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Encyclopedia > Inter caetera

Inter caetera ("Among other [works]") was a papal bull issued by Pope Alexander VI on May 4, 1493, which granted to Spain (the Crowns of Castile and Aragon) all lands to the "west and south" of a pole-of-pole line 100 leagues (418 km) west and south of any of the islands of the Azores or the Cape Verde Islands.[1] Papal bull of Pope Urban VIII, 1637, sealed with a leaden bulla. ... Pope Alexander VI (1 January 1431 – 18 August 1503), born Roderic Borja (Italian: Borgia), (reigned from 1492 to 1503), is the most controversial of the secular popes of the Renaissance and one whose surname became a byword for the debased standards of the papacy of that era. ... May 4 is the 124th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (125th in leap years). ... 1493 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The starting point of Crown of Castile can be considered when the union of the Kingdoms of Castile and Leon in 1230 or the later fusion of their Cortes (their Parlaments). ... King of Aragons arms in 15th century The Crown of Aragon or Aragonese Empire was the regime of a large portion of what is now Spain, plus numerous Mediterranean possessions, for much of the later Middle Ages. ... League is a unit of distance long common in Europe and Latin America, although no longer an official unit in any nation. ... Motto: Antes morrer livres que em paz sujeitos (Rather die free than in peace subjugated) Anthem: A Portuguesa (national) Hino dos Açores (local) Capital Ponta Delgada (Presidency of the Regional Government) Angra do Heroísmo (Supreme Court)1 Horta (Legislative Assembly)2 Largest city Ponta Delgada Official languages Portuguese...

Contents

Background

Columbus' arrival to supposedly Asiatic lands in the western seas in 1492 threatened the unstable relations between Portugal and Spain, which had been jockeying for position and possession of colonial territories along the African coast for many years. The King of Portugal asserted that the discovery was within the bounds set forth in the papal bulls of 1455, 1456, and 1479.[citation needed] The King and Queen of Spain disputed this and sought a new papal bull on the subject. Pope Alexander VI, a native of Valencia and a friend of the Spanish King, responded with three bulls, dated May 3 and 4, which were highly favorable to Spain. The third of these bulls was Inter caetera. Pope Alexander VI (1 January 1431 – 18 August 1503), born Roderic Borja (Italian: Borgia), (reigned from 1492 to 1503), is the most controversial of the secular popes of the Renaissance and one whose surname became a byword for the debased standards of the papacy of that era. ...


Provisions

This bull was silent regarding whether lands to the east of the line would belong to Portugal, which had only recently reached the southern tip of Africa (1488) and had not yet reached India (1498). These lands were "to be discovered" beyond those along the west coast of Africa as far as Guinea that were given to Portugal via the 1481 bull Aeterni regis, which had ratified the Treaty of Alcaçovas. Moreover, in the bull Dudum siquidem dated September 25, 1493 entitled Extension of the Apostolic Grant and Donation of the Indies, the Pope granted to Spain even those lands in eastern waters that "at one time or even yet belonged to India."[2] This nullification of Portugal's aspirations led to the 1494 Treaty of Tordesillas between Spain and Portugal, which moved the line further west to 40°W.[3] The Papal Bull Aeterni regis was issued on June 21, 1481 by Pope Sixtus IV, and confirmed the substance of the Treaty of Alcáçovas in confirming Castile in its possession of the Portugal. ... The Treaty of Alcaçovas (also known as treaty or Peace of Alcaçovas-Toledo) was signed between the kingdoms of Castile (Castilla) and Portugal in 1479 that put an end to the Castillian civil war begun in 1474 over the succession of the kingdom of Castile. ... September 25 is the 268th day of the year (269th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1493 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Treaty of Tordesillas (Portuguese: Tratado de Tordesilhas, Spanish: Tratado de Tordesillas), signed at Tordesillas (now in Valladolid province, Spain), June 7, 1494, divided the world outside of Europe into an exclusive duopoly between the Spanish and the Portuguese along a north-south meridian 370 leagues (1550 km) west of...


