluster at the end. If the singular does not end in a vowel, the final -s becomes -es. Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ...


Vocabulary

See also: Free word-building in Interlingua and Interlingua dictionaries

Words in Interlingua may be taken from any language, as long as their internationality is verified by their presence in seven control languages: Spanish, Portuguese, Italian, French, and English, with German and Russian acting as secondary controls. These are the most widely spoken Romance, Germanic, and Slavic languages, respectively. Because of their close relationship, Spanish and Portuguese are treated as one unit. Words can be included in Interlingua in either of two ways: by establishing their internationality or by deriving them using Interlingua words and affixes. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Interlingua. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... The Romance languages, also called Romanic languages, are a subfamily of the Italic languages, specifically the descendants of the Vulgar Latin dialects spoken by the common people evolving in different areas after the break-up of the Roman Empire. ... The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages) comprise the languages of the Slavic peoples. ...


The largest number of Interlingua words are of Latin origin, with the Greek and Germanic languages providing the second and third largest number. The remainder of the vocabulary originates in Slavic and non-Western languages.[4] Latin was the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages) comprise the languages of the Slavic peoples. ...


Eligibility

A word, that is a form with meaning, enters the Interlingua vocabulary if it is attested to in at least three of the four primary control languages. Either secondary control language can substitute for a primary language. In some cases, the archaic or potential presence of a word can contribute to its eligibility. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Interlingua vocabulary. ...


A word can be potentially present in a language when a derivative is present, but the word itself is not. English proximity, for example, gives support to Interlingua proxime, meaning 'near, close'. This counts as long as one or more control languages actually have this basic root word. Potentiality also occurs when a concept is represented as a compound or derivative in a control language, the morphemes that make it up are themselves international, and the combination adequately conveys the meaning of the larger word. An example is Italian fiammifero (lit. flamebearer), meaning "match, lucifer", which leads to Interlingua flammifero, or "match". This word is thus said to be potentially present in the other languages although they may represent the meaning with a single morpheme. In linguistics, derivation is the process of creating new lexemes from other lexemes, for example, by adding a derivational affix. ... In linguistics, a compound is a lexeme (a word) that consists of more than one other lexeme. ... In morpheme-based morphology, a morpheme is the smallest lingual unit that carries a semantic interpretation. ...


Words do not enter the Interlingua vocabulary just because cognates exist in a sufficient number of languages. If their meanings have become different over time, they are considered different words for the purpose of Interlingua eligibility. If they still have one or more meanings in common, however, the word shape can still enter Interlingua with this smaller set of meanings. Look up cognate in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In diachronic (or historical) linguistics, semantic change is a change in one of the meanings of a word. ...


If this procedure did not produce an international word, the word for a concept was originally taken from Latin (see below). This only occurred with a few grammatical particles. In linguistics, the term particle is often employed as a useful catch-all lacking a strict definition. ...


Form

The form of an Interlingua word is considered an international prototype with respect to the other words. On the one hand, it should be neutral, free from characteristics peculiar to one language. On the other hand, it should maximally capture the characteristics common to all contributing languages. As a result, it can be transformed into any of the contributing variants using only these language-specific characteristics. If the word has any derivatives that occur in the source languages with appropriate parallel meanings, then their morphological connection must remain intact; for example, the Interlingua word for 'time' is spelled tempore and not *tempus or *tempo in order to match it with its derived adjectives, such as temporal. For other uses, see Morphology. ...


The language-specific characteristics are closely related to the sound laws of the individual languages; the resulting words are often close or even identical to the most recent form common to the contributing words. This sometimes corresponds with that of Vulgar Latin. At other times, it is much more recent or even contemporary. Sound change or phonetic change is a historical process of language change consisting in the replacement of one speech sound or, more generally, one phonetic feature by another in a given phonological environment. ... Vulgar Latin, as in this political graffito at Pompeii, was the speech of ordinary people of the Roman Empire — different from the classical Latin used by the Roman elite. ...


As a general example, the German Auge, English eye, French oeil, Italian occhio, Spanish ojo, and Portuguese olho appear quite different, but they descend from a historical form oculus. This, and international derivatives like ocular and oculista, determine the form oculo to be used in Interlingua.[29]


Notes on Interlingua vocabulary

New words can be derived internally – that is, from existing Interlingua words – or extracted from the control languages in the manner of the original vocabulary. Internal word-building, though freer than in the control languages, is more limited than in schematic languages.


