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Encyclopedia > Intelligent Design
Part of the series on
Intelligent design
Concepts

Irreducible complexity
Specified complexity
Fine-tuned universe
Intelligent designer
Theistic realism Appeals to the concept of intelligent design involve the claim that aspects of the world show signs of having been designed by an intelligent being rather than having developed naturally (see also teleological argument). ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (800x697, 123 KB) fr:: Montre gousset cs:: Kapesní hodinky de: Deutsch: Taschenuhr en: English: Pocket watch it: Italiano: Orologio da taschino (cipolla) es: Español: Reloj de bolsillo Template:ગુજરાતી ગુજરાતી: ખિસ્સામાં રાખવાની ઘડિયાળ ja: 日本語: 懐中時計 pl: Polski: Zegarek kieszonkowy pt: Português: Relógio de bolso... Irreducible complexity (IC) is an argument made by intelligent design proponents that certain biological systems are too complex to have evolved from simpler, or less complete predecessors, and are at the same time too complex to have arisen naturally through chance mutations. ... Specified complexity is a concept developed by intelligent design proponent William Dembski. ... The deepest visible-light image of the cosmos. ... An intelligent designer, also referred to as an intelligent agent, is the entity that the intelligent design movement argues had some role in the origin and/or development of life and who supposedly has left scientific evidence of this intelligent design. ... Theistic realism is a philosophical justification for intelligent design proposed by Phillip E. Johnson in his book, Reason in the Balance. ...

Intelligent design
movement

Timeline
Discovery Institute
Center for Science and Culture
Wedge strategy
Critical Analysis of Evolution
Teach the Controversy
Intelligent design in politics
Santorum Amendment The intelligent design movement is a neo-creationist religious campaign that calls for broad social, academic and political changes derived from the concept of intelligent design. ... This timeline of intelligent design outlines the major events in the development of intelligent design as presented and promoted by the intelligent design movement. ... The Discovery Institute is a think tank based in Seattle, Washington best known for its advocacy of intelligent design and its Teach the Controversy campaign to teach creationist beliefs in United States public high school science courses. ... The Center for Science and Culture (CSC), formerly known as the Center for Renewal of Science and Culture (CRSC), is part of the Discovery Institute, a conservative Christian think tank in the United States. ... The wedge strategy is a political and social action plan authored by the Discovery Institute, an organization that works to promote a Neo-Creationist religious agenda centering on Intelligent design, and is the hub of the Intelligent design movement. ... Critical Analysis of Evolution is the slogan of a strategy and campaign by the same name designed and led by the Discovery Institute, originators of the intelligent design movement and its Teach the Controversy campaign. ... Teach the Controversy is the name of a Discovery Institute intelligent design campaign to promote intelligent design creationism while discrediting evolution in United States public high school science courses. ... The intelligent design movement has conducted a far-reaching organized campaign largely in the United States that promotes a Neo-Creationist religious agenda calling for broad social, academic and political changes centering around intelligent design. ... The Santorum Amendment was an amendment to the 2001 education funding bill which became known as the No Child Left Behind Act, proposed by former Republican United States Senator Rick Santorum from Pennsylvania, which promotes the teaching of intelligent design while questioning the academic standing of evolution in U.S...

Reactions

Jewish · Roman Catholic
Scientific organizations
The reaction of Jewish leaders and organizations to intelligent design has been primarily concerned with responding to proposals to include intelligent design in the public school curriculum as a rival scientific hypothesis to modern evolutionary theory. ... The position of the Roman Catholic Church on the theory of evolution has changed over the last two centuries from a large period of no official mention, to a statement of neutrality in the 1950s, to a more explicit acceptance in recent years. ... Over 70 scientific societies, institutions and other professional groups have issued statements supporting evolution education and opposing intelligent design. ...

Creationism Portal ·  v  d  e 
Part of a series on
Creationism

Creationism is a religious belief that humanity, life, the Earth, and the universe were created in their original form by a deity or deities (often the Abrahamic God of Judaism, Christianity and Islam), whose existence is presupposed. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...

History of creationism
Neo-creationism
The history of creationism is tied to the history of religions. ... Neo-creationism is a movement whose goal is to restate creationism in terms more likely to be well received by the public, policy makers, educators, and the scientific community. ...

Types of creationism

Day-age creationism
Gap creationism
Old Earth creationism
Progressive creationism
Theistic evolution
Young Earth creationism
Day-Age Creationism, a type of Old Earth Creationism, is an effort to reconcile the literal Genesis account of Creation with modern scientific theories on the age of the Universe, the Earth, life, and humans. ... Gap creationism, also called Restitution creationism or Ruin-Reconstruction, are terms used to describe a particular set of Christian beliefs about the creation of the Universe and the origin of man. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Progressive creationism is a form of Old Earth creationism that accepts that new species have appeared successively over earths long history but that, to a greater or lesser degree, each species represents a fiat miracle (thus the creationism part), and that the first pair or representatives of species were... Theistic evolution, less commonly known as evolutionary creationism, is the general opinion that some or all classical religious teachings about God and creation are compatible with some or all of the modern scientific understanding about biological evolution. ... Adam and Eve, the first human beings according to Genesis. ...

Other religious views

Hindu · Islamic · Jewish
Deist · Pandeist Within the diverse traditions of Hinduism, creation of the universe and life itself is generally believed to have occurred due to the will of a supreme consciousness or intelligence, often referred to as Brahman[1]. The accounts of the emergence of life within the universe vary in description, but classically... Islamic creationism is the belief that the universe (including humanity) was directly created by God as explained in the Quran or Genesis. ... Jewish views on evolution includes a continuum of views about evolution, creationism, and the origin of life. ... For other uses, see Ceremonial Deism. ... Pandeism (Greek πάν, pan = all and Latin deus = God, in the sense of deism), is a term used at various times to describe religious beliefs. ...

Creation theology

Creation in Genesis
Genesis as an allegory
Framework interpretation
Omphalos hypothesis
THIS IS A FACT Creation is a doctrinal position in many religions and philosophical belief systems which maintains that a single God, or a group of or deities is responsible for creating the universe. ... This article is about the biblical text. ... An allegorical interpretation of Genesis is a symbolic, rather than literal, reading of the biblical book of Genesis. ... The framework interpretation (also known as the literary framework view, framework theory, or framework hypothesis) is an interpretation of the first chapter of the Book of Genesis which holds that the seven-day creation account found therein is not a literal or scientific description of the origins of the universe... The omphalos hypothesis was named after the title of an 1857 book by Philip Henry Gosse in which he argued that in order for the world to be functional, God must have created the Earth with mountains, canyons, trees with growth rings, Adam and Eve with hair, fingernails, and navels...

Creation science

Baraminology
Flood geology
Intelligent design
Creation science is the attempt to find scientific evidence that would justify a literal interpretation of the Biblical account of creation. ... Baraminology, also referred to as typology, is a pseudoscientific theory that classifies animals into created kinds, which are presumed to be isolated from all others. ... Flood geology (also creation geology or diluvial geology) is a prominent subset of beliefs under the umbrella of creationism that assumes the literal truth of a global flood as described in the Genesis account of Noahs Ark. ...

Controversy

Politics of creationism
Public education
History
Teach the Controversy
Associated articles
The creation-evolution controversy (also termed the creation vs. ... The politics of creationism currently primarily concerns what should be taught as science in schools, and what is good science. ... The legal status of creation and evolution in public education is the subject of a great deal of debate in legal, political, and religious circles. ... The creation-evolution controversy has a long history, beginning with challenges made by various naturalists to biblical accounts of creation. ... Teach the Controversy is the name of a Discovery Institute intelligent design campaign to promote intelligent design creationism while discrediting evolution in United States public high school science courses. ... The following is a clearinghouse of articles which refer to terms often used in the context of the creation-evolution controversy: // Origins Main article: Origin beliefs The creation-evolution controversy often is cast as a controversy surrounding the origin beliefs. ...

Creationism Portal ·  v  d  e 

Intelligent design is the assertion that "certain features of the universe and of living things are best explained by an intelligent cause, not an undirected process such as natural selection."[1][2] It is a modern form of the traditional teleological argument for the existence of God, modified to avoid specifying the nature or identity of the designer.[3][4] Its primary proponents, all of whom are associated with the Discovery Institute,[5][6] believe the designer to be God.[7] Advocates of intelligent design claim it is a scientific theory,[8] and seek to fundamentally redefine science to accept supernatural explanations.[9] For other uses, see Universe (disambiguation). ... This article is about life in general. ... Intelligence is a general mental capability that involves the ability to reason, plan, solve problems, think abstractly, comprehend ideas and language, and learn. ... For other uses, see Natural selection (disambiguation). ... A teleological argument, or argument from design, is an argument for the existence of God or a creator based on perceived evidence of order, purpose, design and/or direction in nature. ... This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... The Discovery Institute is a think tank based in Seattle, Washington best known for its advocacy of intelligent design and its Teach the Controversy campaign to teach creationist beliefs in United States public high school science courses. ... Abrahamic religions symbols designating the three prevalent monotheistic religions – Judaism, Christianity, and Islam Abrahamic religion is a term commonly used to designate the three prevalent monotheistic religions – Judaism, Christianity, and Islam[1][2] – which claim Abraham (Hebrew: Avraham אַבְרָהָם ; Arabic: Ibrahim ابراهيم ) as a part of their sacred history. ... The word theory has a number of distinct meanings in different fields of knowledge, depending on their methodologies and the context of discussion. ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... For other uses, see Supernatural (disambiguation). ...


