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Encyclopedia > Intercontinental ballistic missile
A Minuteman III ICBM test launch from Vandenberg AFB, California, United States.
A Minuteman III ICBM test launch from Vandenberg AFB, California, United States.

An intercontinental ballistic missile, or ICBM, is a long-range (greater than 5,500 km (3,500 miles)) ballistic missile typically designed for nuclear weapons delivery, that is, delivering one or more nuclear warheads. However, new designs contemplated by the United States envision a conventional or even inert (non-explosive) payload, relying on the great speed at impact to cause significant damage. Due to their great range and firepower, in an all-out nuclear war, submarine and land-based ICBMs would carry most of the destructive force, with nuclear-armed bombers the remainder. The form used to register a site with the Usenet mapping project before the day of pervasive Internet included a blank for longitude and latitude, preferably to seconds-of-arc accuracy. ... Minuteman 3 missile launch Image taken from a United States Air Force website: here. ... Minuteman 3 missile launch Image taken from a United States Air Force website: here. ... The LGM-30 Minuteman is a United States nuclear missile, a land-based intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM). ... Boeing Delta 4 Medium+ (4,2) lifts off from Space Launch Complex Six (SLC-6) at Vandenberg AFB, California (Official photo by Thom Baur for the Boeing Company) Vandenberg Air Force Base (IATA: VBG, ICAO: KVBG) is a United States military installation with a spaceport, in Santa Barbara County, California... Diagram of V-2, the first ballistic missile. ... // Nuclear weapons delivery is the technology and systems used to place a nuclear weapon at the position of detonation, on or near its intended target. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 kilometers (11 mi) above the hypocenter A nuclear weapon derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions of fusion or fission. ... The Titan II ICBM carried a 9 Mt W53 warhead, making it one of the most powerful nuclear weapons fielded by the United States during the Cold War. ... French M45 SLBM and M51 SLBM Submarine-launched ballistic missiles or SLBMs are ballistic missiles delivering nuclear weapons that are launched from submarines. ... For other uses, see Bomber (disambiguation). ...


ICBMs are differentiated by having greater range and speed than other ballistic missiles: intermediate-range ballistic missiles (IRBMs), short-range ballistic missiles (SRBMs), and the newly-named theatre ballistic missiles. Categorizing missiles by range is necessarily subjective and the boundaries are chosen somewhat arbitrarily, and so exact boundaries between range classes are not (and never can be) authoritative except within a community which has agreed to a set of definitions. Diagram of V-2, the first ballistic missile. ... An intermediate-range ballistic missile (IRBM) is a ballistic missile with a range of 3,000-5,500 km. ... SRBM is a military acronym for Short-Range Ballistic Missile. ... ...


All five of the nations with permanent seats on the United Nations Security Council have operational ICBM systems: all have submarine-launched missiles, and Russia, the United States and China also have land-based missiles. In addition, Russia and China have mobile land-based missiles. “Security Council” redirects here. ...


India is reported to be developing a new variant of the Agni missile, called the Agni 4, which is reported to have a strike range of 6,000 km[1]. There have also been speculations that India is developing another class of ICBMs called the Surya. No credible sources however can confirm if the 'Surya' program actually exists. It is speculated by some intelligence agencies that North Korea is developing an ICBM;[2] two tests of somewhat different developmental missiles in 1998 and 2006 were not fully successful.[3] The Agni missile (Sanskrit: अग्नी, AgnÄ« Fire) is a series of Short to Intermediate range ballistic missiles developed by India under the Integrated Guided Missile Development Program. ... The Agni missile (Sanskrit: अग्नी, AgnÄ« Fire) is a series of Short to Intermediate range ballistic missiles developed by India under the Integrated Guided Missile Development Program. ... The Integrated Guided Missile Development Program (IGMDP) is an Indian program for the development of a comprehensive range of missiles, including: the intermediate range Agni missile (Surface to Surface), and short range missiles such as the Prithvi ballistic missile (Surface to Surface), Akash missile (Surface to Air), Trishul missile (Surface... An intelligence agency is a governmental organization devoted to gathering of information by means of espionage (spying), communication interception, cryptoanalysis, cooperation with other institutions, and evaluation of public sources. ...


In 1991, the United States and the Soviet Union agreed in the START I treaty to reduce their deployed ICBMs and attributed warheads. START (for Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty) is a treaty between the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) on the Reduction and Limitation of Strategic Offensive Arms. ...

Contents

Flight phases

The following flight phases can be distinguished:

  • boost phase — 3 to 5 minutes (shorter for a solid rocket than for a liquid-propellant rocket); altitude at the end of this phase is typically 150 to 400 km depending on the trajectory chosen, typical burnout speed is 7 km/s.
  • midcourse phase — approx. 25 minutes — sub-orbital spaceflight in an elliptic orbit; the orbit is part of an ellipse with a vertical major axis; the apogee (halfway the midcourse phase) is at an altitude of approximately 1200 km; the semi-major axis is between 3,186 km and 6,372 km; the projection of the orbit on the Earth's surface is close to a great circle, slightly displaced due to earth rotation during the time of flight; the missile may release several independent warheads, and penetration aids such as metallic-coated balloons, aluminum chaff, and full-scale warhead decoys.
  • reentry phase (starting at an altitude of 100 km) — 2 minutes — impact is at a speed of up to 4 km/s (for early ICBMs less than 1 km/s); see also maneuverable reentry vehicle.
See also: Missile Defense Agency, missile defense#Classified by trajectory phase, and Countermeasure

