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Encyclopedia > Interaction

Interaction is a kind of action that occurs as two or more objects have an effect upon one another. The idea of a two-way effect is essential in the concept of interaction, as percy puddles to a one-way causal effect. A closely related term is interconnectivity, which deals with the interactions of interactions within systems: combinations of many simple interactions can lead to surprising emergent phenomena. Interaction has different tailored meanings in various sciences. All systems are related and interdependent. Every action has a consequence. Look up interaction in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Action, as a concept in philosophy, is what an agent can do, as for instance humans as agents can do. ... Effect can be used in several different ways: Cause and effect are the relata of causality In movies and other media, sound effects are artificially created or enhanced sounds. ... A causal system is a system that depends only on the current and previous inputs. ... Not to be confused with interdependence. ... A termite cathedral mound produced by a termite colony: a classic example of emergence in nature. ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ...


Casual examples of interaction outside of science include:

Contents

For the Bobby Womack album, see Communication (1972 album). ... In sociology, a group is usually defined as a collection of humans or animals, who share certain characteristics, interact with one another, accept expectations and obligations as members of the group, and share a common identity. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... For other uses, see Nation (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see State (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that Commerce be merged into this article or section. ... The term is used to describe the interaction taking place among governments, when striving to establish mutual contacts, another word for diplomacy. ... For the superhero, see Feedback (Dark Horse Comics). ... This article is about devices that perform tasks. ...

Chemistry and medicine

In medicine, most medications can be safely used with other medicines, but particular combinations of medicines need to be monitored for interactions, often by the pharmacist. In molecular biology, the knowledge on gene/protein interaction among themselves and with their metabolites is referred to as molecular pathways. For the chemical substances known as medicines, see medication. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For the chemical substances known as medicines, see medication. ... For other uses, see Combination (disambiguation). ... The mortar and pestle is an international symbol of pharmacists and pharmacies. ... Molecular biology is the study of biology at a molecular level. ... For other uses, see Gene (disambiguation). ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... A metabolite is the product of metabolism. ...


Interactions between medications (drug interactions) fall generally into one of two main categories; pharmacodynamic (involving the actions of the two interacting drugs), and pharmacokinetic (involving the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of one or both of the interacting drugs upon the other). A drug interaction is a situation in which a substance affects the activity of a drug, i. ... Pharmacodynamics is the study of the biochemical and physiological effects of drugs and the mechanisms of drug action and the relationship between drug concentration and effect. ... Pharmacokinetics is a branch of pharmacology dedicated to the study of the time course of substances and their relationship with an organism or system. ...


In terms of efficacy, there can be three types of interactions between medications: additive, synergistic, and antagonistic. Additive interaction means the effect of two chemicals is equal to the sum of the effect of the two chemicals taken separately. This is usually due to the two chemicals acting on the body in the same way. Examples would be Aspirin and Motrin, Alcohol and Depressant, Tranquilizer and Painkiller. Synergistic interaction means that the effect of two chemicals taken together is greater than the sum of their separate effect at the same doses. An example is Pesticide and Fertilizer, the biological effect is devastating. Antagonistic interaction means that the effect of two chemicals is actually less than the sum of the effect of the two drugs taken independently of each other. This is because the second chemical increases the excretion of the first, or even directly blocks its toxic actions. Antagonism forms the basis for antidotes of poisonings. An example is Asparagus and birth control pills.


Communications

Main article: Interactivity

In communications, interactive communication occurs when sources take turns transmitting messages between one another. This should be distinguished from transactive communication, in which sources transmit messages simultaneously. Included in this category are all new modes of communication such as cable video, teletext, videotext, teleshopping, video on demand, computers, Internet, tele-conferencing etc. Tele-communication also falls under this category. so cell phones, pagers, mobile phones, and electronic mail are interactive communications. these can be classified under three headings: ‹ The template below has been proposed for deletion. ... For the Bobby Womack album, see Communication (1972 album). ... A source is one of the basic concepts of communication and information processing. ... In telecommunications, transmission is the act of transmitting electrical messages (and the associated phenomena of radiant energy that passes through media). ... Message in its most general meaning is an object of communication. ... In communications, transactive communication occurs when sources transmit messages to one another simultaneously. ...

 1. Interpersonal : Telephone and its allied services. 2. Group : Tele-conference. video-conference. 3. Mass : Internet, world wide web 

Media art

In media, interactivity is a feature of the media in question and as digital technology becomes more accessible to the masses interest in interactivity is increasing and becoming a cultural trend especially in the arts. Interactivity can exist in virtual spaces or in real space. With virtual interaction the interaction usually takes place in the space of a computer with the monitor providing visual cues and the keyboard and mouse allowing interaction. In physical space the interaction usually involves sensors, actuators and computer systems with code that allow interactive systems to respond to human position, touch and sound. ‹ The template below has been proposed for deletion. ...