The unequivocal consensus in the scientific community is that intelligent design is not science.[10][11][12] The U.S. National Academy of Sciences has stated that "intelligent design, and other claims of supernatural intervention in the origin of life" are not science because they cannot be tested by experiment, do not generate any predictions, and propose no new hypotheses of their own.[13] The National Science Teachers Association, an organization of American science teachers and the largest organization of science teachers in the world, and the American Association for the Advancement of Science have termed it pseudoscience.[14] Others have concurred, and some have called it junk science.[15] Scientific consensus is the collective judgment, position, and opinion of the community of scientists in a particular field of science at a particular time. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... President Harding and the National Academy of Sciences at the White House, Washington, DC, April 1921 The National Academy of Sciences (NAS) is a corporation in the United States whose members serve pro bono as advisers to the nation on science, engineering, and medicine. ... In the scientific method, an experiment (Latin: ex- periri, of (or from) trying) is a set of observations performed in the context of solving a particular problem or question, to retain or falsify a hypothesis or research concerning phenomena. ... Look up Hypothesis in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The National Science Teachers Association (NSTA), founded in 1944 and headquartered in Arlington, Virginia, is the largest organization in the world committed to promoting excellence and innovation in science teaching and learning for all. ... The American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) is an organization that promotes cooperation between scientists, defends scientific freedom, encourages scientific responsibility and supports scientific education for the betterment of all humanity. ... A typical 18th century phrenology chart. ... Junk or bunk science is a term used to describe purportedly scientific data, research, analyses or claims which are perceived to be driven by political, financial or other questionable motives. ...


"Intelligent design" originated in response to the 1987 United States Supreme Court Edwards v. Aguilard ruling involving separation of church and state.[16] Its first significant published use was in Of Pandas and People, a 1989 textbook intended for high-school biology classes.[17] Several additional books on "intelligent design" were published in the 1990s. By the mid-1990s, intelligent design proponents had begun clustering around the Discovery Institute and more publicly advocating the inclusion of intelligent design in public school curricula.[18] With the Discovery Institute and its Center for Science and Culture serving a central role in planning and funding, the "intelligent design movement" grew increasingly visible in the late 1990s and early 2000s, culminating in the 2005 "Dover trial" challenging the intended use of intelligent design in public school science classes.[5] The Supreme Court Building, Washington, D.C. The Supreme Court Building, Washington, D.C., (large image) The Supreme Court of the United States, located in Washington, D.C., is the highest court (see supreme court) in the United States; that is, it has ultimate judicial authority within the United States... Edwards v. ... The separation of church and state is a legal and political principle derived from the First Amendment to the United States Constitution, which reads, Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof . ... Of Pandas and People: The Central Question of Biological Origins is a controversial 1989 (2nd edition 1993) school-level textbook written by Percival Davis and Dean H. Kenyon and published by the Texas-based Foundation for Thought and Ethics (FTE). ... // Public spending on education in 2005 Public education is education mandated for or offered to the children of the general public by the government, whether national, regional, or local, provided by an institution of civil government, and paid for, in whole or in part, by taxes. ... The Center for Science and Culture (CSC), formerly known as the Center for Renewal of Science and Culture (CRSC), is part of the Discovery Institute, a conservative Christian think tank in the United States. ... The intelligent design movement is a neo-creationist religious campaign that calls for broad social, academic and political changes derived from the concept of intelligent design. ...


In Kitzmiller v. Dover Area School District, a group of parents of high-school students challenged a public school district requirement for teachers to present intelligent design in biology classes as an alternative "explanation of the origin of life". U.S. District Judge John E. Jones III ruled that intelligent design is not science, that it "cannot uncouple itself from its creationist, and thus religious, antecedents", and concluded that the school district's promotion of it therefore violated the Establishment Clause of the First Amendment to the U.S. Constitution.[19] Tammy Kitzmiller, et al. ... Map of the boundaries of the United States Courts of Appeals and United States District Courts The United States district courts are the general trial courts of the United States federal court system. ... John E. Jones III John Edward Jones III (born June 13, 1955) is an American lawyer, political figure, and jurist from the U.S. state of Pennsylvania. ... The Establishment Clause of the First Amendment to the United States Constitution states that: Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion Together with the Free Exercise Clause, (or prohibiting the free exercise thereof), these two clauses make up what are commonly known as the religion clauses. ... “First Amendment” redirects here. ...

Contents

Overview

The term "intelligent design" came into use after the U.S. Supreme Court ruled in the 1987 case of Edwards v. Aguillard that to require the teaching of "creation science" alongside evolution was a violation of the Establishment Clause, which prohibits state aid to religion. In the Edwards case, the Supreme Court had also held that "teaching a variety of scientific theories about the origins of humankind to school children might be validly done with the clear secular intent of enhancing the effectiveness of science instruction."[20] In drafts of the creation science textbook Of Pandas and People, almost all derivatives of the word "creation", such as "creationism", were replaced with the words "intelligent design".[17] The book was published in 1989, followed by a "grass-roots" campaign promoting the use of the book to teach intelligent design in high-school biology classes.[21] Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the... Holding Teaching creationism in public schools is unconstitutional because it attempts to advance a particular religion. ... Creation science is the attempt to find scientific evidence that would justify a literal interpretation of the Biblical account of creation. ... The Establishment Clause of the First Amendment to the United States Constitution states that: Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion Together with the Free Exercise Clause, (or prohibiting the free exercise thereof), these two clauses make up what are commonly known as the religion clauses. ... Of Pandas and People: The Central Question of Biological Origins is a controversial 1989 (2nd edition 1993) school-level textbook written by Percival Davis and Dean H. Kenyon and published by the Texas-based Foundation for Thought and Ethics (FTE). ... Grassroots democracy is the political processes which are driven by groups of ordinary citizens, as opposed to larger organisations or wealthy individuals with concentrated vested interests in particular policies. ...


The same Supreme Court ruling prompted the retired legal scholar Phillip E. Johnson, in his 1991 book Darwin on Trial, to advocate redefining science to allow claims of supernatural creation.[22] A group including Michael Behe, Stephen C. Meyer and William Dembski joined Johnson in aiming to overturn the methodological naturalism of the scientific method (which he describes as "materialism") and replace it with "theistic realism" through what they later called the "wedge strategy".[23] Behe contributed to the 1993 revision of Of Pandas and People, setting out the ideas he later called "irreducible complexity".[24] In 1994 Meyer made contact with the Discovery Institute, and in the following year they obtained funding to set up the Center for Renewal of Science and Culture to promote the intelligent design movement seeking public and political support for teaching "intelligent design" as a creation-based alternative to evolution, particularly in the United States.[18] Phillip E. Johnson Phillip E. Johnson (born 1940) is a retired UC Berkeley American law professor and author. ... The cover of the book shows Charles Darwin Darwin on Trial (ISBN 0830813241) is a controversial 1991 book by the University of California, Berkeley law professor Phillip E. Johnson. ... Michael J. Behe (born January 18, 1952, in Altoona, Pennsylvania) is an American biochemist and intelligent design advocate. ... Stephen C. Meyer. ... William Dembski Dr William Albert Bill Dembski (born July 18, 1960) is an American mathematician, philosopher and theologian known for advocating the controversial idea of intelligent design. ... This article is about methodological naturalism. ... Scientific method is a body of techniques for investigating phenomena, acquiring new knowledge, or correcting and integrating previous knowledge. ... In philosophy, materialism is that form of physicalism which holds that the only thing that can truly be said to exist is matter; that fundamentally, all things are composed of material and all phenomena are the result of material interactions; that matter is the only substance. ... Theistic realism is a philosophical justification for intelligent design proposed by Phillip E. Johnson in his book, Reason in the Balance. ... The wedge strategy is a political and social action plan authored by the Discovery Institute, an organization that works to promote a Neo-Creationist religious agenda centering on Intelligent design, and is the hub of the Intelligent design movement. ... Irreducible complexity (IC) is an argument made by intelligent design proponents that certain biological systems are too complex to have evolved from simpler, or less complete predecessors, and are at the same time too complex to have arisen naturally through chance mutations. ... The Discovery Institute is a think tank based in Seattle, Washington best known for its advocacy of intelligent design and its Teach the Controversy campaign to teach creationist beliefs in United States public high school science courses. ... The Center for Science and Culture (CSC), formerly known as the Center for Renewal of Science and Culture (CRSC), is part of the Discovery Institute, a conservative Christian think tank in the United States. ... The intelligent design movement is a neo-creationist religious campaign that calls for broad social, academic and political changes derived from the concept of intelligent design. ... Creationism is a religious belief that humanity, life, the Earth, and the universe were created in their original form by a deity or deities (often the Abrahamic God of Judaism, Christianity and Islam), whose existence is presupposed. ...