Originally, a word was taken from Latin if the usual procedure did not produce a sufficiently international word. More recently, modern alternatives have become generally accepted. For example, the southern Romance comprar, meaning 'to buy', has replaced emer, because the latter occurs only in derivatives in the control languages. Similarly, the modern form troppo, 'too' or 'too much', has replaced nimis, and ma 'but' has largely replaced sed.


Grammar

For more details on this topic, see Interlingua grammar.

Interlingua has been developed so that it contains no grammatical feature that is absent from even one control language. The form of these features was determined in much the same way as the vocabulary.[30] This article is an informal outline of the grammar of Interlingua, an international auxiliary language first publicized by IALA. It follows the usage of the original grammar text (Gode & Blair, 1951), which is accepted today but regarded as conservative. ...


This had led to Interlingua having a grammar similar to that of the Romance languages, but greatly simplified, primarily under the influence of English. Thus, Interlingua has no noun-adjective agreement by either gender, case, or number (cf. Spanish and Portuguese gatos negros, 'black cats'), since this is absent from English, and it has no progressive verb tenses (English I am reading), since they are absent from French. The definite article le is invariable, as in English. Conversely, Interlingua has singular-plural distinction of nouns since all the control languages do. In languages, agreement is a form of cross-reference between different parts of a sentence or phrase. ... In linguistics, grammatical number is a morphological category characterized by the expression of quantity through inflection or agreement. ...


Nouns have no grammatical gender.[30][31] Plurals are formed by adding -s, or -es after a final consonant.[30] Personal Pronouns take one form for the subject and one for the direct object and reflexive. In the third person, the reflexive is always se.[30][31] Most adverbs are derived regularly from adjectives by adding -mente, or -amente after a -c. An adverb can be formed from any adjective in this way.[32] In linguistics, grammatical gender is a morphological category associated with the expression of gender through inflection or agreement. ... Personal pronouns are pronouns that refer to objects of a sentence, usually (but not always), people or animals. ... “Adverbs” redirects here. ... In grammar, an adjective is a word whose main syntactic role is to modify a noun or pronoun (called the adjectives subject), giving more information about what the noun or pronoun refers to. ...


Verbs take the same form for all persons (io, tu, illa vive, 'I live', 'you live', 'she lives'). The only exceptions are some optional forms for esser, 'to be'. The indicative (pare, 'appear', 'appears') is the same as the imperative (pare! 'appear!'), and there is no subjunctive.[30] Three common verbs usually take short forms in the present tense: es for 'is', 'am', 'are;' ha for 'has', 'have;' and va for 'go', 'goes'.[31] A few irregular verb forms are available, but rarely used.[33] In linguistics, many grammars have the concept of grammatical mood, which describes the relationship of a verb with reality and intent. ... Imperative programming, as opposed to functional programming, is a sort of programming employing side-effect as central execution feature. ... The subjunctive mood (sometimes referred to as the conjunctive mood) is a grammatical mood of the verb that expresses wishes, commands (in subordinate clauses), and statements that are contrary to fact. ...


There are four simple tenses (present, past, future, and conditional), three compound tenses (past, future, and conditional), and the passive voice. The compound structures employ an auxiliary plus the infinitive or the past participle (e.g., Ille ha arrivate, 'He has arrived').[30] Simple and compound tenses can be combined in various ways to express more complex tenses (e.g., Nos haberea morite, 'We would have died').[34]


Word order is generally Subject–Verb–Object, except that a direct object or reflexive pronoun comes before the verb (Io les vide, 'I see them'); this change of word order to Subject–Object–Verb comes from the Romance languages.[30][31] Adjectives may precede or follow the nouns they modify, but they most often follow it.[30] The position of adverbs is flexible, though constrained by common sense.[31] In linguistic typology, subject-verb-object (SVO) is the sequence subject verb object in neutral expressions: Sam ate oranges. ... In linguistic typology, Subject Object Verb (SOV) is the type of languages in which the subject, object, and verb of a sentence appear (usually) in that order. ...


