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Encyclopedia > Intendancy

The title of intendant (French: intendant, Spanish intendente) has been used in a number of countries through history. Traditionally, it refers to the holder of a public administrative office.


For other uses of the term, see "Other uses" below. New France was governed by three rulers: the governor, the bishop and the intendant, all appointed by the King, and sent from France. ...

Contents

France

Overview

Intendants were royal civil servants in France under the ancien régime. A product of the centralization policies of the French crown, intendants were appointed "commissions", and not purchasable hereditary "offices", which thus prevented the abuse of sales of royal offices and made them more tractable and subservient emissaries of the king. Intendants were generally chosen from among the maîtres des requêtes. Intendants were sent to supervise and enforce the king's will in the provinces and had jurisdiction over three areas: finances, policing, and justice. Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A monarchy, from the Greek μονος, one, and αρχειν, to rule, is a form of government that has a monarch as head of state. ... A civil servant or public servant is a civilian career public sector employee working for a government department or agency. ... Ancien Régime, a French term meaning Former Regime, but rendered in English as Old Rule, Old Order, or simply Old Regime, refers primarily to the aristocratic social and political system established in France under the Valois and Bourbon dynasties. ...


Their missions were always temporary (the better to reduce their attachment to regions) and was focused on royal inspection. Article 54 of the Code Michau described their functions as, "to learn about all crimes, misdemeanors and financial misdealings committed by our officials and of other things concerning our service and the tranquility of our people" ("informer de tous crimes, abus et malversations commises par nos officiers et autres choses concernant notre service et le soulagement de notre peuple"). Michel de Marillac (Paris October 1563 — Château de Châteaudun, 7 August 1632) was a French jurist and counsellor at the court of Louis XIII of France, one of the leading dévots. ...


In the 17th and 18th centuries, the Intendants were chosen from the "noblesse de robe" (or administrative nobility) or the upper-bourgeoisie. Generally, they were maîtres des requêtes in the Conseil des parties. They were chosen by the contrôleur général des finances who asked the advice of the Secretary of State for War for those who were to be sent in border provinces. They were often young: Charles Alexandre de Calonne became Intendant at the age of 32, Anne Robert Jacques Turgot and Louis Bénigne François Berthier de Sauvigny at the age of 34, and Louis-Urbain-Aubert de Tourny at the age of 40. The nobility (la noblesse) in France in the Middle Ages and the Early Modern period had specific legal and financial rights and prerogatives (the first official list of these prerogatives was established relatively late, under Louis XI of France after 1440), including exemption from paying the taille (except for non... In France, the Conseil dÉtat (English: Council of State and sometimes Counsel of State) is an organ of the French national government. ... The Secretary of State for War (French: ) was one of the four or five specialized secretaries of state in France during the Ancien Régime. ... Charles Alexandre de Calonne, portrait by Marie Louise Élisabeth Vigée-Lebrun. ... Anne Robert Jacques Turgot, Baron de Laune, often referred to as Turgot (May 10, 1727 ? March 18, 1781), was a French statesman and economist. ...


A symbol of royal centralization and absolutism, the Intendant had numerous adversaries. Those nostalgic of an administration based on noble lineage (such as Saint-Simon) saw the Intendants as parvenu and usurping of noble power. Partisans of a less absolute monarchy, such as Fénelon) called for their suppression. Jacques Necker, the only Ministre of finances since 1720 who had not himself been an Intendant, accused them of incompetence because of their youth and social aspirations. The "cahiers de doléances" of 1789 depicted them as over zealous agents of a fiscal policies which weighed heavily on the people. Saint-Simon can refer to various people: Claude de Rouvroy, duc de Saint-Simon (1607–1693), French courtier Louis de Rouvroy, duc de Saint-Simon (1675–1755), French soldier, diplomatist and writer of memoirs Claude Henri de Rouvroy, Comte de Saint-Simon (1760–1825), the founder of... François de Salignac de la Mothe, more commonly known as François Fénelon (1651 - 1715), was a French Roman Catholic theologian, poet and writer. ... Jacques Necker Jacques Necker (September 30, 1732 – April 9, 1804) was a French statesman of Swiss origin and finance minister of Louis XVI. // Necker was born in Geneva, Switzerland. ... // Events January 6 - The Committee of Inquiry on the South Sea Bubble publishes its findings February 11 - Sweden and Prussia sign the (2nd Treaty of Stockholm) declaring peace. ... 1789 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ...


The term "Intendant" was also used for certain positions close to the Controller-General of Finances (see this term for more information): The Controller-General of Finances (Contrôleur général des finances) was the name of the minister in charge of finances in France from 1661 to 1791. ...

  • Intendants of finances (6 in number)
  • Intendants of commerce (4 or 5 in number)

In the same way, the term "Intendant Général" was used for certain commissioned positions close to the Secretaries of State of war and of the navy.