Intelligent design is presented as an alternative to natural explanations for the origin and diversity of life. It stands in opposition to conventional biological science, which relies on the scientific method to explain life through observable processes such as mutation and natural selection.[25][26] The stated purpose of intelligent design is to investigate whether or not existing empirical evidence implies that life on Earth must have been designed by an intelligent agent or agents. William A. Dembski, one of intelligent design's leading proponents, has said that the fundamental claim of intelligent design is that "there are natural systems that cannot be adequately explained in terms of undirected natural forces and that exhibit features which in any other circumstance we would attribute to intelligence."[27] In the leaked Discovery Institute manifesto known as the Wedge Document, however, the supporters of the movement were told, "We are building on this momentum, broadening the wedge with a positive scientific alternative to materialistic scientific theories, which has come to be called the theory of intelligent design. Design theory promises to reverse the stifling dominance of the materialist worldview, and to replace it with a science consonant with Christian and theistic convictions."[28][29] The Michelson–Morley experiment was used to disprove that light propagated through a luminiferous aether. ... For the song by Girls Aloud see Biology (song) Biology studies the variety of life (clockwise from top-left) E. coli, tree fern, gazelle, Goliath beetle Biology (from Greek: βίος, bio, life; and λόγος, logos, speech lit. ... Scientific method is a body of techniques for investigating phenomena, acquiring new knowledge, or correcting and integrating previous knowledge. ... This article is about life in general. ... For linguistic mutation, see Apophony. ... For other uses, see Natural selection (disambiguation). ... In philosophy generally, empiricism is a theory of knowledge emphasizing the role of experience, especially sensory perception, in the formation of ideas, while discounting the notion of innate ideas. ... This article is about the tv programme Life on Earth. ... Intelligence is the mental capacity to reason, plan, solve problems, think abstractly, comprehend ideas and language, and learn. ... William A. Dembski William Albert Bill Dembski (born July 18, 1960) is an American mathematician, philosopher, theologian and proponent of intelligent design in opposition to the theory of evolution through natural selection. ... Look up manifesto in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The wedge strategy is a political and social action plan authored by the Discovery Institute, an organization that works to promote a Neo-Creationist religious agenda centering on Intelligent design, and is the hub of the Intelligent design movement. ...


Proponents of intelligent design look for evidence of what they term "signs of intelligence": physical properties of an object that point to a designer (see: teleological argument). For example, intelligent design proponents argue that an archaeologist who finds a statue made of stone in a field may justifiably conclude that the statue was designed, and may reasonably seek to identify its designer. The archaeologist would not, however, be justified in making the same claim based on an irregularly shaped boulder of the same size. Design proponents argue that living systems show great complexity, from which they infer that some aspects of life have been designed. The scientific method or process is fundamental to the scientific investigation and acquisition of new knowledge based upon physical evidence. ... A physical property is any aspect of an object or substance that can be measured or perceived without changing its identity. ... A teleological argument, or argument from design, is an argument for the existence of God or a creator based on perceived evidence of order, purpose, design and/or direction in nature. ... Archaeology or sometimes in American English archeology (from the Greek words αρχαίος = ancient and λόγος = word/speech) is the study of human cultures through the recovery, documentation and analysis of material remains, including architecture, artefacts, biofacts, human remains, and landscapes. ... Living systems theory is an offshoot of Bertalanffys general systems theory, created by James Grier Miller, intended to formalize the concept of life. According to Millers original conception, as spelt out in his magnum opus Living Systems, a living system must contain each of 19 critical subsystems, which...


Intelligent design proponents say that although evidence pointing to the nature of an "intelligent cause or agent" may not be directly observable, its effects on nature can be detected. Dembski, in Signs of Intelligence, states: "Proponents of intelligent design regard it as a scientific research program that investigates the effects of intelligent causes ... not intelligent causes per se." In his view, one cannot test for the identity of influences exterior to a closed system from within, so questions concerning the identity of a designer fall outside the realm of the concept. In the 20 years since Intelligent Design was first formulated, no rigorous test that can identify these effects has yet been proposed.[30][31] No articles supporting intelligent design have been published in peer-reviewed scientific journals, nor has intelligent design been the subject of scientific research or testing.[32] For other uses, see Observation (disambiguation). ...


Origins of the concept

Philosophers have long debated whether the complexity of nature indicates the existence of a purposeful natural or supernatural designer/creator(s). Amongst the first attested arguments for a designer of the Universe are those recorded in Greek philosophy. In the 4th century BC, Plato posited a "demiurge" of supreme wisdom and intelligence as the creator of the cosmos in his Timaeus.[33][34] Aristotle also developed the idea of a creator-designer of the cosmos, often called the "Unmoved Mover", in his work Metaphysics.[35] In De Natura Deorum, or "On the Nature of the Gods" (45 BC), Cicero stated that "the divine power is to be found in a principle of reason which pervades the whole of nature."[36] For other uses, see Universe (disambiguation). ... Greek philosophy focused on the role of reason and inquiry. ... For other uses, see Plato (disambiguation). ... Demiurge (from the Greek , Latinized , meaning artisan or craftsman, literally worker in the service of the people, from of the people + work) is a term for a creator deity, responsible for the creation of the physical universe. ... Timaeus (Greek: Τίμαιος, Timaios) is a theoretical treatise of Plato in the form of a Socratic dialogue, written circa 360 BC. The work puts forward speculation on the nature of the physical world. ... For other uses, see Aristotle (disambiguation). ... Aristotle, marble copy of bronze by Lysippos. ... Metaphysics is one of the principal works of Aristotle and the first major work of the branch of philosophy with the same name. ... For other uses, see Cicero (disambiguation). ...


The use of this line of reasoning as applied to a supernatural designer has come to be known as the teleological argument for the existence of God. The most notable forms of this argument were expressed in the 13th century by Thomas Aquinas in his Summa Theologiae,[37] design being the fifth of Aquinas' five proofs for God's existence, and by William Paley in his book Natural Theology (1802).[38] Paley used the watchmaker analogy, which is still used in intelligent design arguments. In the early 19th century, such arguments led to the development of what was called natural theology, the study of nature as a means to understand "the mind of God." This movement fueled the passion for collecting fossils and other biological specimens, which ultimately led to Darwin's theory of the origin of species. Similar reasoning postulating a divine designer is embraced today by many believers in theistic evolution, who consider modern science and the theory of evolution to be fully compatible with the concept of a supernatural designer. A teleological argument, or argument from design, is an argument for the existence of God or a creator based on perceived evidence of order, purpose, design and/or direction in nature. ... This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... Saint Thomas Aquinas, O.P.(also Thomas of Aquin, or Aquino; c. ... Summa theologiae, Pars secunda, prima pars. ... William Paley William Paley (July 1743 – May 25, 1805) was an English divine, Christian apologist, utilitarian, and philosopher. ... The watchmaker analogy, or watchmaker argument, is a teleological argument for the existence of God. ... Natural theology is the knowledge of God accessible to all rational human beings without recourse to any special or supposedly supernatural revelation. ... This article is about the physical universe. ... For other uses, see Fossil (disambiguation). ... For other people of the same surname, and places and things named after Charles Darwin, see Darwin. ... The 1859 edition of On the Origin of Species First published in 1859, The Origin of Species (full title On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life) by British naturalist Charles Darwin is one of the pivotal... Theistic evolution, less commonly known as evolutionary creationism, is the general opinion that some or all classical religious teachings about God and creation are compatible with some or all of the modern scientific understanding about biological evolution. ... This article is about evolution in biology. ...


Intelligent design in the late 20th and early 21st century can be seen as a modern development of natural theology that seeks to change the basis of science and undermine evolutionary theory.[39][40][41] As evolutionary theory has expanded to explain more phenomena, the examples that are held up as evidence of design have changed. But the essential argument remains the same: complex systems imply a designer. Examples offered in the past included the eye (optical system) and the feathered wing; current examples are mostly biochemical: protein functions, blood clotting, and bacterial flagella (see irreducible complexity). For other uses, see Eye (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Wing (disambiguation). ... Biochemistry is the chemistry of life. ... Coagulation is the thickening or congealing of any liquid into solid clots. ... A flagellum (plural, flagella) is a whip-like organelle that many unicellular organisms, and some multicellular ones, use to move about. ... Irreducible complexity (IC) is an argument made by intelligent design proponents that certain biological systems are too complex to have evolved from simpler, or less complete predecessors, and are at the same time too complex to have arisen naturally through chance mutations. ...


Barbara Forrest describes the intelligent design movement as beginning in 1984 when Jon A. Buell's religious organization the Foundation for Thought and Ethics (FTE) published The Mystery of Life's Origin by creationist chemist Charles B. Thaxton.[42] In March 1986 Stephen C. Meyer's review described it as using information theory to suggest that messages transmitted by DNA in the cell show "specified complexity" specified by intelligence, and must have originated with an intelligent agent.[43] In November of that year Thaxton described his reasoning as a more sophisticated form of Paley's argument from design.[44] At the Sources of Information Content in DNA conference in 1988 he said that his intelligent cause view was compatible with both metaphysical naturalism and supernaturalism,[45] and the term intelligent design came up.[46] Barbara Carroll Forrest, PhD. is a professor of philosophy at Southeastern Louisiana University in Hammond, Louisiana. ... The intelligent design movement is a neo-creationist religious campaign that calls for broad social, academic and political changes derived from the concept of intelligent design. ... The Foundation for Thought and Ethics (FTE) is a non-profit organization based in Richardson, Texas that publishes textbooks and articles promoting intelligent design, abstinence, and Christian nationism. ... Charles Thaxton, Ph. ... Stephen C. Meyer. ... Metaphysical naturalism is any worldview in which nature is all there is and all things supernatural (which stipulatively includes as well as spirits and souls, non-natural values, and universals as they are commonly conceived) do not exist. ...