Criticisms and controversies

While Interlingua is a successful auxiliary language, it has been criticised, often by proponents of other auxiliary languages.


Being a European-based language, Interlingua is not easily presented as a neutral language for the whole world instead of just Europe or the Western world, although one could argue that favoring some with the choice of vocabulary would be acceptable as long as it wouldn't make it harder for others to learn. Speakers of languages other than Indo-European have an additional disadvantage. Interlingua includes spelling irregularities that, while internationally recognizable in written form, increase the time needed to fully learn the language (correct spelling and pronunciation for every word), especially for those unfamiliar with Indo-European languages. For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... The term Western world, the West or the Occident (Latin occidens -sunset, -west, as distinct from the Orient) [1] can have multiple meanings dependent on its context (e. ... For other uses, see Indo-European. ...


Conversely, Interlingua has been suggested as a useful language for study as an introduction to Indo-European languages in general, and Romance languages in particular. In fact, Interlingua has been taught at Swedish high schools for this purpose.


One point of criticism that does take Interlingua's design goals into account is that its credential as being "Standard Average European" is too weak outside the Romance languages. Some opponents see the Germanic, Slavic, and Celtic languages, in particular, as having little influence. Standard average European (SAE) is a concept introduced by Benjamin Whorf to distinguish Indo-European and especially West Indo-European languages from languages of other grammatical types. ...  Countries where a West Slavic language is the national language  Countries where an East Slavic language is the national language  Countries where a South Slavic language is the national language The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages), a group of closely related languages of the Slavic peoples and a subgroup... The Celtic languages are the languages descended from Proto-Celtic, or Common Celtic, a branch of the greater Indo-European language family. ...


Proponents point out that Interlingua's source languages include not only Romance languages but English, German, and Russian as well. Moreover, the source languages are widely spoken internationally, and large numbers of their words also appear in other languages – still more when derivative forms and loan translations are included. Tests showed that if a larger number of source languages were used, the results would be about the same.[4] So, IALA selected a much simpler extraction procedure for Interlingua with little adverse effect on its internationality. In addition, the grammar of Interlingua is still simpler than most or all Indo-European languages, contributing to ease of learning. Calque In linguistics, a calque ([kælk]) or loan translation (itself a calque of German Lehnübersetzung) consists of the borrowing of a phrase from one language into another, in the process of which individual words native to the borrowing language semantically match the individual words in the source language. ...


Finally, other auxiliary languages have a mix of words that is similar to Interlingua's, but accidentally hidden. Wordforms are frequently altered to fit pre-established rules of grammar and orthography. For example, all accusative adjectives might end in -en, or the letter x might be replaced by combinations such as gz and ks. In addition, some schematic languages contain words that look unfamiliar because they are entirely invented. Thus, the linguistic mix of the schematic auxiliary languages is not so much sweeping and inclusive as difficult to make out.


Samples

The Lord's Prayer: The Sermon on the Mount by Carl Heinrich Bloch. ...

Nostre Patre, qui es in le celos,
que tu nomine sia sanctificate;
que tu regno veni;
que tu voluntate sia facite
super le terra como etiam in le celo.
Da nos hodie nostre pan quotidian,
e pardona a nos nostre debitas
como nos pardona a nostre debitores,
e non duce nos in tentation,
sed libera nos del mal.

From an essay by Alexander Gode:

Interlingua se ha distachate ab le movimento pro le disveloppamento e le introduction de un lingua universal pro tote le humanitate. Si o non on crede que un lingua pro tote le humanitate es possibile, si o non on crede que interlingua va devenir un tal lingua es totalmente indifferente ab le puncto de vista de interlingua mesme. Le sol facto que importa (ab le puncto de vista de interlingua mesme) es que interlingua, gratias a su ambition de reflecter le homogeneitate cultural e ergo linguistic del occidente, es capace de render servicios tangibile a iste precise momento del historia del mundo. Il es per su contributiones actual e non per le promissas de su adherentes que interlingua vole esser judicate.[35]
Interlingua has detached itself from the movement for the development and introduction of a universal language for all humanity. Whether or not one believes that a language for all humanity is possible, whether or not one believes that Interlingua will become such a language is totally irrelevant from the point of view of Interlingua itself. The only fact that matters (from the point of view of Interlingua itself) is that Interlingua, thanks to its ambition of reflecting the cultural and thus linguistic homogeneity of the West, is capable of rendering tangible services at this precise moment in the history of the world. It is by its present contributions and not by the promises of its adherents that Interlingua wishes to be judged.