See also depressed trajectory. The boost phase is the portion of the flight of a ballistic missile or space vehicle during which the booster and sustainer engines operate until it reaches peak velocity. ... The Space Shuttle is initially launched with the help of solid-fuel boosters A Solid rocket or a solid fuel rocket is a rocket with a motor that uses solid propellants (fuel/oxidizer). ... The highest specific impulse chemical rockets use liquid propellants. ... A sub-orbital spaceflight (or sub-orbital flight) is a spaceflight that does not involve putting a vehicle into orbit. ... Two bodies with similar mass orbiting around a common barycenter with elliptic orbits. ... For other uses, see Ellipse (disambiguation). ... This article is about several astronomical terms (apogee & perigee, aphelion & perihelion, generic equivalents based on apsis, and related but rarer terms. ... The semi-major axis of an ellipse In geometry, the term semi-major axis (also semimajor axis) is used to describe the dimensions of ellipses and hyperbolae. ... A kilometer (Commonwealth spelling: kilometre), symbol: km is a unit of length in the metric system equal to 1,000 metres (from the Greek words χίλια (khilia) = thousand and μέτρο (metro) = count/measure). ... For the Brisbane bus routes known collectively as the Great Circle Line (598 & 599), see the following list of Brisbane Transport routes A great circle on a sphere A great circle is a circle on the surface of a sphere that has the same diameter as the sphere, dividing the... A penetration aid is a device or tactic used to increase an intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) warheads chances of penetrating a targets defenses. ... Modern US Navy RR-129 and RR-124 chaff countermeasures and containers Chaff, originally called Window by the British, and Düppel by the WWII era German Luftwaffe, is a radar countermeasure in which aircraft or other targets spread a cloud of small, thin pieces of aluminium, metallised glass fibre... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Atmospheric entry is the transition from the vacuum of space to the atmosphere of any planet or other celestial body. ... The maneuverable reentry vehicle (abbreviated MARV or MaRV) is a type of nuclear warhead capable of shifting targets in flight. ... The Missile Defense Agency is the section of the United States governments Department of Defense responsible for developing a layered defense against ballistic missiles. ... Missile defence is an air defence system, weapon program, or technology involved in the detection, tracking, interception and destruction of attacking missiles. ... RNAFs F-16, firing countermeasures (flares) during a solo display at Radom Air Show 2005 A countermeasure is a system (usually for a military application) designed to prevent sensor-based weapons from acquiring and/or destroying a target. ...


History

The development of the first two-staged ICBM, A9/10, intended for use in bombing New York and other American cities, was undertaken in Nazi Germany by the team of Wernher von Braun under Project Amerika. The ICBM A9/A10 rocket initially was intended to be guided by radio but later, was changed (after failure of Elster operation) to a piloted craft. The second stage of the A9/A10 rocket was tested a few times in January and February 1945. The progenitor for the A9/A10 was the German V-2 rocket also designed by von Braun and widely used at the end of World War II to bomb English and Belgian cities. All of these rockets used liquid propellants. Following WWII, von Braun and other leading Nazi scientists were secretly transferred to the United States to work directly for the U.S. Army through Operation Paperclip, developing the IRBMs and ICBMs and space launchers. The Aggregate series was a set of rocket designs developed in 1933–1945 by a research program of Nazi Germanys army. ... This article is about the state. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... For other uses of von Braun, see von Braun (disambiguation). ... An ancestor is a parent or (recursively) the parent of an ancestor. ... For other uses, see V2. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Operation Paperclip scientists pose together. ... An intermediate-range ballistic missile, or IRBM, is a ballistic missile with a range of 2750-5500 km or 1719-3437 miles. ... A Saturn V launch vehicle sends Apollo 15 on its way to the moon. ...


In 1953, the USSR initiated, under the direction of reactive propulsion engineer Sergey Korolyov, a program to develop an ICBM. Korolyov had constructed the R-1, a copy of the V2 based on some captured materials, but later developed his own distinct design. This rocket, the R-7, was successfully tested in August 1957 and, on October 4, 1957, placed the first artificial satellite in space (Sputnik). Sergey Pavlovich Korolyov (Ukrainian: ; Russian: ), often transliterated less phonetically as Sergei Korolev[1] (January 12 [O.S. December 30 1906] 1907, Zhytomyr, now Ukraine – January 14, 1966, Moscow), was the head Soviet rocket engineer and designer during the Space Race between the United States and the Soviet Union in the... The R-1 rocket (NATO reporting name SS-1 Scunner) (and its evolved version R-2 or SS-2 Sibling) was a copy of the German V-2 rocket manufactured by the Soviet Union. ... R-7 with Sputnik 2 The R-7 (Semyorka) was the worlds first ICBM and was deployed by the Soviet Union. ... is the 277th day of the year (278th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1957 Gregorian calendar). ... Sputnik 1 The Sputnik program was a series of unmanned space missions launched by the Soviet Union in the late 1950s to demonstrate the viability of artificial satellites. ...


In the USA, competition between the U.S. armed services meant that each force developed its own ICBM program, slowing progress. The U.S. initiated ICBM research in 1946 with the MX-774. However, its funding was cancelled and only three partially successful launches in 1948, of an intermediate rocket, were ever conducted. In 1951, the U.S. began a new ICBM program called MX-774 and B-65 (later renamed Atlas). The U.S.'s first successful ICBM, the Atlas A, was launched on 17 December 1957, four months after the Soviet R-7 flight. There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Atlas missile launch from Cape Canaveral in 1957 Atlas was a missile built by the Convair Division of General Dynamics. ... December 17 is the 351st day of the year (352nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1957 Gregorian calendar). ...