Intelligent design deliberately does not try to identify or name the specific agent of creation—it merely states that one (or more) must exist. Although intelligent design itself does not name the designer, the leaders of the intelligent design movement have said that the designer is the Christian god.[47][28][48][49] Whether this lack of specificity about the designer's identity in public discussions is a genuine feature of the concept, or just a posture taken to avoid alienating those who would separate religion from the teaching of science, has been a matter of great debate between supporters and critics of intelligent design. The Kitzmiller v. Dover Area School District court ruling held the latter to be the case. An intelligent designer, also referred to as an intelligent agent, is the entity that the intelligent design movement argues had some role in the origin and/or development of life and who supposedly has left scientific evidence of this intelligent design. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... Tammy Kitzmiller, et al. ...


Origins of the term

The 1989 textbook Of Pandas and People, written for use in secondary school biology classes, was the first book on intelligent design. The textbook became a focal point of the Kitzmiller trial. During the 2005 trial, it was discovered that the book was changed simply by replacing variations of the word "creation-" with words such as "design", "intelligent design" and "cdesign proponentsists". The Kitzmiller case prohibited the teaching of intelligent-design creationism in public school science classes.
The 1989 textbook Of Pandas and People, written for use in secondary school biology classes, was the first book on intelligent design. The textbook became a focal point of the Kitzmiller trial. During the 2005 trial, it was discovered that the book was changed simply by replacing variations of the word "creation-" with words such as "design", "intelligent design" and "cdesign proponentsists". The Kitzmiller case prohibited the teaching of intelligent-design creationism in public school science classes.
See also: Timeline of intelligent design

Prior to the publication of the book Of Pandas and People in 1989, the words "intelligent design" had been used on several occasions as a descriptive phrase in contexts that are unrelated to the modern use of the term. The phrase "intelligent design" can be found in an 1847 issue of Scientific American, in an 1850 book by Patrick Edward Dove,[50] and even in a 1861 letter of Charles Darwin.[51] The words are also used in an address to the 1873 annual meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of Science by Paleyite botanist George James Allman: Image File history File links This image is of a book cover, and the copyright for it is most likely owned by the publisher of the book. ... Image File history File links This image is of a book cover, and the copyright for it is most likely owned by the publisher of the book. ... Of Pandas and People: The Central Question of Biological Origins is a controversial 1989 (2nd edition 1993) school-level textbook written by Percival Davis and Dean H. Kenyon and published by the Texas-based Foundation for Thought and Ethics (FTE). ... Tammy Kitzmiller, et al. ... This timeline of intelligent design outlines the major events in the development of intelligent design as presented and promoted by the intelligent design movement. ... Of Pandas and People: The Central Question of Biological Origins is a controversial 1989 (2nd edition 1993) school-level textbook written by Percival Davis and Dean H. Kenyon and published by the Texas-based Foundation for Thought and Ethics (FTE). ... Scientific American is a popular-science magazine, published (first weekly and later monthly) since August 28, 1845, making it the oldest continuously published magazine in the United States. ... Patrick Edward Dove (31 July 1815 – 28 April 1873) was born at Lasswade, near Edinburgh in Scotland. ... For other people of the same surname, and places and things named after Charles Darwin, see Darwin. ... The British Association or the British Association for the Advancement of Science or the BA is a learned society with the object of promoting science, directing general attention to scientific matters, and facilitating intercourse between scientific workers. ... William Paley William Paley (July 1743 – May 25, 1805) was an English divine, Christian apologist, utilitarian, and philosopher. ... George James Allman (1812-November 24, 1898), M.D., Emeritus Professor of Natural History in Edinburgh, an eminent naturalist. ...

No physical hypothesis founded on any indisputable fact has yet explained the origin of the primordial protoplasm, and, above all, of its marvellous properties, which render evolution possible—in heredity and in adaptability, for these properties are the cause and not the effect of evolution. For the cause of this cause we have sought in vain among the physical forces which surround us, until we are at last compelled to rest upon an independent volition, a far-seeing intelligent design.[52] The introduction of this article does not provide enough context for readers unfamiliar with the subject. ... In biology, protoplasm is the living substance inside the cell. ...

The phrase can be found again in Humanism, a 1903 book by one of the founders of classical pragmatism, F.C.S. Schiller: "It will not be possible to rule out the supposition that the process of evolution may be guided by an intelligent design." A derivative of the phrase appears in the Macmillan Encyclopedia of Philosophy (1967) in the article titled, Teleological argument for the existence of God: "Stated most succinctly, the argument runs: The world exhibits teleological order (design, adaptation). Therefore, it was produced by an intelligent designer."[53] The phrases "intelligent design" and "intelligently designed" were used in a 1979 book Chance or Design? by James Horigan[54] and the phrase "intelligent design" was used in a 1982 speech by Sir Fred Hoyle in his promotion of panspermia.[55] Pragmatism is a philosophic school that originated in the late nineteenth century with Charles Sanders Peirce, who first stated the pragmatic maxim. ... British Philosopher, 1864 to 1937. ... Teleology is the philosophical study of purpose (from the Greek teleos, perfect, complete, which in turn comes from telos, end, result). ... Sir Frederick Hoyle, FRS, (born on June 24, 1915 in Gilstead, Yorkshire, England – August 20, 2001 in Bournemouth, England)[1] was a British astronomer, he was educated at Bingley Grammar School and notable for a number of his theories that run counter to current astronomical opinion, and a writer of... Panspermia is a proven process (based on the principles of Biology, Microbiology, Physics, Chemistry, Astronomy, and assumption that life existed already in the universe) that explains how all life in the universe and/or solar system comes from a seed of life. ...


The modern use of the words "intelligent design", as a term intended to describe a field of inquiry, began after the Supreme Court of the United States, in the case of Edwards v. Aguillard (1987), ruled that creationism is unconstitutional in public school science curricula. A Discovery Institute report says that Charles Thaxton, editor of Of Pandas and People, had picked the phrase up from a NASA scientist, and thought "That's just what I need, it's a good engineering term."[56] In drafts of the book over one hundred uses of the root word "creation", such as "creationism" and "creation science", were changed, almost without exception, to intelligent design,[17] while "creationists" was changed to "design proponents" or, in one instance, "cdesign proponentsists".[57] In June 1988 Thaxton held a conference titled Sources of Information Content in DNA in Tacoma, Washington,[45] and in December decided to use the label "intelligent design" for his new creationist movement.[58] Stephen C. Meyer was at the conference, and later recalled that "the term came up".[46] The book Of Pandas and People was published in 1989, and is considered to be the first intelligent design book,[59][24] as well as the first place where the phrase "intelligent design" appeared in its present use.[60] Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the... Holding Teaching creationism in public schools is unconstitutional because it attempts to advance a particular religion. ... Creationism is a religious belief that humanity, life, the Earth, and the universe were created in their original form by a deity or deities (often the Abrahamic God of Judaism, Christianity and Islam), whose existence is presupposed. ... Charles Thaxton, Ph. ... Of Pandas and People: The Central Question of Biological Origins is a controversial 1989 (2nd edition 1993) school-level textbook written by Percival Davis and Dean H. Kenyon and published by the Texas-based Foundation for Thought and Ethics (FTE). ... The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) (IPA [ˈnæsÉ™]) is an agency of the United States government, responsible for the nations public space program. ... Nickname: Location of Tacoma in Pierce County and Washington State Coordinates: , Country State County Pierce Government  - Mayor Bill Baarsma (D) Area  - City  62. ... For the capital city of the United States, see Washington, D.C.. For other uses, see Washington (disambiguation). ... Stephen C. Meyer. ...


Irreducible complexity

The concept of irreducible complexity was introduced in Michael Behe's 1996 book, Darwin's Black Box
The concept of irreducible complexity was introduced in Michael Behe's 1996 book, Darwin's Black Box
For more details on this topic, see Irreducible complexity.

The term "irreducible complexity" was introduced by Michael Behe, who defines it as "a single system which is composed of several well-matched interacting parts that contribute to the basic function, wherein the removal of any one of the parts causes the system to effectively cease functioning."[61] Image File history File links Darwinsblackbox. ... Image File history File links Darwinsblackbox. ... Irreducible complexity (IC) is an argument made by intelligent design proponents that certain biological systems are too complex to have evolved from simpler, or less complete predecessors, and are at the same time too complex to have arisen naturally through chance mutations. ... Michael J. Behe (born January 18, 1952, in Altoona, Pennsylvania) is an American biochemist and intelligent design advocate. ... Darwins Black Box: The Biochemical Challenge to Evolution is a 1996 and 2006 book published by Free Press and written by Michael J. Behe in which he argues that many biochemical systems are irreducibly complex, and thus the result of intelligent design rather than evolutionary processes. ... Irreducible complexity (IC) is an argument made by intelligent design proponents that certain biological systems are too complex to have evolved from simpler, or less complete predecessors, and are at the same time too complex to have arisen naturally through chance mutations. ... Michael J. Behe (born January 18, 1952, in Altoona, Pennsylvania) is an American biochemist and intelligent design advocate. ...