See also

Esperanto and Interlingua are two planned languages which have taken radically different approaches to the problem of providing an International auxiliary language (IAL). ... Both languages are fairly successful, but Interlingua has enjoyed greater diffusion and acceptance by public and private institutions. ... Interlingua is the most widely spoken naturalistic auxiliary language. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Interlingua grammar. ...

Citations and notes

  1. ^ a b c d e f Gopsill, F. P. (1990). International languages: a matter for Interlingua. Sheffield, England: British Interlingua Society. ISBN 0-9511695-6-4. OCLC 27813762. 
  2. ^ See Gopsill, F. P. Interlingua: A course for beginners. Part 1. Sheffield, England: British Interlingua Society, 1987. Gopsill, here and elsewhere, characterizes Interlingua as having a simple grammar and no irregularities.
  3. ^ The Interlingua Grammar suggests that Interlingua has a small number of irregularities. See Gode (1955).
  4. ^ a b c d IALA (1971).
  5. ^ Gopsill, F. P.; B. C. Sexton (1987). Concise English–Interlingua dictionary, with the assistance of P. Berwick, F. Esterhill, and R.V. Spathaky, 1st edition, Sheffield: British Interlingua Society. ISBN 0951169505. OCLC 27976417. Retrieved on 2007-03-04. 
  6. ^ See for example Sexton, Brian C., "Interlingua at first hearing," Lingua e Vita, 1995, Issue 83.
  7. ^ Morris, Alice Vanderbilt, General Report, New York: International Auxiliary Language Association], 1945.
  8. ^ Morris, Alice Vanderbilt, General Report, New York: International Auxiliary Language Association], 1945.
  9. ^ Falk, Julia S. "Words without grammar: Linguists and the international language movement in the United States, Language and Communication, 15(3): pp. 241-259. Pergamon, 1995.
  10. ^ a b IALA (1971), "Foreword".
  11. ^ Breinstrup, Thomas, "Un revolution in le mundo scientific" (A revolution in the scientific world). Accessed January 16, 2007.
  12. ^ a b Esterhill, Frank, Interlingua Institute: A History. New York: Interlingua Institute, 2000.
  13. ^ F. P., and Sexton, B. C., Gopsill, "Le natura, si – un schema, no". Accessed January 16, 2007.
  14. ^ Biographias: Alexander Gottfried Friedrich Gode-von Aesch. Accessed January 16, 2007
  15. ^ Biographias: Hugh Edward Blair. Accessed January 16, 2007
  16. ^ Portrait del organisationes de interlingua. Access January 16, 2007.
  17. ^ Portrait del organisationes de interlingua. Accessed January 16, 2007.
  18. ^ Bibliographia de Interlingua. Accessed January 16, 2007.
  19. ^ Biographias: Ingvar Stenström. Accessed January 16, 2007
  20. ^ Portrait del organisationes de interlingua. Accessed January 16, 2007.
  21. ^ "Interlingua usate in le posta". Historia de Interlingua, 2001, revised 2006.
  22. ^ Breinstrup, Thomas. "Persecutate pro parlar Interlingua." Panorama in Interlingua, 1995, Issue 5.
  23. ^ Biographias: Július Tomin. Historia de Interlingua, 2001. Revised 2006.
  24. ^ Portrait del organisationes de interlingua. Accessed July 1, 2007.
  25. ^ "Radioemissiones in e re Interlingua," Panorama in Interlingua, Issue 3, 2006.
  26. ^ "A notar," Panorama in Interlingua, Issue 4, 2006.
  27. ^ [ http://www.interlingua.com/historia/diverse/50annos.htm Interlingua: Forte, fructuose, futur], Historia de Interlingua, 2001, Revised 2006.
  28. ^ IALA (1971), "Spelling and Pronunciation".
  29. ^ Blandino, Giovanni, "Le problema del linguas international auxiliari", Philosophia del Cognoscentia e del Scientia, Rome, Italy: Pontificia Universitas Lateranensis, Pontificia Universitas Urbaniana, 1989.
  30. ^ a b c d e f g h Gode (1955).
  31. ^ a b c d e Wilgenhof, Karel. Grammatica de Interlingua. Union Mundial pro Interlingua, Beekbergen, Netherlands, 1995.
  32. ^ Brauers, Karl. Grammatica synoptic de Interlingua. Morges, Switzerland: Editiones Interlingua, 1975.
  33. ^ These forms are found in Wilgenhof, who stops short of calling them irregular verb forms. Two such forms appear in Gode and Blair, and one is labeled irregular; none are in Brauers.
  34. ^ See for example Gode (1955), §115, "Table of Conjugation", pp. 38-40.
  35. ^ Novas de Interlingua, May/June 1958.