Military units with deployed ICBMs would first be fielded in 1959, in both the Soviet Union and the United States. The R7 and Atlas both required a large launch facility, making them vulnerable to attack, and could not be kept in a ready state. The UK built its own ICBM Blue Streak but it was never made operational due to the difficulty of finding a launch site away from population centers. The Blue Streak missile was a British ballistic missile designed in 1955. ...


These early ICBMs also formed the basis of many space launch systems. Examples include: Atlas, Redstone rocket, Titan, R-7, and Proton, which was derived from the earlier ICBMs but never deployed as an ICBM. The Eisenhower administration supported the development of solid-fueled missiles such as the LGM-30 Minuteman, Polaris and Skybolt. Modern ICBMs tend to be smaller than their ancestors (due to increased accuracy and smaller and lighter warheads) and use solid fuels, making them less useful as orbital launch vehicles. First launched in 1953, the American Redstone rocket was a direct descendant of the German V-2. ... Titan was a family of U.S. expendable rockets used between 1959 and 2005. ... R-7 with Sputnik 2 The R-7 (Semyorka) was the worlds first ICBM and was deployed by the Soviet Union. ... The Proton rocket (formal designation: UR-500) is a Russian unmanned space vehicle design first launched in 1965 and still in use as of 2003. ... The LGM-30 Minuteman is a United States nuclear missile, a land-based intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM). ... The Polaris Missile was a submarine-launched ballistic missile (SLBM) carrying a nuclear warhead developed during the Cold War for the United States Navy. ... The Douglas GAM-87A Skybolt was an air-launched ballistic missile (ALBM) developed during the late 1950s. ...


Deployment of these systems was governed by the strategic theory of Mutually Assured Destruction. In the 1970s development began on Anti-Ballistic Missile Systems by both the U.S. and USSR but these were restricted by treaty in order to preserve the value of the existing ICBM systems. President Ronald Reagan launched the Strategic Defense Initiative as well as the MX and Midgetman ICBM programmes. This led to the agreement of a series of Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty negotiations. Mutually assured destruction (MAD) is the doctrine of military strategy in which a full scale use of nuclear weapons by one of two opposing sides would result in the destruction of both the attacker and the defender. ... An anti-ballistic missile (ABM) is a missile designed to counter ballistic missiles. ... Reagan redirects here. ... The Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) was proposed by U.S. President Ronald Reagan on March 23, 1983[1] to use ground-based and space-based systems to protect the United States from attack by strategic nuclear ballistic missiles. ... The LGM-118A Peacekeeper, initially known as the MX missile, was a land-based ICBM deployed by the United States starting in 1986. ... A Midgetman test launch The MGM-134 Midgetman was an intercontinental ballistic missile developed by the United States of America. ... START, officially the STrategic Arms Reduction Treaty was a nuclear weapons limitation treaty between the United States and the Soviet Union. ...


Countries in the early stages of developing ICBMs have all used liquid propellants.


Modern ICBMs

External and cross sectional views of a Trident II D5 nuclear missile system. It is a submarine launched missile capable of carrying multiple nuclear warheads up to 8,000 km. Trident missiles are carried by fourteen active US Navy Ohio class submarines and four Royal Navy Vanguard class submarines.
External and cross sectional views of a Trident II D5 nuclear missile system. It is a submarine launched missile capable of carrying multiple nuclear warheads up to 8,000 km. Trident missiles are carried by fourteen active US Navy Ohio class submarines and four Royal Navy Vanguard class submarines.

Modern ICBMs typically carry multiple independently targetable reentry vehicles (MIRVs), each of which carries a separate nuclear warhead, allowing a single missile to hit multiple targets. MIRV was an outgrowth of the rapidly shrinking size and weight of modern warheads and the Strategic Arms Limitation Treaties which imposed limitations on the number of launch vehicles (SALT I and SALT II). It has also proved to be an "easy answer" to proposed deployments of ABM systems – it is far less expensive to add more warheads to an existing missile system than to build an ABM system capable of shooting down the additional warheads; hence, most ABM system proposals have been judged to be impractical. The first operational ABM systems were deployed in the 1970s, the U.S. Safeguard ABM facility was located in North Dakota and was operational from 1975–1976. The USSR deployed its Galosh ABM system around Moscow in the 1970s, which remains in service. Israel deployed a national ABM system based on the Arrow missile in 1998,[4] but it is mainly designed to intercept shorter-ranged theater ballistic missiles, not ICBMs. The U.S. Alaska-based National Missile Defense system attained initial operational capability in 2004.[5] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 562 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (3000 × 3200 pixel, file size: 441 KB, MIME type: image/png) (All user names refer to en. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 562 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (3000 × 3200 pixel, file size: 441 KB, MIME type: image/png) (All user names refer to en. ... The United States Navy (USN) is the branch of the United States armed forces responsible for naval operations. ... The United States has 18 Ohio class submarines: 14 nuclear-powered SSBNs, each armed with 24 Trident II SLBMs; they are also known as Trident submarines, and provide the sea-based leg of the triad of the United States strategic deterrent forces 4 nuclear-powered SSGNs, each armed with 154... USS Los Angeles A submarine is a specialized watercraft that can operate underwater. ... This article is about the navy of the United Kingdom. ... The Vanguard class are the Royal Navys current nuclear ballistic missile submarines (SSBN), each armed with 16 Trident II SLBMs. ... For the article about the band, see M.I.R.V. The MIRVed U.S. Peacekeeper missile, with the re-entry vehicles highlighted in red. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 kilometers (11 mi) above the hypocenter A nuclear weapon derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions of fusion or fission. ... SALT I is the common name for the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks. ... nSALT II was a second round of the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks from 1972-1979 between the United States and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, which sought to curtail the manufacture of strategic nuclear weapons. ... An anti-ballistic missile (ABM) is a missile designed to counter ballistic missiles. ...