Behe uses the analogy of a mousetrap to illustrate this concept. A mousetrap consists of several interacting pieces—the base, the catch, the spring and the hammer—all of which must be in place for the mousetrap to work. Removal of any one piece destroys the function of the mousetrap. Intelligent design advocates assert that natural selection could not create irreducibly complex systems, because the selectable function is present only when all parts are assembled. Behe argued that irreducibly complex biological mechanisms include the bacterial flagellum of E. coli, the blood clotting cascade, cilia, and the adaptive immune system.[62][63] Analogy is both the cognitive process of transferring information from a particular subject (the analogue or source) to another particular subject (the target), and a linguistic expression corresponding to such a process. ... For the insect anatomical structure, see Antenna (biology). ... See also Entamoeba coli. ... Coagulation is the thickening or congealing of any liquid into solid clots. ... cross-section of two cilia, showing 9+2 structure A cilium (plural cilia) is a fine projection from a eukaryotic cell that constantly beats in one direction. ... A scanning electron microscope image of a single neutrophil (yellow), engulfing anthrax bacteria (orange). ...


Critics point out that the irreducible complexity argument assumes that the necessary parts of a system have always been necessary and therefore could not have been added sequentially.[64][65] They argue that something which is at first merely advantageous can later become necessary as other components change. Furthermore, they argue, evolution often proceeds by altering preexisting parts or by removing them from a system, rather than by adding them. This is sometimes called the "scaffolding objection" by an analogy with scaffolding, which can support an "irreducibly complex" building until it is complete and able to stand on its own.[66] Behe himself has since confessed to "sloppy prose", and that his "argument against Darwinism does not add up to a logical proof."[67] Irreducible complexity has remained a popular argument among advocates of intelligent design; in the Dover trial, however, the court held that "Professor Behe's claim for irreducible complexity has been refuted in peer-reviewed research papers and has been rejected by the scientific community at large."[68] This article is about the temporary framework. ...


Specified complexity

For more details on this topic, see Specified complexity.

In 1986 the creationist chemist Charles Thaxton used the term "specified complexity" from information theory when claiming that messages transmitted by DNA in the cell were specified by intelligence, and must have originated with an intelligent agent.[43] The intelligent design concept of "specified complexity" was developed in the 1990s by mathematician, philosopher, and theologian William Dembski. Dembski states that when something exhibits specified complexity (i.e., is both complex and specified, simultaneously), one can infer that it was produced by an intelligent cause (i.e., that it was designed) rather than being the result of natural processes. He provides the following examples: "A single letter of the alphabet is specified without being complex. A long sentence of random letters is complex without being specified. A Shakespearean sonnet is both complex and specified."[69] He states that details of living things can be similarly characterized, especially the "patterns" of molecular sequences in functional biological molecules such as DNA. Specified complexity is a concept developed by intelligent design proponent William Dembski. ... Charles Thaxton, Ph. ... Not to be confused with information technology, information science, or informatics. ... William Dembski Dr William Albert Bill Dembski (born July 18, 1960) is an American mathematician, philosopher and theologian known for advocating the controversial idea of intelligent design. ... William Shakespeare—born April 1564; baptised April 26, 1564; died April 23, 1616 (O.S.), May 3, 1616 (N.S.)—has a reputation as the greatest of all writers in English. ... Francesco Petrarca, or Petrarch, one of the best-known early Italian sonnet writers. ... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a nucleic acid molecule that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. ...

William Dembski proposed the concept of specified complexity.
William Dembski proposed the concept of specified complexity.[70]

Dembski defines complex specified information (CSI) as anything with a less than 1 in 10150 chance of occurring by (natural) chance. Critics say that this renders the argument a tautology: complex specified information cannot occur naturally because Dembski has defined it thus, so the real question becomes whether or not CSI actually exists in nature.[71][72][73] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... William Dembski Dr William Albert Bill Dembski (born July 18, 1960) is an American mathematician, philosopher and theologian known for advocating the controversial idea of intelligent design. ... Specified complexity is a concept developed by intelligent design proponent William Dembski. ... Specified complexity is a concept developed by intelligent design proponent William Dembski. ... In propositional logic, a tautology (from the Greek word ταυτολογία) is a sentence that is true in every valuation (also called interpretation) of its propositional variables, independent of the truth values assigned to these variables. ...


The conceptual soundness of Dembski's specified complexity/CSI argument is strongly disputed by the scientific community.[74] Specified complexity has yet to be shown to have wide applications in other fields as Dembski asserts. John Wilkins and Wesley Elsberry characterize Dembski's "explanatory filter" as eliminative, because it eliminates explanations sequentially: first regularity, then chance, finally defaulting to design. They argue that this procedure is flawed as a model for scientific inference because the asymmetric way it treats the different possible explanations renders it prone to making false conclusions.[75] Wesley R. Elsberry Dr. Wesley Royce Elsberry (born January 23, 1960) is a marine biologist with an interdisciplinary background in zoology, computer science, and wildife and fisheries sciences. ...


Richard Dawkins, another critic of intelligent design, argues in The God Delusion that allowing for an intelligent designer to account for unlikely complexity only postpones the problem, as such a designer would need to be at least as complex.[76] Other scientists have argued that evolution through selection is better able to explain the observed complexity, as is evident from the use of selective evolution to design certain electronic, aeronautic and automotive systems which are considered problems too complex for human "intelligent designers".[77] Clinton Richard Dawkins, FRS (born March 26, 1941) is a British ethologist, evolutionary biologist and popular science writer who holds the Charles Simonyi Chair for the Public Understanding of Science at the University of Oxford. ... The God Delusion is a book by British biologist Richard Dawkins, Professor for the Public Understanding of Science at the University of Oxford. ...


Fine-tuned Universe

For more details on this topic, see Fine-tuned Universe.

Intelligent design proponents also raise occasional arguments outside biology, most notably an argument based on the concept of the fine-tuning of universal constants that make matter and life possible and which are argued not to be solely attributable to chance. These include the values of fundamental physical constants, the relative strength of nuclear forces, electromagnetism, gravity between fundamental particles, as well as the ratios of masses of such particles. Intelligent design proponent and Center for Science and Culture fellow Guillermo Gonzalez argues that if any of these values were even slightly different, the universe would be dramatically different, making it impossible for many chemical elements and features of the Universe, such as galaxies, to form.[78] Thus, proponents argue, an intelligent designer of life was needed to ensure that the requisite features were present to achieve that particular outcome. The deepest visible-light image of the cosmos. ... The deepest visible-light image of the cosmos. ... In physics, fundamental physical constants are physical constants that are independent of systems of units and are in general dimensionless numbers. ... This article is about the force sometimes called the residual strong force. ... Electromagnetism is the physics of the electromagnetic field: a field which exerts a force on particles that possess the property of electric charge, and is in turn affected by the presence and motion of those particles. ... Gravity is a force of attraction that acts between bodies that have mass. ... ... The Center for Science and Culture (CSC), formerly known as the Center for Renewal of Science and Culture (CRSC), is part of the Discovery Institute, a conservative Christian think tank in the United States. ... For other uses, see Guillermo Gonzalez. ... A chemical element, often called simply element, is a substance that cannot be divided or changed into different substances by ordinary chemical methods. ... For other uses, see Universe (disambiguation). ... This article is about a celestial body. ...


Scientists almost unanimously have responded that this argument cannot be tested and is not scientifically productive. Some scientists argue that even when taken as mere speculation, these arguments are poorly supported by existing evidence.[79] Victor J. Stenger and other critics say both intelligent design and the weak form of the anthropic principle are essentially a tautology; in his view, these arguments amount to the claim that life is able to exist because the Universe is able to support life.[80][81][82] The claim of the improbability of a life-supporting universe has also been criticized as an argument by lack of imagination for assuming no other forms of life are possible. Life as we know it might not exist if things were different, but a different sort of life might exist in its place. A number of critics also suggest that many of the stated variables appear to be interconnected and that calculations made by mathematicians and physicists suggest that the emergence of a universe similar to ours is quite probable.[83] Victor J. Stenger (born January 29, 1935) is emeritus professor of physics and astronomy at the University of Hawaii and adjunct professor of philosophy at the University of Colorado. ... In physics and cosmology, the anthropic principle states that we should take into account the constraints that our existence as observers imposes on the sort of universe that we could observe. ... In physics and cosmology, the anthropic principle states that we should take into account the constraints that our existence as observers imposes on the sort of universe that we could observe. ... In propositional logic, a tautology (from the Greek word ταυτολογία) is a sentence that is true in every valuation (also called interpretation) of its propositional variables, independent of the truth values assigned to these variables. ... The argument from ignorance, also known as argumentum ad ignorantium or argument by lack of imagination, is the assertion that because something is currently inexplicable, it did not happen, or that because one cannot conceive of something, it cannot exist. ...


Proponent Granville Sewell has stated that the evolution of complex forms of life represents a decrease of entropy, thereby violating the second law of thermodynamics and supporting intelligent design.[84][85] Critics assert that this is a misapplication of thermodynamic principles.[86] The second law applies to closed systems only. If this argument were true, living things could not be born and grow, as this also would be a decrease in entropy. However, like evolution, the growth of living things need not violate the second law of thermodynamics, because living things are not closed systems-- they have external energy sources (e.g. food, oxygen, sunlight) whose production requires an offsetting net increase in entropy. Edward Granville Sewell is an American mathematician and intelligent design advocate. ... For other uses, see: information entropy (in information theory) and entropy (disambiguation). ... The second law of thermodynamics is an expression of the universal law of increasing entropy. ... Thermodynamics (Greek: thermos = heat and dynamic = change) is the physics of energy, heat, work, entropy and the spontaneity of processes. ...