For other uses, see Sheffield (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... For other uses, see Sheffield (disambiguation). ... The British Interlingua Society (BIS; in Interlingua, Societate Britannic pro Interlingua), established in 1956, works in Great Britain and the English-speaking world to promote the knowledge and active use of Interlingua, the international language. ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 63rd day of the year (64th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Alice Vanderbilt Morris (1874 - 1950), born Alice Vanderbilt Shepard, was the daughter of Elliot Fitch Shepard (1833-1893) and Margaret Louisa Vanderbilt (1845-1924). ... Alice Vanderbilt Morris (1874 - 1950), born Alice Vanderbilt Shepard, was the daughter of Elliot Fitch Shepard (1833-1893) and Margaret Louisa Vanderbilt (1845-1924). ... Panorama in Interlingua is the primary periodical for the language Interlingua, published bimonthly. ... Panorama in Interlingua is the primary periodical for the language Interlingua, published bimonthly. ... Panorama in Interlingua is the primary periodical for the language Interlingua, published bimonthly. ...

References

Alexander Gottfried Friedrich Gode-von-Aesch or simply Alexander Gode (October 30, 1906 in Bremen - August 10, 1970 in Mount Kisco, New York) was a German-American linguist, translator and the driving force behind the creation of the constructed language Interlingua. ... Hugh Edward Blair (May 23, 1909 – February 28, 1967) was a recognized linguist and an able artist. ... This article is about the state. ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... This article is about the day. ... May 28 is the 148th day of the year (149th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The International Auxiliary Language Association that existed from 1924 to 1954 was a notable proponent of international auxiliary languages. ... Alexander Gottfried Friedrich Gode-von-Aesch or simply Alexander Gode (October 30, 1906 in Bremen - August 10, 1970 in Mount Kisco, New York) was a German-American linguist, translator and the driving force behind the creation of the constructed language Interlingua. ... This article is about the state. ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... This article is about the day. ... is the 229th day of the year (230th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Wikipedia
Interlingua edition of Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Wiktionary
Interlingua edition of Wiktionary, the free dictionary/thesaurus
Wikibooks
Wikibooks' [[wikibooks:|]] has more about this subject:
Interlingua
  • Basic English-Interlingua phrase translation tool

  Results from FactBites:
 
Interlingua (10008 words)
Het enige mogelijke probleem met groepsnamen in Interlingua is dat *iedereen* op het eerste gezicht de indruk krijgt dat de groepen in een voor hen vreemde taal zijn.
Interlingua is voor 98% een systematisering van de grootste gemene deler van al deze Grieks-Latijnse elementen die in de gezamenlijke Europese talen overleven.
In het geval dat twee deelnemers geen taal gemeen hebben, zou Interlingua kunnen helpen vanwege zijn eenvoud en zijn internationale woordenschat.
Interlingua language, alphabet and pronunciation (1130 words)
Interlingua is an international auxiliary language developed by the International Auxiliary Language Association with financing from the Rockfeller Foundation, The Carnegie Corporation, the Research Corporation and principally the family of the heiress Alice Vanderbilt Morris and her husband and children, who were deeply interested in the problem of international communication.
The grammar of Interlingua is a minimum grammar for use of the international vocabulary of the dictionary as a language.
Interlingua represents the common lexical heritage of the European languages and is immediately comprehensible to millions, and is easily learned.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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