ICBMs can be deployed from multiple platforms:

  • in missile silos, which offer some protection from military attack (including, the designers hope, some protection from a nuclear first strike)
  • on submarines: submarine-launched ballistic missiles (SLBMs); most or all SLBMs have the long range of ICBMs (as opposed to IRBMs)
  • on heavy trucks; this applies to one version of the RT-2UTTH Topol M which may be deployed from a self-propelled mobile launcher, capable of moving through roadless terrain, and launching a missile from any point along its route
  • mobile launchers on rails; this applies, for example, to РТ-23УТТХ "Молодец" (RT-23UTTH "Molodets"—SS-24 "Sсаlреl")

The last three kinds are mobile and therefore hard to find. A missile silo is a underground vertical cylindrical container for the storage and launching of ICBMs. ... In nuclear strategy, first strike capability is a countrys ability to defeat another nuclear power by destroying its arsenal to the point where the attacking country can survive the weakened retaliation. ... For other uses, see Submarine (disambiguation). ... French M45 SLBM and M51 SLBM Submarine-launched ballistic missiles or SLBMs are ballistic missiles delivering nuclear weapons that are launched from submarines. ... The RT-2UTTH Topol-M is the most recent intercontinental ballistic missile to be deployed by Russia, and the first to be developed after the dissolution of the Soviet Union. ... A mobile launcher vehicle is a type of military lorry on a multi-wheel-drive or crawler-tread chassis carrying one or more ground-to-ground or ground-to-air explosive missiles, along with the personnel and equipment needed to prepare, organize, and execute a launch of such missiles. ... SS-24 Scalpel (NATO designation) or RT-23 is a Russian ICBM, developed and produced by the Soviet Union before 1991. ...


During storage, one of the most important features of the missile is its serviceability. One of the key features of the first computer-controlled ICBM, the Minuteman missile, was that it could quickly and easily use its computer to test itself. A router, an example of an embedded system. ... The LGM-30 Minuteman is a United States nuclear missile, a land-based intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) (the other type is the LG-118A Peacekeeper, which is to be phased out by 2005). ...


In flight, a booster pushes the warhead and then falls away. Most modern boosters are solid-fueled rocket motors, which can be stored easily for long periods of time. Early missiles used liquid-fueled rocket motors. Many liquid-fueled ICBMs could not be kept fuelled all the time as the cryogenic liquid oxygen boiled off and caused ice formation, and therefore fueling the rocket was necessary before launch. This procedure was a source of significant operational delay, and might cause the rockets to be destroyed before they could be used. To resolve this problem the British invented the missile silo that protected the missile from a first strike and also hid fuelling operations underground. The Space Shuttle is initially launched with the help of solid-fuel boosters A Solid rocket or a solid fuel rocket is a rocket with a motor that uses solid propellants (fuel/oxidizer). ... A liquid rocket engine has fuel and oxidizer in liquid form, as opposed to a solid rocket or hybrid rocket or gaseous propellant. ... A missile silo is a underground vertical cylindrical container for the storage and launching of ICBMs. ... In nuclear strategy, first strike capability is a countrys ability to defeat another nuclear power by destroying its arsenal to the point where the attacking country can survive the weakened retaliation. ...


Once the booster falls away, the warhead falls on an unpowered path much like an orbit, except that it hits the earth at some point. Moving in this way is stealthy. No rocket gases or other emissions occur to indicate the missile's position to defenders. Also, it is the fastest way to get from one part of the Earth to another. This increases the element of surprise. The high speed of a ballistic warhead (near 5 miles per second) also makes it difficult to intercept.


Many authorities say that missiles also release aluminized balloons, electronic noisemakers, and other items intended to confuse interception devices and radars (see penetration aid). A penetration aid is a device or tactic used to increase an intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) warheads chances of penetrating a targets defenses. ...


The high speed can cause the missile to get very hot as it reenters the atmosphere. Ballistic warheads are protected by heatshields constructed of materials such as pyrolytic graphite, and in early missiles, thick plywood. Plywood approaches the strength per weight of carbon fiber/epoxy composites and chars slowly, protecting the missile.[citation needed] Pyrolytic carbon is a material similar to graphite, but with some covalent bonding between its graphene sheets. ... Towers of Hanoi constructed from plywood. ...


Accuracy is crucial, because doubling the accuracy decreases the needed warhead energy by a factor of four. Accuracy is limited by the accuracy of the navigation system and the available geophysical information.


Strategic missile systems are thought to use custom integrated circuits designed to calculate navigational differential equations thousands to millions of times per second in order to reduce navigational errors caused by calculation alone. These circuits are usually a network of binary addition circuits that continually recalculate the missile's position. The inputs to the navigation circuit are set by a general purpose computer according to a navigational input schedule loaded into the missile before launch. Integrated circuit of Atmel Diopsis 740 System on Chip showing memory blocks, logic and input/output pads around the periphery Microchips with a transparent window, showing the integrated circuit inside. ... This article is about determination of position and direction on or above the surface of the earth. ... Visualization of airflow into a duct modelled using the Navier-Stokes equations, a set of partial differential equations. ...