Physics

Main article: Fundamental force

In physics, an interaction or force specifically refers to the action of one physical object upon another and results in a potential energy - the physical objects under consideration may range from point particles to quantum fields. For example, the interaction of charged particles takes place through the mediation of electromagnetic fields, whereas beta decay occurs by means of the weak interaction. There are believed to be four fundamental interactions in Nature. A fundamental interaction is a mechanism by which particles interact with each other, and which cannot be explained by another more fundamental interaction. ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... For other uses, see Force (disambiguation). ... Potential energy can be thought of as energy stored within a physical system. ... A spatial point is an entity with a location in space but no extent (volume, area or length). ... For the novel, see The Elementary Particles. ... Quantum field theory (QFT) is the quantum theory of fields. ... This box:      Electric charge is a fundamental conserved property of some subatomic particles, which determines their electromagnetic interaction. ... The electromagnetic field is a physical field that is produced by electrically charged objects and which affects the behaviour of charged objects in the vicinity of the field. ... In nuclear physics, beta decay (sometimes called neutron decay) is a type of radioactive decay in which a beta particle (an electron or a positron) is emitted. ... The weak interaction (often called the weak force or sometimes the weak nuclear force) is one of the four fundamental interactions of nature. ... A fundamental interaction is a mechanism by which particles interact with each other, and which cannot be explained by another more fundamental interaction. ...


Sociology

Main article: Social interaction

In sociology, social interaction is a dynamic, changing sequence of social actions between individuals (or groups) who modify their actions and reactions due to the actions by their interaction partner(s). Social interactions can be differentiated into accidental, repeated, regular, and regulated. Social interactions form the basis for social relations. Social interaction is a dynamic, changing sequence of social actions between individuals (or groups) who modify their actions and reactions due to the actions by their interaction partner(s). ... Sociology (from Latin: socius, companion; and the suffix -ology, the study of, from Greek λόγος, lógos, knowledge [1]) is the systematic and scientific study of society, including patterns of social relationships, social action, and culture[2]. Areas studied in sociology can range from the analysis of brief contacts between anonymous... Social interaction is a dynamic, changing sequence of social actions between individuals (or groups) who modify their actions and reactions due to the actions by their interaction partner(s). ... In sociology, social action refer to any action that takes into account actions and reactions of another individuals (real or imagined) and is modified based on those events. ... Social relation can refer to a multitude of social interactions, regulated by social norms, between two or more people, with each having a social position and performing a social role. ...


Statistics

In statistics, an interaction is a term in a statistical model in which the effect of two, or more, variables is not simply additive. A graphical depiction of a statistical interaction in which the extent to which experience impacts cost depends on decision time. ... This article is about the field of statistics. ... A statistical model is used in applied statistics. ...


An example from statistics applied to psychology

If the two variables were sex and premature birth we would describe any difference in scores between sexes as a good thing. Similarly any difference in scores of full term/premature birth would be described as a main effect. When describing the scores of one variable compared to the other this is describing the interaction, as the sets of scores are in effect different variables interacting with one another. In most systems of human pregnancy, the condition, premature birth (also known as a preterm birth), occurs when the baby is born within sooner than 36 weeks of completed gestation. ... In some versions of computing jargon, a Good Thing, written with capital letters as if a proper noun for added emphasis (and with the words similarly emphasised when spoken), is something which has positive consequences for the subject under discussion. ... Main effect is the term used in research methods for the effect that is produced by the average of an independent variable that has been produced over another independent variable. ...


See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Rotary.org: Interact (194 words)
Interact is Rotary International’s service club for young people ages 14 to 18.
Interact clubs are sponsored by individual Rotary clubs, which provide support and guidance, but they are self-governing and self-supporting.
For more information about Interact in your area, contact your local Rotary club, or ask RI staff.
Interact - definition of Interact in Encyclopedia (351 words)
Interactions between drugs fall generally into one of two main categories; pharmacodynamic (involving the actions of the two interacting drugs), and pharmacokinetic (involving the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of one or both of the interacting drugs upon the other).
Other interactions may cause one medicine to have less or more effect than expected and these are usually managed by a dosage adjustment.
For example, the interaction of charged particles takes place through the mediation of the electromagnetic field whereas beta decay occurs by means of the weak interaction.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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