History

As early as the 15th century, the French kings sent commissioners to the provinces to inspect on royal and administrative affairs and to take necessary action. These agents of the king were recruited from among the maître des requêtes, the Conseillers d'État and members of the parlements or the Cours des comptes. Their mission was always for specific resaons and lasted for a limited period. Along with these, there were also ommissioners sent to the army, in charge of provisioning the army, policing and finances; they would supervise accountants, providers, merchants, and generals, and attend war counsels and trials for military crimes. Such commissioners are found in Corsica as early as 1553, in Bourges in 1592, in Troyes in 1594, and in Limoges in 1596. The Kingdom of France was organized into provinces until March 4, 1790, when the establishment of the département system superseded provinces. ... Maître des requêtes (in French, literally, master of petitions (the term maître is an honorific title for lawyers); plural: maîtres des requêtes) is an official title carried by certain high-level magistrates and adminstrators in France and some other European countries since the Middle Ages. ... Parlements (pronounced in French) in ancien régime France — contrary to what their name would suggest to the modern reader — were not democratic or political institutions, but law courts . ... (Territorial collectivity flag) (Territorial collectivity logo) Location Administration Capital Ajaccio President of the Executive Council Ange Santini (UMP) (since 2004) Departments Corse-du-Sud Haute-Corse Arrondissements 5 Cantons 52 Communes 360 Statistics Land area1 8,680 km² Population (Ranked 25th)  - January 1, 2006 est. ... // Events June 26 - Christs Hospital in London gets a Royal Charter July 6 - Edward VI of England dies July 10 - Lady Jane Grey is proclaimed Queen of England - for the next nine days July 18 - Lord Mayor of London proclaims Queen Mary as the rightful Queen - Lady Jane Grey... Bourges is a town and commune in central France. ... Events January 30 - The death of Pope Innocent IX during the previous year had left the Papal throne vacant. ... Troyes is a town in northeastern France. ... Events February 27 - Henry IV is crowned King of France at Rheims. ... Location within France Limoges (Limòtges in Occitan) is a city and commune in France, the préfecture of the Haute-Vienne département, and the administrative capital of the Limousin région. ... Events February 5 - 26 catholics crucified in Nagasaki, Japan. ...


When Henry IV came to the throne in 1589, one of his prime focuses was to reduce the privileges of the provincial governors (who, in theory, represented "the presence of the king in his province" but had, during the civil wars of the early modern period, proven themselves to be highly intractable; these positions had long been held by only the highest ranked noble families in the realm). The Intendants to the provinces -- the term "Intendant" appears around 1620 during the reign of Louis XIII -- became an effective tool of regional control. Henry IV (French: Henri IV; December 13, 1553 – May 14, 1610), was the first monarch of the Bourbon dynasty in France. ... The nobility (la noblesse) in France in the Middle Ages and the Early Modern period had specific legal and financial rights and prerogatives (the first official list of these prerogatives was established relatively late, under Louis XI of France after 1440), including exemption from paying the taille (except for non... Year 1620 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Saturday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Louis XIII (September 27, 1601 – May 14, 1643), called the Just (French: le Juste), was King of France from 1610 to 1643. ...


Under Louis XIII's minister Cardinal Richelieu, with France's entry into the Thirty Years' War in 1635, the Intendants became a permanent institution in France. Instead of simply "inspectors", their role became one of government "administrators". During the Fronde in 1648, the members of parlement of the "Chambre Saint-Louis" demanded the suppression of the Intendants; Mazarin and Anne of Austria gave in to these demands (except in the case of border provinces threatened by Spanish or Imperial attack). At the end of the Fronde, the Intendants were reinstated. Cardinal Richelieu was the French chief minister from 1624 until his death. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Events February 10 - The Académie française in Paris is expanded to become a national academy for the artistic elite. ... The Fronde (1648–1653) was a civil war in France, followed by the Franco-Spanish War (1653). ... 1648 (MDCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Saturday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Cardinal Jules Mazarin, French diplomat and statesman Jules Mazarin, born Giulio Raimondo Mazzarino; but best known as Cardinal Mazarin (July 14, 1602 – March 9, 1661) served as the chief minister of France from 1642, until his death. ... Anne of Austria (September 22, 1601 - January 20, 1666) was Queen Consort of France and Navarre and Regent for her son, Louis XIV of France. ...