Initially, the division line did not explicitly extend around the globe. Spain and Portugal could pass each other toward the west or east, respectively, on the other side of the globe and still possess whatever they were first to discover. In response to Portugal's discovery of the Spice Islands in 1512, the Spanish put forward the idea, in 1518, that Pope Alexander had divided the world into two halves.[4] The antipodal line in the eastern hemisphere was then established by the Treaty of Saragossa (1529) near 145°E. Spice Islands most commonly refers to the Maluku Islands (formerly the Moluccas), which lie on the equator, between Sulawesi (Celebes) and New Guinea in what is now Indonesia. ... This world map (in red) is overlaid with an antipodal map (in yellow) showing the antipodes of each point on the Earths surface. ... Ä…Link title // Headline text Headline text Headline text Headline text Headline text Media:Example. ... The Treaty of Tordesillas (signed at Tordesillas (Castile), June 7, 1494) divided the world outside of Europe in an exclusive duopoly between the Spanish and the Portuguese along a north-south meridian 370 leagues (1770 km; 1100 miles) west of the Cape Verde Islands (off the coast of Senegal in...


Inter caetera states: "... we (the Papacy) command you (Spain) ... to instruct the aforesaid inhabitants and residents and dwellers therein in the Catholic faith, and train them in good morals." This papal command marked the beginning of colonization and Catholic Missions in the New World. An important, if initially unintended, effect of the combination of this papal bull and the Treaty of Tordesillas was that nearly all the Pacific Ocean, and the west coast of North America were given to Spain, which used them for example, to make claims to British Columbia and Alaska as lands bordering the Pacific Ocean, as late as 1819, until the Adams-Onís Treaty. Pope John Paul II has reigned since 22 Oct 1978. ... The Spanish colonization of the Americas began with the arrival in the Western Hemisphere of Christopher Columbus (Cristóbal Colón) in 1492. ... The west coast of North America consists of the modern American states of California, Oregon, Washington, British Columbia, and arguably Alaska and parts of the Yukon. ... The Nootka Convention was a treaty between Spain and Great Britain in 1790 that averted a war between the two countries over overlapping claims to portions of the northwestern coast of North America. ... Motto: Splendor Sine Occasu (Latin: Splendour without diminishment) Official languages English de facto (none stated in law) Flower Pacific dogwood Tree Western Redcedar Bird Stellers Jay Capital Victoria Largest city Vancouver Lieutenant-Governor Iona Campagnolo Premier Gordon Campbell (BC Liberal) Parliamentary representation  - House seats  - Senate seats 36 6 Area... The Alaska state flag. ... The Adams-Onís Treaty of 1819 (formally titled the Treaty of Amity, Settlement, and Limits Between the United States of America and His Catholic Majesty, and also known as the Transcontinental Treaty of 1819, and sometimes the Florida Purchase Treaty) was a historic agreement between the United States and...

References

  1. ^ A single meridian is excluded because no lands can be south of it. Two partial meridians are possible, one extending north from a point west of the Azores and another extending south from a point south of the Cape Verde Islands, the two being connected by a north-northwest south-southeast line segment. Another possibility is a rhumb line west and south of the islands extending north-northeast and south-southeast. All rhumb lines reach both poles by spiralling into them.
  2. ^ Emma Helen Blair, James Alexander Robertson, "Preface to Volume I", The Phillipine Islands 1493-1803.
  3. ^ Measured west of the longitude of the westernmost cape of the westernmost island, Santo Antão, 25°21.5'W, using the Spanish league of 4.18 km at a latitude of 17°2.5'N (coordinates from Terraserver) (1° of longitude = (111.320 + 0.373sin²φ)cosφ km, where φ is latitude), rounded to the nearest degree to simulate fifteenth century accuracy.
  4. ^ Edward Gaylord Bourne, "Historical Introduction", in The Phillipine Islands 1493-1803 by Emma Helen Blair.

Example of pole-to-pole loxodrome In navigation, a rhumb line (or loxodrome) is a line crossing all meridians at the same angle, i. ... Santo Antão (Portuguese for Saint Anthony) is the westernmost and largest of the Barlavento islands of Cape Verde. ...

See also

Maximum extent of Portuguese colonial possessions in the 16th century. ... Military flag of the Spanish Empire from the 16th century up to 1843. ... The west coast of North America consists of the modern American states of California, Oregon, Washington, British Columbia, and arguably Alaska and parts of the Yukon. ... Look up et cetera in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

External links


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