One particular weapon developed by the Soviet Union (FOBS) had a partial orbital trajectory, and unlike most ICBMs its target could not be deduced from its orbital flight path. It was decommissioned in compliance with arms control agreements, which address the maximum range of ICBMs and prohibit orbital or fractional-orbital weapons. Fractional Orbital Bombardment System (FOBS) was a Soviet ICBM in the 1960s with a low Earth orbit that would de-orbit for an attack. ... Two bodies with a slight difference in mass orbiting around a common barycenter. ...


Low-flying guided cruise missiles are an alternative to ballistic missiles. A Taurus KEPD 350 cruise missile of the German Luftwaffe A cruise missile is a guided missile which carries an explosive payload and uses a lifting wing and a propulsion system, usually a jet engine, to allow sustained flight; it is essentially a flying bomb. ... Diagram of V-2, the first ballistic missile. ...


Specific missiles

Land-based ICBMs

Testing at the Kwajalein Atoll of the Peacekeeper re-entry vehicles, all eight fired from only one missile. Each line, were its warhead live, represents the potential explosive power of about 375 kilotons of TNT.
Testing at the Kwajalein Atoll of the Peacekeeper re-entry vehicles, all eight fired from only one missile. Each line, were its warhead live, represents the potential explosive power of about 375 kilotons of TNT.

The U.S. Air Force currently operates 500 ICBMs around three air force bases located primarily in the northern Rocky Mountain states and the Dakotas. These are of the LGM-30 Minuteman III ICBM variant only. Peacekeeper missiles were phased out in 2005.[6] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (3000x2272, 761 KB) LG-118A Peacekeeper missile system being tested at the Kwajalein Atoll in the Marshall Islands. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (3000x2272, 761 KB) LG-118A Peacekeeper missile system being tested at the Kwajalein Atoll in the Marshall Islands. ... Infantry inspect a hole in the devasted Kwajalein Atoll Kwajalein Atoll is part of the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI), 2,100 nautical miles (3900 km) southwest of Honolulu, Hawaii, at 8. ... The LGM-118A Peacekeeper, initially known as the MX missile, was a land-based ICBM deployed by the United States starting in 1986. ... A megaton or megatonne is a unit of mass equal to 1,000,000 metric tons, i. ... Seal of the Air Force. ... The LGM-30 Minuteman is a United States nuclear missile, a land-based intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM). ...


All USAF Minuteman II missiles have been destroyed in accordance with START, and their launch silos have been sealed or sold to the public. To comply with the START II most U.S. multiple independently targetable reentry vehicles, or MIRVs, have been eliminated and replaced with single warhead missiles. However, since the abandonment of the START II treaty, the U.S. is said to be considering retaining 800 warheads on 500 missiles.[7] The LGM-30 Minuteman is a United States nuclear missile, a land-based intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) (the other type is the LG-118A Peacekeeper, which is to be phased out by 2005). ... START II, the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty was signed by George H. W. Bush and Boris Yeltsin in January 1993, which banned the use of MIRVs and hence often cited as De-MIRV-ing Agreement. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...


MIRVed land-based ICBMs are considered destabilizing because they tend to put a premium on striking first. If we assume that each side has 100 missiles, with 5 warheads each, and further that each side has a 95 percent chance of neutralizing the opponent's missiles in their silos by firing 2 warheads at each silo, then the side that strikes first can reduce the enemy ICBM force from 100 missiles to about 5 by firing 40 missiles at the enemy silos and using the remaining 60 for other targets. This first-strike strategy increases the chance of a nuclear war, so the MIRV weapon system was banned under the START II agreement. In nuclear strategy, first strike capability is a countrys ability to defeat another nuclear power by destroying its arsenal to the point where the attacking country can survive the weakened retaliation. ... START II, the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty was signed by George H. W. Bush and Boris Yeltsin in January 1993, which banned the use of MIRVs and hence often cited as De-MIRV-ing Agreement. ...


The United States Air Force awards two badges for performing duty in a nuclear missile silo. The Missile Badge is presented to enlisted and commissioned maintainers while the Space and Missile Pin is awarded to enlisted and commissioned operators. The Missile Badge is a military decoration of the United States Air Force which was first created in the 1960s. ... Master Space and Missile Badge The Space and Missile Badge was a military badge of the United States Air Force which was awarded to those personnel who completed training in space warning, satellite command and control, missile operations, space surveillance, or space lift. ...


Sea-based ICBMs

Trident missile launch at sea from a Royal Navy submarine.
Trident missile launch at sea from a Royal Navy submarine.
  • The U.S. Navy currently has 14 Ohio-class SSBNs deployed.[8] Each submarine is equipped with a complement of 24 Trident II missiles, for a total of 288 missiles equipped with 1152 nuclear warheads.
  • The French Navy constantly maintains at least four active units, relying on two classes of nuclear-powered ballistic submarines (SSBN): the older Redoutable class, which are being progressively decommissioned, and the newer le Triomphant class. These carry 16 M45 missiles with TN75 warheads, and are scheduled to be upgraded to M51 nuclear missiles around 2010.

