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Encyclopedia > Interceptor aircraft
The MiG-25 is a Russian interceptor that was the mainstay of the Soviet air defence.
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The MiG-25 is a Russian interceptor that was the mainstay of the Soviet air defence.

An interceptor aircraft (or simply interceptor) is a type of fighter aircraft designed specifically to intercept and destroy enemy aircraft, particularly bombers, usually relying on great speed. A number of such aircraft were built in the period starting just prior to World War II and ending in the late 1960s, when they became less important due to the shifting of the strategic bombing role to ICBMs. Image File history File links MiG-25U-2_JNO.jpg MiG-25PU Source:rvb via user:jno File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-25 ... Image File history File links MiG-25U-2_JNO.jpg MiG-25PU Source:rvb via user:jno File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-25 ... MiG 25 Foxbat The MiG-25 (NATO reporting name Foxbat) is a high-speed interceptor and reconnaissance aircraft produced by the Soviet Unions Mikoyan-Gurevich design bureau. ... Soviet redirects here. ... An A-10 Thunderbolt II, F-86 Sabre, P-38 Lightning and P-51 Mustang fly in formation during an air show at Langley Air Force Base, Virginia. ... Airbus A380 An aircraft is any machine capable of atmospheric flight. ... A bomber is a military aircraft designed to attack ground targets, primarily by dropping bombs. ... This article is becoming very long. ... The 1960s decade refers to the years from 1960 to 1969, inclusive. ... The remains of german town of Wesel after intensive allied area bombing in 1945 (destruction rate 98 % of all buildings) Strategic bombing is a military strategy used in a total war style campaign that attempts to destroy the economic ability of a nation-state to wage war. ... A Minuteman III missile soars after a test launch. ...

Contents


Design

There are two types of interceptors, emphasizing different aspects of performance. Both types of aircraft sacrifice performance in the air superiority fighter role (ie fighting enemy fighter aircraft). The result is that interceptors often looked very impressive on paper, typically outrunning, outclimbing and outgunning less dedicated escort fighter designs, yet they tend to fare poorly in combat against those same "less capable" designs. In the 1970s, the utility of interceptors waned as the role became blurred into the roles of the heavy air superiority fighters dominant in military thinking at the time. 1974 Aviation Week Ad: F-14 Tomcat, Worlds most capable air superiority fighter. ... The P-51 Mustang is one of the best-known escort fighters of World War II. The escort fighter was a World War II concept for a fighter aircraft designed to escort a bomber formation to and from its target. ... The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979, inclusive. ...


Point defense

The English Electric Lightning was former holder of the world air-speed record, the first aircraft capable of supercruise and one of the most powerful aircraft ever used in formation aerobatics.
The English Electric Lightning was former holder of the world air-speed record, the first aircraft capable of supercruise and one of the most powerful aircraft ever used in formation aerobatics.

Point defense interceptors, usually of European origin, are designed to defend specific targets. They are designed to take off and climb to altitude as quickly as possible, destroy the incoming bombers, and then land. A particularly extreme example of a point defense interceptor is the rocket-powered Bachem Ba 349. XS897 Lightning of RAF 5 Squadron breaks over XR770 Lightning on one of the squadrons last sorties prior to disbandment. ... XS897 Lightning of RAF 5 Squadron breaks over XR770 Lightning on one of the squadrons last sorties prior to disbandment. ... The English Electric Lightning (later the BAC Lightning) was a supersonic British fighter aircraft of the Cold War era, particularly remembered for its great speed, and its natural metal exterior that was used throughout much of its service life with the Royal Air Force and the Royal Saudi Air Force. ... A supercruising aircraft is able to cruise at supersonic speeds efficiently without the use of afterburners. ... Point-defence is the defence of a single object or a limited area, e. ... Bachem Ba 349 Natter (Colubrid) was a WWII era German experimental rocket-powered interceptor aircraft which was to be employed in a very similar way as surface-to-air missiles. ...


At the start of the Second World War, most fighters designed in Europe were short-legged, with limited internal fuel capacity. These were not designed specifically as interceptors, but the long-range bomber escort role had not been envisaged. This proved to be a critical problem for German single-engined fighters (essentially, only one design at that time, the Bf/Me 109,) during the Battle of Britain, which could escort bombers across the channel, but only had sufficient fuel for a few minutes of combat if they were also to return to their airfields in France. At this stage, the similar limitation of British single-engined fighters was less of a problem for the Royal Air Force. When it began its own bombing campaign over Germany, most of its missions were flown at night, unescorted, or escorted by larger, longer-ranged and twin-engined night fighters. As the war progressed, however, RAF Bomber Command flew increasing numbers of daylight missions. The Spitfire, designed several years before the war, was adapted to other roles - older machines were re-assigned to fighter-bomber squadrons, based nearer the front, while newer marks developed into more highly-focussed interceptors. These later, Griffon-engined Spitfires were primarily retained in Britain to defend against V1 flying bombs and bombing raids by single, high-speed or high-altitude, German bombers. Newer designs, like the Tempest, and American fighters bought under lend-lease, would fill the conventional and long-range fighter gap. The Germans, quickly losing their ability to project their airpower over enemy territory, no longer had much requirement for a long-range escort fighter. They were obliged to keep using the Me109 throughout the war (although, unlike the Spitfire, its newer marks did not keep it at the forward edge of fighter performance), although it and newer designs were developed as fighter bombers, the Luftwaffe's most critical requirement was for interceptors as the Commonwealth and American air forces pounded German targets day and night. Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ... Combatants United Kingdom Germany Commanders Hugh Dowding Hermann Göring Albert Kesselring Strength 700 fighters 1,260 bombers, 316 dive-bombers, 1,089 fighters Casualties 1,547 aircraft, 27,450 civilian dead, 32,138 wounded 2,698 aircraft One of the major campaigns of the early part of World War... The Royal Air Force (RAF) is the air force branch of the British Armed Forces. ...