When Louis XIV (1643-1715) was in power, the Marquis of Louvois, war minister between 1677 and 1691, further expanded the power of the provincial intendants. They monitored Louvois's refinements of the French military, including the institution of a merit promotion system and the creation of enlistment that lasted for only four years and was restricted to single men. After 1680, Intendants in France have a permanent position in a set region (or "généralité"); their official title is "intendant de justice, police et finances, commissaire départi dans les généralités du royaume pour l'exécution des ordres du roi". Sun King redirects here. ... François Michel le Tellier, Marquis de Louvois (January 18, 1641 - July 16, 1691), was the French war minister under Louis XIV. He was born in Paris to Michel le Tellier. ... The Secretary of State for War (French: ) was one of the four or five specialized secretaries of state in France during the Ancien Régime. ... Events First Portuguese governor was appointed to Macau The Swedish city Karlskrona was founded as the Royal Swedish Navy relocated there. ... Généralités were the administrative divisions of France under the Ancien Régime and are often considered to prefigure the current préfectures. ...


The position of Intendant remained in existence until the French Revolution. The French Revolution (1789-1799) was a period of major political and social change in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based...


Functions

Appointed and revoked by the king and reporting to the Controller-General of Finances, the Intendant in his "généralité" had at his service a small team of secretaries. In the 18th century, the "généralité" was subdivided into "subdelegations" at the head of which was placed a "subdelegate" (having also a team of secretaries) chosen by the Intendant. In this way, the Intendant was relatively understaffed given his large jurisdiction. The Controller-General of Finances (Contrôleur général des finances) was the name of the minister in charge of finances in France from 1661 to 1791. ...


As intendant de justice, he was required to supervise regional courts (except the Parlements with which he was often in violent conflict). He verified that judicial officers were neither slow, nor negligent, nor biased toward the nobility, nor avaricious. The Intendant had the right to transfer court cases to different jurisdictions if he felt that justice would be better served. The Intendant could also himself serve as judge (with the assistance of royal judges). This extensive jurisdiction lead many local judges and courts to decry the Intendants and ask for their suppression or a reduction in their powers. Parlements (pronounced in French) in ancien régime France — contrary to what their name would suggest to the modern reader — were not democratic or political institutions, but law courts . ...


As intendant de police, he oversaw the "maréchaussée" (the highway police in charge of protecting the countryside from medicants and bandits) and monitored public opinion and educational institutions. He was in charge of furnishing the royal army, recruiting soldiers and providing for other military spending. He oversaw the provincial milicias. He also could intervene in religious affairs and control of the Protestants (in many provinces, the Intendants carried out the anti-Protestant policies of Louis XIV). Look up provost in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


As intendant de finances, he oversaw partitioning of the royal taxes in the "pays d'élection" (see taille) and collecting the king's seigneurial rights (the "centième denier", the "petit scel", the "franc-fief", etc.) on crown lands, supervised the work of financial officers, and provided financial oversight to various religious and scholarly communities. The taille was a direct land tax on the French peasantry in ancien régime France (since the nobles refused to pay taxes). ...


In addition to these functions, the Intendant also concerned himself with improving agriculture, by introducing new plant species and new growing and husbandry techniques (Turgot in Limousin). He created royal manufacturing. He was responsible for gunpowder and saltpeter, the road network and the postal service. He renovated certain cities (Tourny in Bordeaux). He was appealed to on matters concerning financial transactions and letters of change. The Intendant also had a social role: he opened charity centers for the unemployed and centers for mendicants, and was held to help the population in times of famine by buying, storing and reselling grain. Coat of arms of Limousin Limousin (Occitan: Lemosin) is a former province of France around the city of Limoges in central France. ... Smokeless powder Gunpowder, whether black powder or smokeless powder, is a substance that burns very rapidly, releasing gases that act as a propellant in firearms. ... Saltpeter or Saltpetre is comprised of: potassium nitrate (niter/nitre); and/or sodium nitrate (nitratine/soda niter) // Preparation The above chemicals can be prepared various ways. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


For more on the administrative structures of ancien régime France, see: Early Modern France. Early Modern France is the portion of French history that falls in the early modern period from the end of the 15th century to the end of the 18th century (or from the French Renaissance to the eve of the French Revolution). ...


Famous Intendants

Location within France Poitiers (population 85,000) is a small city located in west central France. ... Charles Alexandre de Calonne, portrait by Marie Louise Élisabeth Vigée-Lebrun. ... For other uses of Metz, see Metz (disambiguation) City motto: Si paix dedans, paix dehors (French: If peace inside, peace outside) City proper (commune) Région Lorraine Département Moselle (57) Mayor Jean-Marie Rausch Area 41. ... For other uses, see Lille (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Soissons is a town and commune in the Aisne département, Picardie, France, located on the Aisne River, about 60 miles northeast of Paris. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Lorraine (province). ... Baron Jean Baptiste Antoine Auget de Montyon (1733 - 1820) was a French philanthropist. ... Location within France Poitiers (population 85,000) is a small city located in west central France. ... Location within France Limoges (Limòtges in Occitan) is a city and commune in France, the préfecture of the Haute-Vienne département, and the administrative capital of the Limousin région. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Anne Robert Jacques Turgot, Baron de Laune, often referred to as Turgot (May 10, 1727 ? March 18, 1781), was a French statesman and economist. ... Location within France Limoges (Limòtges in Occitan) is a city and commune in France, the préfecture of the Haute-Vienne département, and the administrative capital of the Limousin région. ...