Image File history File links Trident_II_missile_image. ... Image File history File links Trident_II_missile_image. ... This article contains technical information about the Trident ballistic missile. ... USN redirects here. ... The United States has 18 Ohio class submarines: 14 nuclear-powered SSBNs, each armed with 24 Trident II SLBMs; they are also known as Trident submarines, and provide the sea-based leg of the nuclear triad of the United States strategic deterrent forces 4 nuclear-powered SSGNs, each armed with... It has been proposed below that SSBN be renamed and moved to Ballistic missile submarine. ... The Russian Navy or VMF (Russian: Военно-Морской Флот (ВМФ) - Voyenno- Morskoy Flot (VMF) or Military Maritime Fleet) is the naval arm of the Russian armed forces. ... It has been proposed below that SSBN be renamed and moved to Ballistic missile submarine. ... Delta III class submarine The 667BDR Kalmar (Squid) Delta-III class Submarine was a large Ballistic Missile Submarine. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... // The Typhoon class submarine is a type of nuclear-powered ballistic missile submarine deployed by the Soviet Navy in the 1980s. ... The Bulava (Russian: , “the mace”) is a Submarine-launched ballistic missile under development in Russia. ... The Borei class (or Borey; Russian: Борей, named after Boreas) is a nuclear-powered ballistic missile-carrying submarine (SSBN) currently in development by Russia. ... The French Navy, officially called the National Navy (French: Marine Nationale) is the maritime arm of the French military. ... It has been proposed below that SSBN be renamed and moved to Ballistic missile submarine. ... The Redoutable class submarine is a ballistic missile (SSBN) class, Sous-marin Nucléaire Lanceur dEngins (SNLE), of the Marine Nationale , the oceanic part (Force Océanique Stratégique, FOST) of the Force de frappe. ... The Triomphant class of strategic missile submarines of the French Navy are currently being introduced into service to provide the sea based component of the French nuclear deterrent or Force de frappe, with the M45 SLBM. They are replacing the Redoutable-class boats. ... The M45 SLBM is the French Navys submarine launched ballistic missile. ... The M51 SLBM is the future French Navys submarine launched ballistic missile, designed to replace the M45 SLBM. In French terminology the MSBS - Mer-Sol-Balistique-Strategique (Sea-ground-Strategic ballistic missile) Each missile carries six independently targetable TN-76 thermonuclear warheads. ... This article is about the navy of the United Kingdom. ... The Vanguard class are the Royal Navys current nuclear ballistic missile submarines (SSBN), each armed with up to 16 Trident II SLBMs. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The 6,500-ton Type 092 (US Dept of Defense designation Xia-class) submarine was the first ballistic missile-carrying, nuclear-powered submarine class (SSBN) deployed by the Peoples Liberation Army Navy. ... French M45 SLBM and M51 SLBM Submarine-launched ballistic missiles or SLBMs are ballistic missiles delivering nuclear weapons that are launched from submarines. ... The Type 094 (NATO reporting name: Jin-class; Chinese: ) is a new class of ballistic missile submarine developed by the Chinese Peoples Liberation Army Navy. ... It has been proposed below that SSBN be renamed and moved to Ballistic missile submarine. ... The JL-2 is a Chinese Submarine-launched ballistic missile with a range of 8,000 kilometers, currently in development for use in a new SSBN, Type 094. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...

Current and former U.S. ballistic missiles

  • Atlas (SM-65, CGM-16) former ICBM launched from silo, the rocket is now used for other purposes
  • Titan I (SM-68, HGM-25A) Based in underground launch complexes.
  • Titan II (SM-68B, LGM-25C) — former ICBM launched from silo, the rocket is now used for other purposes
  • Minuteman I (SM-80, LGM-30A/B, HSM-80)
  • Minuteman II (LGM-30F)
  • Minuteman III (LGM-30G) — launched from silo — as of November, 2006, there are 500 Minuteman III missiles in active inventory
  • LGM-118A Peacekeeper / MX (LGM-118A) — silo-based; decommissioned in May 2006
  • Midgetman — has never been operational — launched from mobile launcher
  • Polaris A1, A2, A3 — (UGM-27/A/B/C) former SLBM
  • Poseidon C3 — (UGM-73) former SLBM
  • Trident — (UGM-93A/B) SLBM — Trident II (D5) was first deployed in 1990 and is planned to be deployed past 2020.

Atlas missile launch from Cape Canaveral in 1957 Atlas was a missile built by the Convair Division of General Dynamics. ... The Titan I was the United States first true multistage ICBM. It was the first in a series of Titan rockets, but was unique among them in that it used LOX and RP-1 as its fuels, while the later versions all used storable fuels instead. ... Titan II launch vehicle launching Gemini 11 (Sept. ... The LGM-30 Minuteman is a United States nuclear missile, a land-based intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM). ... The LGM-30 Minuteman is a United States nuclear missile, a land-based intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM). ... The LGM-30 Minuteman is a United States nuclear missile, a land-based intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM). ... The LGM-118A Peacekeeper, initially known as the MX missile, was a land-based ICBM deployed by the United States starting in 1986. ... A Midgetman test launch The MGM-134 Midgetman, also known as the SICBM (see below), was an intercontinental ballistic missile developed by the United States of America. ... The Polaris Missile was a submarine-launched ballistic missile (SLBM) carrying a nuclear warhead developed during the Cold War for the United States Navy. ... The Poseidon missile was the second US Navy ballistic missile system, powered by a two-stage solid fuel rocket. ... This article contains technical information about the Trident ballistic missile. ...