Intelligent designer

For more details on this topic, see Intelligent designer.

Intelligent design arguments are formulated in secular terms and intentionally avoid identifying the intelligent agent (or agents) they posit. Although they do not state that God is the designer, the designer is often implicitly hypothesized to have intervened in a way that only a god could intervene. Dembski, in The Design Inference, speculates that an alien culture could fulfill these requirements. The authoritative description of intelligent design,[87] however, explicitly states that the Universe displays features of having been designed. Acknowledging the paradox, Dembski concludes that "no intelligent agent who is strictly physical could have presided over the origin of the universe or the origin of life."[88] The leading proponents have made statements to their supporters that they believe the designer to be the Christian god, to the exclusion of all other religions.[47] An intelligent designer, also referred to as an intelligent agent, is the entity that the intelligent design movement argues had some role in the origin and/or development of life and who supposedly has left scientific evidence of this intelligent design. ... The books cover The Design Inference: Eliminating Chance through Small Probabilities is a controversial 1998 book by the American mathematician, philosopher and theologian William Dembski. ... Look up paradox in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is...

Richard Dawkins, a prominent critic of intelligent-design creationism.
Richard Dawkins, a prominent critic of intelligent-design creationism.

Beyond the debate over whether intelligent design is scientific, a number of critics go so far as to argue that existing evidence makes the design hypothesis appear unlikely, irrespective of its status in the world of science. For example, Jerry Coyne, of the University of Chicago, asks why a designer would "give us a pathway for making vitamin C, but then destroy it by disabling one of its enzymes" and why he or she would not "stock oceanic islands with reptiles, mammals, amphibians, and freshwater fish, despite the suitability of such islands for these species." Coyne also points to the fact that "the flora and fauna on those islands resemble that of the nearest mainland, even when the environments are very different" as evidence that species were not placed there by a designer.[89] Previously, in Darwin's Black Box, Behe had argued that we are simply incapable of understanding the designer's motives, so such questions cannot be answered definitively. Odd designs could, for example, "have been placed there by the designer ... for artistic reasons, to show off, for some as-yet undetectable practical purpose, or for some unguessable reason." Coyne responds that in light of the evidence, "either life resulted not from intelligent design, but from evolution; or the intelligent designer is a cosmic prankster who designed everything to make it look as though it had evolved."[90] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 487 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (594 × 731 pixel, file size: 202 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) This same image was reviewed by Arniep on a previous date, as this is from the exact same image the review still applies. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 487 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (594 × 731 pixel, file size: 202 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) This same image was reviewed by Arniep on a previous date, as this is from the exact same image the review still applies. ... Clinton Richard Dawkins, FRS (born March 26, 1941) is a British ethologist, evolutionary biologist and popular science writer who holds the Charles Simonyi Chair for the Public Understanding of Science at the University of Oxford. ... For other uses, see University of Chicago (disambiguation). ... Darwins Black Box: The Biochemical Challenge to Evolution is a 1996 and 2006 book published by Free Press and written by Michael J. Behe in which he argues that many biochemical systems are irreducibly complex, and thus the result of intelligent design rather than evolutionary processes. ...


Asserting the need for a designer of complexity also raises the question "What designed the designer?"[91] Intelligent design proponents say that the question is irrelevant to or outside the scope of intelligent design.[92] Richard Wein counters that the unanswered questions a theory creates "must be balanced against the improvements in our understanding which the explanation provides. Invoking an unexplained being to explain the origin of other beings (ourselves) is little more than question-begging. The new question raised by the explanation is as problematic as the question which the explanation purports to answer."[93] Richard Dawkins sees the assertion that the designer does not need to be explained, not as a contribution to knowledge, but as a thought-terminating cliché.[94][95] In the absence of observable, measurable evidence, the very question "What designed the designer?" leads to an infinite regression from which intelligent design proponents can only escape by resorting to religious creationism or logical contradiction.[94][96] In logic, begging the question describes a type of logical fallacy, petitio principii, in which the conclusion of an argument is implicitly or explicitly assumed in one of the premises. ... A thought-terminating cliché is a commonly used phrase, sometimes passing as folk wisdom, used to quell cognitive dissonance, especially in cases where the person experiencing the cognitive dissonance might resolve it by reaching a thought-provoking epiphany. ... Turtles all the way down. ...


Movement

The Discovery Institute's Center for the Renewal of Science and Culture used banners based on "The Creation of Adam" from the Sistine Chapel. Later it used a less religious image, then was renamed the Center for Science and Culture.
The Discovery Institute's Center for the Renewal of Science and Culture used banners based on "The Creation of Adam" from the Sistine Chapel. Later it used a less religious image, then was renamed the Center for Science and Culture.[97]
For more details on this topic, see Intelligent design movement.

The intelligent design movement is a direct outgrowth of the creationism of the 1980s.[4] The scientific and academic communities, along with a US Federal court, view intelligent design as either a form of creationism or as a direct descendant that is closely intertwined with traditional creationism;[98][99][100][101] and several authors explicitly refer to it as "intelligent design creationism".[102][103][104] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 400 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 512 pixel, file size: 53 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Michelangelo Buonarrotis The Creation of Adam Faithful reproductions of two-dimensional original works cannot attract copyright in the U.S. according to the rule in... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 400 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 512 pixel, file size: 53 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Michelangelo Buonarrotis The Creation of Adam Faithful reproductions of two-dimensional original works cannot attract copyright in the U.S. according to the rule in... The Discovery Institute is a think tank based in Seattle, Washington best known for its advocacy of intelligent design and its Teach the Controversy campaign to teach creationist beliefs in United States public high school science courses. ... The Creation of Adam prior to the 1980 restoration of the Sistine Chapel ceiling The Creation of Adam is a fresco on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel, painted by Michelangelo Buonarroti circa 1511. ... The iconic image of the Hand of God giving life to Adam. ... The Center for Science and Culture (CSC), formerly known as the Center for Renewal of Science and Culture (CRSC), is part of the Discovery Institute, a conservative Christian think tank in the United States. ... The intelligent design movement is a neo-creationist religious campaign that calls for broad social, academic and political changes derived from the concept of intelligent design. ... Creationism is a religious belief that humanity, life, the Earth, and the universe were created in their original form by a deity or deities (often the Abrahamic God of Judaism, Christianity and Islam), whose existence is presupposed. ...


The movement is headquartered in the Center for Science and Culture (CSC), established in 1996 as the creationist wing of the Discovery Institute to promote a religious agenda[105] calling for broad social, academic and political changes. The Discovery Institute's intelligent design campaigns are primarily in the United States, although efforts have been made in other countries to promote intelligent design. Leaders of the movement say intelligent design exposes the limitations of scientific orthodoxy and of the secular philosophy of Naturalism. Intelligent design proponents allege that science should not be limited to naturalism and should not demand the adoption of a naturalistic philosophy that dismisses out-of-hand any explanation which contains a supernatural cause. The overall goal of the movement is to "defeat [the] materialist world view" represented by the theory of evolution in favor of "a science consonant with Christian and theistic convictions."[106] The Center for Science and Culture (CSC), formerly known as the Center for Renewal of Science and Culture (CRSC), is part of the Discovery Institute, a conservative Christian think tank in the United States. ... The Discovery Institute is a think tank based in Seattle, Washington best known for its advocacy of intelligent design and its Teach the Controversy campaign to teach creationist beliefs in United States public high school science courses. ... Discovery Institute intelligent design campaigns are a series of related public relations campaigns conducted by the Discovery Institute which seek to promote intelligent design while discrediting evolutionary biology, which the Institute terms Darwinism. ... This article concerns secularity, that is, being secular, in various senses. ... This article is about methodological naturalism. ... Philosophy of science is the study of assumptions, foundations, and implications of science, especially in the natural sciences and social sciences. ... In philosophy, materialism is that form of physicalism which holds that the only thing that can truly be said to exist is matter; that fundamentally, all things are composed of material and all phenomena are the result of material interactions; that matter is the only substance. ... A world view (or worldview) is a term calqued from the German word Weltanschauung (pronounced ) Welt is the German word for world, and Anschauung is the German word for view or outlook. It implies a concept fundamental to German philosophy and epistemology and refers to a wide world perception. ... This article is about evolution in biology. ... For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... Theism is the belief in the existence of one or more divinities or deities. ...


Phillip E. Johnson stated that the goal of intelligent design is to cast creationism as a scientific concept.[48][107] All leading intelligent design proponents are fellows or staff of the Discovery Institute and its Center for Science and Culture.[108] Nearly all intelligent design concepts and the associated movement are the products of the Discovery Institute, which guides the movement and follows its wedge strategy while conducting its Teach the Controversy campaign and their other related programs. Phillip E. Johnson Phillip E. Johnson (born 1940) is a retired UC Berkeley American law professor and author. ... Creationism is a religious belief that humanity, life, the Earth, and the universe were created in their original form by a deity or deities (often the Abrahamic God of Judaism, Christianity and Islam), whose existence is presupposed. ... The Center for Science and Culture (CSC), formerly known as the Center for Renewal of Science and Culture (CRSC), is part of the Discovery Institute, a conservative Christian think tank in the United States. ... The wedge strategy is a political and social action plan authored by the Discovery Institute, an organization that works to promote a Neo-Creationist religious agenda centering on Intelligent design, and is the hub of the Intelligent design movement. ... Teach the Controversy is the name of a Discovery Institute intelligent design campaign to promote intelligent design creationism while discrediting evolution in United States public high school science courses. ... Discovery Institute intelligent design campaigns are a series of related public relations campaigns conducted by the Discovery Institute which seek to promote intelligent design while discrediting evolutionary biology, which the Institute terms Darwinism. ...

