FACTOID # 27: If you're itching to live in a trailer park, hitch up your home and head to South Carolina, where a whopping 18% of residences are mobile homes.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Interleukin 1
Crystal structure of IL-1a
Interleukin 1 alpha
Identifiers
Symbol IL1A
Alt. Symbols , IL1F1
Entrez 3552
HUGO 5991
OMIM 147760
PDB 2ILA
RefSeq NM_000575
UniProt P01583
Other data
Locus Chr. 2 q12-q21
Crystal structure of IL-1b
Interleukin 1 beta
Identifiers
Symbol IL1B
Alt. Symbols , IL1F2
Entrez 3553
HUGO 5992
OMIM 147720
PDB 2MIB
RefSeq NM_000576
UniProt P01584
Other data
Locus Chr. 2 q13-q21

Interleukin-1 (IL-1) is one of the first cytokines ever described. Its initial discovery was as a factor that could induce fever, control lymphocytes, increase the number of bone marrow cells and cause degeneration of bone joints. At this time, IL-1 was known under several other names including endogenous pyrogen, lymphocyte activating factor, haemopoetin-1 and mononuclear cell factor, amongst others. It was around 1984-1985 when scientists confirmed that IL-1 was actually composed of two distinct proteins, now called IL-1α and IL-1β.[1] These belong to a family of cytokines known as the interleukin-1 superfamily. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 699 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (851 × 730 pixel, file size: 126 KB, MIME type: image/png) This is not IL-1a I, the copyright holder of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... The Entrez logo The Entrez Global Query Cross-Database Search System allows access to databases at the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) website. ... Look up Hugo in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Mendelian Inheritance in Man project is a database that catalogues all the known diseases with a genetic component, and - when possible - links them to the relevant genes in the human genome. ... The Protein Data Bank (PDB) is a repository for 3-D structural data of proteins and nucleic acids. ... National Center for Biotechnology Information logo The National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) is part of the United States National Library of Medicine (NLM), a branch of the National Institutes of Health. ... Swiss-Prot is a curated biological database of protein sequences created in 1986 by Amos Bairoch during his PhD and developed by the Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics and the European Bioinformatics Institute. ... Short and long arms Chromosome. ... Chromosome 2 is one of the 23 pairs of chromosomes in humans. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 747 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (938 × 753 pixel, file size: 214 KB, MIME type: image/png) This is a structure of IL-1b created using the data from Protein Data Bank (PDB: 2MIB) and rendered using Pymol. ... The Entrez logo The Entrez Global Query Cross-Database Search System allows access to databases at the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) website. ... Look up Hugo in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Mendelian Inheritance in Man project is a database that catalogues all the known diseases with a genetic component, and - when possible - links them to the relevant genes in the human genome. ... The Protein Data Bank (PDB) is a repository for 3-D structural data of proteins and nucleic acids. ... National Center for Biotechnology Information logo The National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) is part of the United States National Library of Medicine (NLM), a branch of the National Institutes of Health. ... Swiss-Prot is a curated biological database of protein sequences created in 1986 by Amos Bairoch during his PhD and developed by the Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics and the European Bioinformatics Institute. ... Short and long arms Chromosome. ... Chromosome 2 is one of the 23 pairs of chromosomes in humans. ... Cytokines are a group of proteins and peptides that are used in organisms as signaling compounds. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... A lymphocyte is a type of white blood cell involved in the human bodys immune system. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Look up Pyrogen in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Cytokines are a group of proteins and peptides that are used in organisms as signaling compounds. ...

Contents

The Interleukin-1 superfamily

The original members of the IL-1 superfamily are IL-1α, IL-1β, and the IL-1 Receptor antagonist (IL-1RA). The IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA) was initially called the IL-1 inhibitor and was discovered separately in 1984 by two independent laboratories. ...

  • IL-1α and -β are pro-inflammatory cytokines involved in immune defence against infection.
  • The IL-1RA is a molecule that competes for receptor binding with IL-1α and IL-1β, blocking their role in immune activation.

Recent years have seen the addition of other molecules to the IL-1 superfamily including IL-18[2] and six more genes with structural homology to IL-1α, IL-1β or IL-1RA. These latter six members are named IL1F5, IL1F6, IL1F7, IL1F8, IL1F9, and IL1F10. In accord, IL-1α, IL-1β, and IL-1RA have been renamed IL-1F1, IL-1F2, and IL-1F3, respectively.[3][4] Cytokines are a group of proteins and peptides that are used in organisms as signaling compounds. ... Two aircraft have shared the designation Ilyushin Il-18 The first was a propeller-driven airliner of 1946 based on the B-29 Superfortress. ...


A further putative member of the IL-1 family has been recently described that is called IL-33 or IL-1F11, although this name is not officially accepted in the HGNC gene family nomenclature database.[5] Interleukin 33 (IL-33) is a cytokine that is structurally related to IL-1, which induces helper T cells to produce type 2 cytokines. ...