In the cold war, the bombers that would carry out attacks were seen to be flying higher and faster (near supersonic). This led to designs that went for acceleration and operating ceiling, such as the mixed power (jet/rocket) Saunders Roe SR.53, capable of reaching altitude in only a couple of minutes. With the expectation of very high flying supersonic bombers the British requirement for an interceptor was defined by Operational Requirement F.155. The planes were cancelled just ahead of the switch of focus of the enemy from high level to low level planes and ballistic missiles. The Saunders-Roe SR.53 was a prototype interceptor aircraft of mixed jet and rocket propulsion developed for the Royal Air Force in the early 1950s. ... The Operation Requirement F.155 was an identified need by the British Ministry of Supply for an interceptor aircraft for the defence of the United Kingdom. ...


Examples of point defense interceptors:

The Me 163 Komet was the only operational rocket fighter aircraft during WWII. It required a lengthy development process and entered the Second World War in a very limited fashion only in 1944. ... The English Electric Lightning (later the BAC Lightning) was a supersonic British fighter aircraft of the Cold War era, particularly remembered for its great speed, and its natural metal exterior that was used throughout much of its service life with the Royal Air Force and the Royal Saudi Air Force. ... Draken in Flight The Saab J35 Draken (The Dragon) or Saab 35 is a Swedish fighter aircraft manufactured by Saab between 1955 and 1974. ... The Saab Viggen (Thunder Bolt or Bolt ¹) or Saab 37 is a Swedish fighter aircraft manufactured between 1970 and 1990 to replace the Saab Draken (Dragon). ... Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-21 (Russian: ) (NATO reporting name Fishbed) is a fighter aircraft, originally built by the Mikoyan and Gurevich Design Bureau in the Soviet Union. ... The Lockheed F-104 Starfighter was a high-performance supersonic interceptor aircraft, capable of high speeds and climb rates. ...

Area defense

The Lockheed YF-12 was a prototype interceptor that formed the basis for the SR-71 Blackbird.
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The Lockheed YF-12 was a prototype interceptor that formed the basis for the SR-71 Blackbird.

Area defense interceptors usually of North American or Soviet origin, are designed to defend a large area of territory from attack. The design emphasis is on range, missile carrying capacity and radar quality rather than on acceleration and climb rate. They usually carry long-range or medium-range air-to-air missiles, and often had no bomb carrying capability. YF-12A (USAF public domain photo) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... YF-12A (USAF public domain photo) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... This aircraft article has not been updated to WikiProject Aircrafts current standards. ... The Lockheed SR-71, unofficially known as the Blackbird and by its crews as the Habu, was an advanced, long-range, Mach 3 strategic reconnaissance aircraft developed from the Lockheed YF-12A and A-12 aircraft by the Lockheed Skunk Works (also responsible for the U-2). ... A US Navy VF-103 Jolly Rogers F-14 Tomcat fighter launchers an AIM-54 Phoenix long-range air-to-air missile. ...


In the Soviet Union during the Cold War, an entire military service, not just an arm of the pre-existing air force, was designated for their use. The planes of the PVO-Strany differed from those of the Red Air Force in that they couldn't take off from grass, only concrete runways; they couldn't be towed for hundreds of kilometres from airfield to airfield by tractor across open fields; they couldn't be disassembled and shipped back to a maintenance center in a boxcar; and they were by no means small as necessary and rudely simple, but huge and refined with large, powerful radars. Similarly, they were not given the same training in combat maneuvers, but were directed to their targets by radio. The Cold War (Russian: Холодная Война Kholodnaya Voina) was the protracted geopolitical, ideological, and economic struggle that emerged after World War II between a worldwide military alliance of capitalist states led by the United States and a rival alliance of communist states led by the Soviet Union. ... Voyska PVO (Russian: Войска ПВО, or PVO Strany until 1981) was the air defense branch of the Soviet military. ... Soviet Air Force, also known under the abbreviation VVS, transliterated from Russian: ВВС, Военно-воздушные силы (Voenno-Vozdushnye Sily), formed the official designation of the airforce of the Soviet Union. ...