Phillip E. Johnson's 1991 book Darwin on Trial was among the early "intelligent design" books that attempted to "teach the controversy" about evolution.
Phillip E. Johnson's 1991 book Darwin on Trial was among the early "intelligent design" books that attempted to "teach the controversy" about evolution.

Leading intelligent design proponents have made conflicting statements regarding intelligent design. In statements directed at the general public, they say intelligent design is not religious; when addressing conservative Christian supporters, they state that intelligent design has its foundation in the Bible.[107] Recognizing the need for support, the institute affirms its Christian, evangelistic orientation: "Alongside a focus on influential opinion-makers, we also seek to build up a popular base of support among our natural constituency, namely, Christians. We will do this primarily through apologetics seminars. We intend these to encourage and equip believers with new scientific evidences that support the faith, as well as to 'popularize' our ideas in the broader culture."[106] Download high resolution version (491x750, 39 KB) This image is a book cover. ... Download high resolution version (491x750, 39 KB) This image is a book cover. ... Phillip E. Johnson Phillip E. Johnson (born 1940) is a retired UC Berkeley American law professor and author. ... The cover of the book shows Charles Darwin Darwin on Trial (ISBN 0830813241) is a controversial 1991 book by the University of California, Berkeley law professor Phillip E. Johnson. ... Teach the Controversy is the name of a Discovery Institute intelligent design campaign to promote intelligent design creationism while discrediting evolution in United States public high school science courses. ... This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library. ...


Barbara Forrest, an expert who has written extensively on the movement, describes this as being due to the Discovery Institute's obfuscating its agenda as a matter of policy. She has written that the movement's "activities betray an aggressive, systematic agenda for promoting not only intelligent design creationism, but the religious world-view that undergirds it."[109] Barbara Carroll Forrest, PhD. is a professor of philosophy at Southeastern Louisiana University in Hammond, Louisiana. ...


Religion and leading proponents

Although arguments for intelligent design are formulated in secular terms and intentionally avoid positing the identity of the designer,[110] most of the principal intelligent design advocates are evangelical Christians who have stated that in their view the "designer" is God. Phillip E. Johnson, William Dembski, and Stephen C. Meyer are Protestants; Michael Behe is Roman Catholic; and Jonathan Wells, another principal advocate, is a member of the Unification Church. Johnson has stated that cultivating ambiguity by employing secular language in arguments that are carefully crafted to avoid overtones of theistic creationism is a necessary first step for ultimately reintroducing the Christian concept of God as the designer. Johnson explicitly calls for intelligent design proponents to obfuscate their religious motivations so as to avoid having intelligent design identified "as just another way of packaging the Christian evangelical message".[111] Johnson emphasizes that "the first thing that has to be done is to get the Bible out of the discussion"; "after we have separated materialist prejudice from scientific fact ... only then can 'biblical issues' be discussed."[112] This article concerns secularity, that is, being secular, in various senses. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The word evangelicalism often refers to... This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... Phillip E. Johnson Phillip E. Johnson (born 1940) is a retired UC Berkeley American law professor and author. ... William Dembski Dr William Albert Bill Dembski (born July 18, 1960) is an American mathematician, philosopher and theologian known for advocating the controversial idea of intelligent design. ... Stephen C. Meyer. ... Protestantism encompasses the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated with the doctrines of the Reformation. ... Michael J. Behe (born January 18, 1952, in Altoona, Pennsylvania) is an American biochemist and intelligent design advocate. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... This article is about the intelligent design advocate. ... The Unification Church is a new religious movement started by Sun Myung Moon in Korea in the 1940s. ... Theism is the belief in the existence of one or more divinities or deities. ... Creationism is a religious belief that humanity, life, the Earth, and the universe were created in their original form by a deity or deities (often the Abrahamic God of Judaism, Christianity and Islam), whose existence is presupposed. ... Evangelicalism, in a strictly lexical, but rarely used sense, refers to all things that are implied in belief that Jesus is the savior. ... This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library. ... This article primarily focuses on the general concepts of matter and existence. ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Gay bashing Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial...


The strategy of deliberately disguising the religious intent of intelligent design has been described by William Dembski in The Design Inference.[113] In this work Dembski lists a god or an "alien life force" as two possible options for the identity of the designer; however, in his book Intelligent Design: The Bridge Between Science and Theology, Dembski states that "Christ is indispensable to any scientific theory, even if its practitioners don't have a clue about him. The pragmatics of a scientific theory can, to be sure, be pursued without recourse to Christ. But the conceptual soundness of the theory can in the end only be located in Christ."[114] Dembski also stated, "ID is part of God's general revelation ... Not only does intelligent design rid us of this ideology (materialism), which suffocates the human spirit, but, in my personal experience, I've found that it opens the path for people to come to Christ."[115] Both Johnson and Dembski cite the Bible's Gospel of John as the foundation of intelligent design.[47][107] The wedge strategy is a political and social action plan authored by the Discovery Institute, an organization that works to promote a Neo-Creationist religious agenda centering on Intelligent design, and is the hub of the Intelligent design movement. ... This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... Green people redirects here. ... General revelation is a theological term which refers to a universal aspect of God, his knowledge and of spiritual matters, discovered through natural means, such as observation of nature (the physical universe), philosophy and reasoning, human conscience or providence or providential history. ... In philosophy, materialism is that form of physicalism which holds that the only thing that can truly be said to exist is matter; that fundamentally, all things are composed of material and all phenomena are the result of material interactions; that matter is the only substance. ... For other uses, see Gospel of John (disambiguation). ...


Barbara Forrest contends such statements reveal that leading proponents see intelligent design as essentially religious in nature, not merely a scientific concept that has implications with which their personal religious beliefs happen to coincide.[116] She writes that the leading proponents of intelligent design are closely allied with the ultra-conservative Christian Reconstructionism movement. She lists connections of Discovery Institute Fellows Phillip Johnson, Charles Thaxton, Michael Behe, Richard Weikart, Jonathan Wells and Francis Beckwith to leading Christian Reconstructionist organizations, and the extent of the funding provided the Institute by Howard Ahmanson Jr., a leading figure in the Reconstructionist movement.[117] Christian Reconstructionism is a religious and theological movement within Protestant Christianity that calls for Christians to put their faith into action in all areas of life. ... Richard Weikart is full professor and head of department of history at California State University, Stanislaus and is a fellow for the Discovery Institute. ... Francis J. Beckwith is associate director of the J.M. Dawson Institute of Church-State Studies and associate professor of church-state studies at Baylor University in Waco, Texas. ... Howard Fieldstead Ahmanson, Jr (born 1950) is an American millionaire philanthropist who funds the causes of Christian fundamentalism. ...


Controversy

For more details on this topic, see Creation-evolution controversy.

A key strategy of the intelligent design movement is convincing the general public that there is a debate among scientists about whether life evolved, in order to convince the public, politicians and cultural leaders that schools should "teach the controversy".[118] There is no such debate, however, within the scientific community; the scientific consensus is that life evolved.[119][120][121] Intelligent design is widely viewed as a stalking horse for its proponents' campaign against what they say is the materialist foundation of science, which they argue leaves no room for the possibility of God.[122][123] The creation-evolution controversy (also termed the creation vs. ... Teach the Controversy is the name of a Discovery Institute intelligent design campaign to promote intelligent design creationism while discrediting evolution in United States public high school science courses. ... Scientific consensus is the collective judgment, position, and opinion of the community of scientists in a particular field of science at a particular time. ... Look up Stalking horse in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In philosophy, materialism is that form of physicalism which holds that the only thing that can truly be said to exist is matter; that fundamentally, all things are composed of material and all phenomena are the result of material interactions; that matter is the only substance. ...


Advocates of intelligent design seek to keep God and the Bible out of the discussion, and present intelligent design in the language of science as a scientific hypothesis.[112][110] However, among the general public in the United States the major concern is whether or not conventional evolutionary biology is compatible with belief in God and in the Bible, and concerns about what is taught in schools.[124] The public controversy was given widespread media coverage in the United States, particularly during the Kitzmiller v. Dover trial in 2005. Prominent coverage of the public controversy was given on the front page of Time magazine with a story on Evolution Wars, on 15 August, 2005. The cover poses the question: "Does God have a place in science class?"[125] The eventual decision of the court ruled that intelligent design was a religious and creationist position, and answered the question posed by Time magazine with a firm negative, finding that God and intelligent design were both distinct from the material that should be covered in a science class.[3] “TIME” redirects here. ...