IL-1α and IL-1β

Both IL-1α and IL-1β are produced by macrophages, monocytes and dendritic cells. They form an important part of the inflammatory response of the body against infection. These cytokines increase the expression of adhesion factors on endothelial cells to enable transmigration of leukocytes, the cells that fight pathogens, to sites of infection and re-set the hypothalamus thermoregulatory center, leading to an increased body temperature which expresses itself as fever. IL-1 is therefore called an endogenous pyrogen. The increased body temperature helps the body's immune system to fight infection. IL-1 is also important in the regulation of hematopoiesis. IL-1β production in peripheral tissue has also been associated with hyperalgesia (increased sensitivity to pain) associated with fever.[6] A macrophage of a mouse stretching its arms to engulf two particles, possibly pathogens Macrophages (Greek: big eaters, makros = long, phagein = eat) are white blood cells, more specifically phagocytes, acting in the nonspecific defense as well as the specific defense system of vertebrate animals. ... Monocyte A monocyte is a leukocyte, part of the human bodys immune system that protect against blood-borne pathogens and move quickly to sites of infection in the tissues. ... Dendritic cells (DC) are immune cells and form part of the mammal immune system. ... An abscess on the skin, showing the redness and swelling characteristic of inflammation. ... An infection is the detrimental colonization of a host organism by a foreign species. ... The endothelium is the layer of thin, flat cells that lines the interior surface of blood vessels, forming an interface between circulating blood in the lumen and the rest of the vessel wall. ... White Blood Cells is also the name of a White Stripes album. ... A pathogen (literally birth of pain from the Greek παθογένεια) is a biological agent that can cause disease to its host. ... The hypothalamus links the nervous system to the endocrine system via the pituitary gland (hypophysis). ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Look up Pyrogen in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Haematopoiesis is the formation of blood cellular components. ... Hyperalgesia is an extreme sensitivity to pain, which in one form is caused by damage to nociceptors in the bodys soft tissues. ...


For the most part, these two forms of IL-1 bind to the same cellular receptor. This receptor is composed of two related, but non-identical, subunits that transmit intracellular signals via a pathway that is mostly shared with certain other receptors. These include the Toll family of innate immune receptors and the receptor for IL-18. In biochemistry, a receptor is a protein on the cell membrane or within the cytoplasm or cell nucleus that binds to a specific molecule (a ligand), such as a neurotransmitter, hormone, or other substance, and initiates the cellular response to the ligand. ...


Structure of the IL-1 superfamily

IL-1α and IL-1β are produced as precursor peptides. In other words they are made as a long protein that is then processed to release a shorter, active molecule, which is called the mature protein. Mature IL-1β, for instance, is released from Pro-IL-1β following cleavage by a certain member of the caspase family of proteins, called caspase-1 or the interleukin-1 converting enzyme (ICE). The 3-dimensional structure of the mature forms of each member of the human IL-1 superfamily is composed of 12-14 β-strands producing a barrel-shaped protein.[1] Caspases are a group of cysteine proteases, enzymes with a crucial cysteine residue that can cleave other proteins after an aspartic acid residue, a specificity which is unusual among proteases. ... Caspase 1 is an enzyme that proteolytically cleaves other proteins, such as the precursor forms of the inflammatory cytokines interleukin 1-β and interleukin 18, into active mature peptides. ... Ribbon diagram of the enzyme TIM, surrounded by the space-filling model of the protein. ...


References

  1. ^ a b C.A. Dinarello. The interleukin-1 family: 10 years of discovery. FASEB Journal. Volume 8, Issue 15, 1994, pages 1314-25.
  2. ^ M.O. Huising et al., The molecular evolution of the interleukin-1 family of cytokines; IL-18 in teleost fish, Developmental and Comparative Immunology, Volume 28, Issue 5, 2004, pages 395-413.
  3. ^ J.E. Sims et al., A new nomenclature for IL-1-family genes. Trends in Immunology, Volume 22, Issue 10, 2001, 536-7.
  4. ^ E. Dunn et al., Annotating genes with potential roles in the immune system: six new members of the IL-1 family. Trends in Immunology, Volume 22, Issue 10, 2001, 533-6.
  5. ^ http://www.genenames.org/
  6. ^ Morgan MM, Clayton CC, Heinricher MM. Dissociation of hyperalgesia from fever following intracerebroventricular administration of interleukin-1beta in the rat. Brain Res. 2004 Oct 1;1022(1-2):96-100. PMID: 15353218

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
interleukins - multiple sclerosis encyclopaedia (393 words)
Interleukins (also called lymphokines) are a sub-group of small soluable proteins called cytokines which function as chemical messengers between cells.
The role of interleukins is to mediate and control the immunologic and inflamatory response.
Interleukins are largely secreted by white blood cells (leukocytes) and received by receptors in others.
About Interleukin Genetics (615 words)
Interleukin Genetics is the only company that has developed a DNA based risk assessment test that can tell people whether or not they have a genetic risk factor that affects their own inflammatory response.
Interleukin is now working to develop other DNA based risk assessment tests for other common disorders (such as osteoporosis).
Interleukin is also exploring pharmaceutical and non-pharmaceutical agents to reduce the risk of or slow the trajectory of genetically influenced inflammatory diseases.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m