Soviet/Russian

Specific types of Soviet/Russian ICBMs include:

  • MR-UR-100 Sotka / 15A15/ SS-17 Spanker
  • R7 Semyorka / 8K71 / SS-6 Sapwood
  • R-9 Desna / SS-8 Sasin
  • R-16 SS-7 Saddler
  • R-36 SS-9 Scarp
  • R-36M2 Voevoda / SS-18 Satan
  • RS-24 is MIRV-equipped and thermonuclear. It has two tests since 2005.
  • RT-23 Molodets / SS-24 Scalpel
  • RT-2PM Topol / 15Zh58 / SS-25 Sickle
  • RT-2UTTKh Topol M / SS-27
  • UR-100 8K84 / SS-11 Sego
  • UR-100N 15A30 / SS-19 Stiletto

The MR-UR-100 Sotka was a MIRV-warhead intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) developed and deployed by the Soviet Union from 1975 to 1991. ... R-7 with Sputnik 2 The R-7 Semyorka was the worlds first intercontinental ballistic missile and was deployed by the Soviet Union during the Cold War from 1959 to 1968. ... The R-9 (NATO reporting name: SS-8 Sasin) was a two stage ICBM of the Soviet Union. ... An R-16 Missile The R-16 was the first successful ICBM deployed by the Soviet Union. ... The RS-24 is a Russian MIRV-equipped, thermonuclear intercontinental ballistic missile first tested on May 29, 2007 after a secret military R&D project, to replace the older SS-18 and SS-19 until 2050. ... SS-24 Scalpel (NATO designation) or RT-23 is a Russian ICBM, developed and produced by the Soviet Union before 1991. ... // Overview The RT-2PM Topol is a mobile intercontinental ballistic missile designed in the Soviet Union and in service with Russias Strategic Rocket Forces. ... The RT-2UTTH Topol-M is the most recent intercontinental ballistic missile to be deployed by Russia, and the first to be developed after the dissolution of the Soviet Union. ... The UR-100 was an intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) developed and deployed by the Soviet Union from 1966 to 1996. ... The UR-100N is an intercontinental ballistic missile in service with Russia. ...

People's Republic of China

Specific types of Chinese ICBMs called Dong Feng ("East Wind").

  • DF-22 — cancelled by 1995.
  • DF-3 — cancelled. Program name transferred to a MRBM.
  • DF-31 CSS-9 — silo and road mobile, 7,200+ km range.
  • DF-31A CSS-9 — silo and road mobile, 11,200+ km range.
  • DF-41 CSS-X-10 — cancelled, replaced by DF-31A
  • DF-5 CSS-4 — silo based, 13,000+ km range.
  • DF-6 — cancelled

MRBM stands from Medium Range Ballistic Missiles such as the SS1. ... The Dong Feng 31 (a. ... The Dong Feng 31 (a. ... The Dong Feng 31 (a. ... The Dong Feng 31 (a. ... The DF-5 is a 3 stage Chinese ICBM. It has a length 32. ... The Dongfeng 5 or DF-5 is a 3 stage Chinese ICBM. It has a length 32. ...

India

This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

Israel

  • Jericho III — 6,000–7,800 km range suspected to be stockpiled throughout Israel

Jericho is a general designation given to the Israeli medium-range ballistic missiles (MRBM). ...

N. Korea

  • Taepodong-2 estimated 5,000–6,000 km range

The Taepodong-2 (TD-2, also spelled as Taepo-dong 2[1]), (Korean: 대포동 2호) is a designation used to indicate a North Korean three-stage ballistic missile design that is the successor to the Taepodong-1. ...

Ballistic missile submarines

Specific types of ballistic missile submarines include: Diagram of V-2, the first ballistic missile. ... For other uses, see Submarine (disambiguation). ...

The George Washington class of United States Navy submarine were the first ballistic missile submarines in the world. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... The Ethan Allen class of fleet ballistic missile submarine was an evolutionary development from the George Washington class. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... The Lafayette class of submarine was an evolutionary development from the Ethan Allen class of fleet ballistic missile submarine, slightly larger and generally improved. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... The Benjamin Franklin class of submarine was an evolutionary development from the James Madison class of fleet ballistic missile submarine. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... The United States has 18 Ohio class submarines: 14 nuclear-powered SSBNs, each armed with 24 Trident II SLBMs; they are also known as Trident submarines, and provide the sea-based leg of the nuclear triad of the United States strategic deterrent forces 4 nuclear-powered SSGNs, each armed with... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... During the 1950s and early 1960s, Great Britains only nuclear deterrent was through the RAFs V-bombers. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... The Vanguard class are the Royal Navys current nuclear ballistic missile submarines (SSBN), each armed with up to 16 Trident II SLBMs. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... // The Typhoon class submarine is a type of nuclear-powered ballistic missile submarine deployed by the Soviet Navy in the 1980s. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Soviet_Union. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Russia. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Soviet_Union. ... The Redoutable class submarine is a ballistic missile (SSBN) class, Sous-marin Nucléaire Lanceur dEngins (SNLE), of the Marine Nationale , the oceanic part (Force Océanique Stratégique, FOST) of the Force de frappe. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... The Triomphant class of strategic missile submarines of the French Navy are currently being introduced into service to provide the sea based component of the French nuclear deterrent or Force de frappe, with the M45 SLBM. They are replacing the Redoutable-class boats. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... The 6,500-ton Type 092 (US Dept of Defense designation Xia-class) submarine was the first ballistic missile-carrying, nuclear-powered submarine class (SSBN) deployed by the Peoples Liberation Army Navy. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Peoples_Republic_of_China. ... The Type 094 (NATO reporting name: Jin-class; Chinese: ) is a new class of ballistic missile submarine developed by the Chinese Peoples Liberation Army Navy. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Peoples_Republic_of_China. ... NATO reporting name for ballistic missile submarines, with Soviet designations: Ballistic Missile Submarines - Nuclear Propelled (Podvodnaya Lodka Atomnaya Raketnaya Ballistecheskaya - PLARB) Hotel I (Project 658) 8 ships Hotel II (Project 658M) 7 ships (refitted from Project 658 ships) Yankee I (Project 667A) 34 ships Yankee II (Project 667AM, Navaga-M...