Examples of area defense interceptors:

  • F-101B Voodoo
  • F-102 Delta Dagger
  • F-106 Delta Dart
  • F-14 Tomcat
  • Avro CF-100
  • Avro Arrow
  • Tornado F3
  • Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-25 and MiG-31
  • Sukhoi Su-15
  • Tupolev Tu-28
  • Yakovlev Yak-28
  • Lockheed YF-12

The McDonnell F-101 Voodoo was a supersonic military aircraft flown by the USAF and the RCAF. Initially designed as a long-range bomber escort (known as a penetration fighter) for the Strategic Air Command, the Voodoo served in a variety of other roles, including the fighter bomber, all-weather... The Convair F-102 Delta Dagger fighter aircraft was part of the backbone of the United States air defenses in the late 1950s. ... The Convair F-106A Delta Dart was the primary all-weather interceptor aircraft for the US Air Force from the 1960s through the late 1970s. ... The Grumman F-14 Tomcat is a supersonic, twin-engine, two-seat variable geometry wing aircraft. ... A Canadian Forces CF-100 Mk. ... Avro Arrow The A.V.Roe CF-105 Arrow was a delta-wing interceptor aircraft, designed and built in Toronto, Ontario, Canada by Avro Canada during a short period of time in the 1950s. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Panavia Tornado. ... The Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-25 (Russian: ) (NATO reporting name Foxbat) is a high-speed interceptor and reconnaissance aircraft designed by the Soviet Unions Mikoyan-Gurevich bureau. ... Mikoyan MiG-31 Foxhound The Mikoyan MiG-31 (МиГ-31 in Cyrillic script) (NATO reporting name Foxhound) is a high-speed interceptor developed to replace the MiG-25. ... Su-15 The Sukhoi Su-15 (NATO reporting name Flagon) was a twin-engined interceptor aircraft developed by the Soviet Union in the 1960s to replace the Sukhoi Su-11. ... Tu-28 The Tupolev Tu-28 (NATO reporting name Fiddler) was developed by the Soviet Union in the 1960s as a long-range interceptor aircraft. ... Yak-28I The Yakovlev Yak-28 was a swept wing, turbojet-powered combat aircraft used by the Soviet Union. ... This aircraft article has not been updated to WikiProject Aircrafts current standards. ...

See also


1974 Aviation Week Ad: F-14 Tomcat, Worlds most capable air superiority fighter. ... A bomber destroyer is a former type of fighter aircraft dedicated to destroying enemy bomber aircraft. ... A day fighter is a fighter aircraft equipped only to fight during the day. ... The P-51 Mustang is one of the best-known escort fighters of World War II. The escort fighter was a World War II concept for a fighter aircraft designed to escort a bomber formation to and from its target. ... A night fighter is a fighter aircraft adapted for use at night, or in other times of bad visibility. ...

Lists of Aircraft | Aircraft manufacturers | Aircraft engines | Aircraft engine manufacturers This list of aircraft is sorted alphabetically, beginning with the name of the manufacturer (or, in certain cases, designer). ... This is a list of aircraft manufacturers (in alphabetic order). ... List of aircraft engines: // Piston engines Allison V-1710 Alvis Alcides Alvis Leonides Alvis Maenoides Alvis Pelides Armstrong Siddeley Leopard Armstrong Siddeley Jaguar Armstrong Siddeley Panther Armstrong Siddeley Mongoose Armstrong-Siddeley Puma Armstrong-Siddeley Cheetah Armstrong-Siddeley Nimbus Beardmore Bentley BR1 Rotary BMW 132 BMW 139 BMW 801 Bramo 323... This is a list of aircraft engine manufacturers both past and present. ...


Airports | Airlines | Air forces | Aircraft weapons | Missiles | Timeline of aviation This is a list of airlines in operation (by continents and country). ... This is a list of Air forces, sorted alphabetically by country. ... This is an incomplete list of aircraft weapons, past and present. ... Below is a list of (links to pages on) missiles, sorted alphabetically by name. ... This is a timeline of aviation history. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Interceptor aircraft - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (366 words)
An interceptor aircraft (or simply interceptor) is a type of fighter aircraft designed specifically to intercept and destroy enemy aircraft at great speed, particularly bombers.
A number of such aircraft were built in the period starting just prior to World War II and ending in the late 1960s, when they became less important due to the shifting of the strategic bombing role to ICBMs.
The result is that interceptors often looked very impressive on paper, typically outrunning, outclimbing and outgunning less dedicated escort fighter designs, yet they tend to fare poorly in combat against those same "less capable" designs.
Interceptor - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (188 words)
Interceptor aircraft (or simply "interceptor"), a type of fighter aircraft designed specifically to intercept and destroy enemy aircraft
Interceptor ship, a type of military vessel designed specifically to intercept and destroy enemy ships or submarines (for example, USCG Long Range Interceptor)
Interceptor missile, a type of defensive missile used against other missiles in flight (for example, Kinetic Energy Interceptor)
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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