References

  • Portions of this section are a translation of the article Intendant (Ancien Régime) from the French Wikipedia, consulted on August 13, 2006.

August 13 is the 225th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (226th in leap years), with 140 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ...

New France

The French colony of New France in North America, which later became the Canadian province of Québec, also had a senior official called an intendant, who was responsible to the French King. New France's first intendant was Jean Talon, comte d'Orsainville in 1665, and the last one, at the time of the British Conquest in 1759 was François Bigot. Capital Quebec Language(s) French Religion Roman Catholicism Government Monarchy King See List of French monarchs Governor See list of Governors Legislature Sovereign Council of New France Historical era Ancien Régime in France  - Royal Control 1655  - Articles of Capitulation of Quebec 1759  - Articles of Capitulation of Montreal 1760  - Treaty... World map showing North America A satellite composite image of North America. ... During the 1960s, a terrorist group known as the Front de libération du Québec (FLQ) launched a decade of bombings, robberies and attacks on government offices. ... New France was governed by three rulers: the governor, the bishop and the intendant, all appointed by the King, and sent from France. ... See also Marché Jean-Talon for the farmers market in Montreal, Canada. ... 1665 (MDCLXV) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Combatants Kingdom of Prussia Kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland Electorate of Hanover Kingdom of Portugal Brunswick Hesse-Kassel Holy Roman/Austrian Empire Kingdom of France Russian Empire Kingdom of Sweden Kingdom of Spain Electorate of Saxony Kingdom of Naples and Sicily Kingdom of Sardinia The Seven Years War (1754... 1759 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... François Bigot (born Bordeaux, January 1703; died Neuchâtel, Switzerland, 12 January 1778) was a French government official. ...


Scotland

In Scotland intendant is an archaic title meaning "supervisor" or "curator". The senior officer of the City of Glasgow Police was called an Intendant in the document establishing the force in 1800. Motto: (Latin) No one provokes me with impunity(English) Wha daur meddle wi me? (Scots)[1] Anthem: Multiple unofficial anthems Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow Official languages English, Gaelic, Scots[2] Government  - Queen Queen Elizabeth II  - Prime Minister Tony Blair MP  - First Minister Jack McConnell MSP Unification    - by Kenneth I... The City of Glasgow Police was one of the first professional police forces in modern history. ...


Chile

Each of the administrative regions of Chile is headed by an intendant, appointed by the president. Chile is divided into fifteen regions (in Spanish, regiones; singular región), each of which is headed by an superintendent (intendente), appointed by the president. ...


Uruguay

Uruguay is divided administratively into 19 departamentos (departments), each of which is headed by an intendente municipal (municipal intendant). The intendants are popularly elected, and serve a term of five years. Uruguay consists of 19 departments (departamentos, singular - departamento) (capitals in parentheses): Artigas (Artigas). ...


United States

For much of its history, the chief magistrate of the city of Charleston, South Carolina was the Intendent of the City, roughly corresponding to a mayor. The title Intendent was also used in other lowcountry towns, where the office was assisted by "wardens," a system which may have derived from earlier ecclesiastical administration under colonial rule. Nickname: The Palmetto City Motto: Aedes Mores Juraque Curat (She cares for her temples, customs, and rights) Location of Charleston in South Carolina. ...


Other uses

As noted above in regard to Scotland and common in many European opera houses today, the title Intendant refers to someone in a supervisorial role, generally having overall control over all aspects of the company and equivalent to the General Director in British and US opera houses. An opera house is a building where operas are performed. ...


In Star Trek: Deep Space Nine, Intendant was a title in the mirror universe. The mirror universe version of Kira Nerys held the position as Intendant of Bajor. Space station Star Trek: Deep Space Nine (ST:DS9 or STDS9 or DS9 for short) is a science fiction television series produced by Paramount and set in the Star Trek universe. ... The Mirror Universe (MU) is a fictional parallel universe in which the plots of several Star Trek television episodes take place, named for Mirror, Mirror, the original series episode in which it first appeared. ... Colonel Kira Nerys was a character on Star Trek: Deep Space Nine. ... In the fictional Star Trek universe, Bajor (IPA: /bedʒoɹ/ or /beʒoɹ/) is the homeworld of the Bajorans. ...


Reference

Donald Kagan, Steven Ozment, and Frank M. Turner's The Western Heritage (since 1300) 7th Edition, copyrighted and published in 2001.


 
 

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