See also

Israel is widely believed to possess a substantial arsenal of nuclear weapons,[1] and maintains intercontinental-range ballistic missiles to deliver them. ... Pakistan started focusing on nuclear development in January 1972 under the leadership of Prime Minister Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto. ... The Peoples Republic of China is estimated by the U.S. Government to have an arsenal of about 150 nuclear weapons as of 1999. ... It has been suggested that Force de frappe be merged into this article or section. ... India is believed to possess an arsenal of nuclear weapons and maintains intermediate-range ballistic missiles to deliver them. ... Russia possesses one of the two largest stockpiles of weapons of mass destruction in the world (the United States possess the other). ... The federal government of the United States is known to possess three types of weapons of mass destruction: nuclear weapons, chemical weapons and biological weapons. ... The United Kingdom is one of the five official nuclear weapon states under the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and has an independent nuclear deterrent. ... French M45 SLBM and M51 SLBM Submarine-launched ballistic missiles or SLBMs are ballistic missiles delivering nuclear weapons that are launched from submarines. ... An anti-ballistic missile (ABM) is a missile designed to counter ballistic missiles. ... Heavy ICBM is a term that was created in the 1970s to describe a class of Soviet ICBMs (intercontinental ballistic missiles). ... Throw-weight is a measure of the effective weight of ballistic missile payloads. ... The Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty (ABM treaty or ABMT) was a treaty between the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics on the limitation of the anti-ballistic missile (ABM) systems used in defending areas against missile-delivered nuclear weapons. ... “Reentry” redirects here. ... U.S. and USSR/Russian nuclear weapons stockpiles, 1945-2006 Nuclear disarmament is the proposed dismantling of nuclear weapons, particularly those of the United States and the Soviet Union (later Russia) targeted on each other. ... Nuclear navy, or nuclear powered navy consists of ships powered by relatively small onboard nuclear reactors known as naval reactors. ... The Titan II ICBM carried a 9 Mt W53 warhead, making it one of the most powerful nuclear weapons fielded by the United States during the Cold War. ... The Redoutable, the first French nuclear missile submarine // a Pluton missile mobile launcher The Force de frappe (literally Striking Force; meant for dissuasion, i. ... For other uses, see Submarine (disambiguation). ... Fractional Orbital Bombardment System (FOBS) was a Soviet ICBM program in the 1960s that after launch would go into a low Earth orbit and would then de-orbit for an attack. ... Air Force Space Command (AFSPC) is a major command of the United States Air Force. ...

References

  1. ^ Times of India: India plans 6,000-km range Agni-IV missile
  2. ^ Taep'o-dong 2 (TD-2) - North Korea
  3. ^ [1][2]
  4. ^ Israeli Arrow ABM System is Operational as War Clouds Darken
  5. ^ MissileThreat ::
  6. ^ Peacekeeper missile mission ends during ceremony
  7. ^ http://www.thebulletin.org/issues/nukenotes/mj04nukenote.html
  8. ^ There are a total of 18 Ohio-class submarines in the US Navy inventory; however four of these submarines have been retrofitted to carry and fire cruise missiles, and are no longer considered ballistic missile subs.
  9. ^ AFP: India building 6,000km nuclear-capable missile
  10. ^ Surya
  11. ^ AFP: India building 6,000km nuclear-capable missile
  12. ^ http://lxmi.mi.infn.it/~landnet/NSA/cirincione.pdf
  13. ^ India's ICBM
  14. ^ India's ICBM

External links

Aviation encompasses all the activities relating to airborne devices created by human ingenuity, generally known as aircraft. ... This is a timeline of aviation history. ... This list of aircraft is sorted alphabetically, beginning with the name of the manufacturer (or, in certain cases, designer). ... This is a list of aircraft manufacturers (in alphabetic order). ... List of aircraft engines: // Two- and four-stroke rotary, radial, inline. ... This is a list of aircraft engine manufacturers both past and present. ... This is a list of airlines in operation (by continents and country). ... This is a list of air forces, sorted alphabetically by country, followed by a list of former countries air forces. ... This is an incomplete list of aircraft weapons, past and present. ... Below is a list of (links to pages on) missiles, sorted alphabetically by name. ... A Boeing 720 being flown under remote control as part of NASAs Controlled Impact Demonstration The following is a list of Unmanned aerial vehicles developed and operated by various countries around the world. ... This is a list of experimental aircraft. ... The SR-71 Blackbird is the current record holder. ... Flight distance records without refueling. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with List of altitude records reached by different aircraft types. ... The flight endurance record is the amount of time spent in the air. ... Aircraft with a production run greater than 5,000 aircraft. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
NationMaster - Encyclopedia: Intercontinental ballistic missile (7924 words)
Ballistic warheads are protected by heatshields constructed of materials such as pyrolytic graphite, and in early missiles, thick plywood.
Ballistic missiles have been the preferred weapon because they are long range missiles and are of strategic intimidation for rouge regimes seeking to exert political and strategic leverage far in excess of what they would otherwise be able to bear using their conventional military assets.
Ballistic missiles are seen in many regimes, which do not otherwise possess the ability to project military power much beyond their own borders as weapons capable of creating fear and terror in opponents even if these opponents are economically and militarily stronger.
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