The controversy over intelligent design received wide public attention in the United States while the Kitzmiller v. Dover trial was being conducted in a federal court in Pennsylvania. The cover of this August 15, 2005 issue of TIME reads: The push to teach "intelligent design" raises a question: Does God have a place in science class?[124]

From the standpoint of public-school educational policy, the intelligent design controversy centers on three issues: Image File history File links Time_evolution_wars. ... Image File history File links Time_evolution_wars. ...

  1. Can intelligent design be defined as science?
  2. If so, does the evidence support it and related explanations of the history of life on Earth?
  3. If the answer to either question is negative, is the teaching of such explanations appropriate and legal in public education, specifically in science classes?

Empirical science uses the scientific method to create a posteriori knowledge based on observation and repeated testing of hypotheses and theories. Intelligent design proponents seek to change this fundamental basis of science[126] by eliminating "methodological naturalism" from science[127] and replacing it with what the leader of the intelligent design movement, Phillip E. Johnson, calls "theistic realism".[128] Some have called this approach "methodological supernaturalism", which means belief in a transcendent, nonnatural dimension of reality inhabited by a transcendent, nonnatural deity.[129] Intelligent design proponents argue that naturalistic explanations fail to explain certain phenomena and that supernatural explanations provide a very simple and intuitive explanation for the origins of life and the universe.[130] Proponents say that evidence exists in the forms of irreducible complexity and specified complexity that cannot be explained by natural processes.[1] A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... A central concept in science and the scientific method is that all evidence must be empirical, or empirically based, that is, dependent on evidence or consequences that are observable by the senses. ... Scientific method is a body of techniques for investigating phenomena, acquiring new knowledge, or correcting and integrating previous knowledge. ... A Posteriori is the title of the musical project Enigmas sixth studio album, released in September 2006. ... Meethodology is defined as the analysis of the principles of methods, rules, and postulates employed by a discipline, the systematic study of methods that are, can be, or have been applied within a discipline or a particular procedure or set of procedures [1]. It should be noted that methodology is... This article is about methodological naturalism. ... Phillip E. Johnson Phillip E. Johnson (born 1940) is a retired UC Berkeley American law professor and author. ... Theistic realism is a philosophical justification for intelligent design proposed by Phillip E. Johnson in his book, Reason in the Balance. ... Irreducible complexity (IC) is an argument made by intelligent design proponents that certain biological systems are too complex to have evolved from simpler, or less complete predecessors, and are at the same time too complex to have arisen naturally through chance mutations. ... Specified complexity is a concept developed by intelligent design proponent William Dembski. ...


Supporters also hold that religious neutrality requires the teaching of both evolution and intelligent design in schools, saying that teaching only evolution unfairly discriminates against those holding creationist beliefs. Teaching both, they argue, allows for the possibility of religious belief, without causing the state to actually promote such beliefs. Many intelligent design followers believe that "Scientism" is itself a religion that promotes secularism and materialism in an attempt to erase theism from public life, and they view their work in the promotion of intelligent design as a way to return religion to a central role in education and other public spheres. Some allege that this larger debate is often the subtext for arguments made over intelligent design, though others note that intelligent design serves as an effective proxy for the religious beliefs of prominent intelligent design proponents in their efforts to advance their religious point of view within society.[131][132][133] Teach the Controversy is the name of a Discovery Institute intelligent design campaign to promote intelligent design creationism while discrediting evolution in United States public high school science courses. ... Scientism is a term mainly used as a pejorative[1][2][3] to accuse someone of holding that science has primacy over all other interpretations of life such as religious, mythical, spiritual, or humanistic explanations. ... This article is about secularism. ... In philosophy, materialism is that form of physicalism which holds that the only thing that can truly be said to exist is matter; that fundamentally, all things are composed of material and all phenomena are the result of material interactions; that matter is the only substance. ... Theism is the belief in the existence of one or more divinities or deities. ...


According to critics, intelligent design has not presented a credible scientific case and is an attempt to teach religion in public schools, which the U.S. Constitution forbids under the Establishment Clause. They allege that intelligent design has substituted public support for scientific research.[134] Some critics have said that if one were to take the proponents of "equal time for all theories" at their word, there would be no logical limit to the number of potential "theories" to be taught in the public school system, including intelligent design parodies such as the Flying Spaghetti Monster "theory". There are innumerable mutually incompatible supernatural explanations for complexity, and intelligent design does not provide a mechanism for discriminating among them. Furthermore, intelligent design is neither observable nor repeatable, which violates the scientific requirement of falsifiability.[135][136][137] Indeed, intelligent design proponent Michael Behe concedes "You can't prove intelligent design by experiment."[124] The Establishment Clause of the First Amendment to the United States Constitution states that: Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion Together with the Free Exercise Clause, (or prohibiting the free exercise thereof), these two clauses make up what are commonly known as the religion clauses. ... Bobby Henderson redirects here. ... Falsifiability (or refutability or testability) is the logical possibility that an assertion can be shown false by an observation or a physical experiment. ... Michael J. Behe (born January 18, 1952, in Altoona, Pennsylvania) is an American biochemist and intelligent design advocate. ...


Critics have asserted that intelligent design proponents cannot legitimately infer that an intelligent designer is behind the part of the process that is not understood scientifically, since they have not shown that anything supernatural has occurred. The inference that an intelligent designer created life on Earth, which advocate William Dembski has said could alternately be an "alien" life force,[113] has been compared to the a priori claim that aliens helped the ancient Egyptians build the pyramids.[138][139] In both cases, the effect of this outside intelligence is not repeatable, observable or falsifiable, and it violates the principle of parsimony. From a strictly empirical standpoint, one may list what is known about Egyptian construction techniques, but one must admit ignorance about exactly how the Egyptians built the pyramids. The terms a priori and a posteriori are used in philosophy to distinguish between two different types of propositional knowledge. ... Look up parsimony in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In philosophy generally, empiricism is a theory of knowledge emphasizing the role of experience, especially sensory perception, in the formation of ideas, while discounting the notion of innate ideas. ...


Intelligent design proponents aim to gain support by unifying the religious world—Christians, Jews, Muslims and others who believe in a creator—in challenging Darwinism with a God-friendly alternative theory.[130] Mainstream religious denominations have responded by expressing support for evolution. They state that their religious faith is fully compatible with science, which is limited to dealing only with the natural world[140]—a position described by the term theistic evolution.[141] As well as pointing out that intelligent design is not science, they also reject it for various philosophical and theological reasons.[142][143] The arguments of intelligent design have been directly challenged by the over 10,000 clergy who signed the Clergy Letter Project. Prominent scientists who strongly express religious faith, such as the astronomer George Coyne and the biologist Ken Miller, have been at the forefront of opposition to intelligent design. While creationist organizations have welcomed intelligent design's support against naturalism, they have also been critical of its refusal to identify the designer,[144][145][146] and have pointed to previous failures of the same argument.[147][148] For the scientific evidence supporting evolution, see Evidence of evolution. ... Theistic evolution, less commonly known as evolutionary creationism, is the general opinion that some or all classical religious teachings about God and creation are compatible with some or all of the modern scientific understanding about biological evolution. ... Clergy is the generic term used to describe the formal religious leadership within a given religion. ... The Clergy Letter Project is a signed statement by over 10,000 American Christian clergy of different denominations rejecting creationism with specific reference to points raised by intelligent design proponents. ... Fr. ... Ken Miller Kenneth R. Miller (born 1948) is a biology professor at Brown University. ... This article is about methodological naturalism. ...


Kitzmiller trial

Kitzmiller v. Dover Area School District was the first direct challenge brought in the United States federal courts against a public school district that required the presentation of Intelligent Design as an alternative to evolution. The plaintiffs successfully argued that intelligent design is a form of creationism, and that the school board policy thus violated the Establishment Clause of the First Amendment to the United States Constitution. Tammy Kitzmiller, et al. ... The United States federal courts are the system of courts organized under the Constitution and laws of the federal government of the United States. ... This article is about evolution in biology. ... Creationism is a religious belief that humanity, life, the Earth, and the universe were created in their original form by a deity or deities (often the Abrahamic God of Judaism, Christianity and Islam), whose existence is presupposed. ... The first ten Amendments to the U.S. Constitution make up the Bill of Rights. ... “First Amendment” redirects here. ...


Eleven parents of students in Dover, Pennsylvania, sued the Dover Area School District over a statement that the school board required be read aloud in ninth-grade science classes when evolution was taught. The plaintiffs were represented by the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU), Americans United for Separation of Church and State (AU) and Pepper Hamilton LLP. The National Center for Science Education (NCSE) acted as consultants for the plaintiffs. The defendants were represented by the Thomas More Law Center.[149] The suit was tried in a bench trial from September 26, 2005 to November 4, 2005 before Judge John E. Jones III. Ken Miller, Kevin Padian, Brian Alters, Robert Pennock, Barbara Forrest and John Haught served as expert witnesses for the prosecution. Michael Behe, Steve Fuller and Scott Minnich served as expert witnesses for the defense. Dover is a borough in York County, Pennsylvania, United States. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... The amazing Dover Area School District is a public school district located in Pennsylvania, United States. ... The American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) is an American organization consisting of two separate entities. ... Americans United for Separation of Church and State (Americans United or AU for short) is an advocacy group in the United States which promotes the separation of church and state, a legal doctrine derived from the Establishment Clause of the First Amendment. ... Pepper Hamilton LLP is a multi-practice law firm with 400 lawyers in 10 offices. ... The NCSEs logo The National Center for Science Education (NCSE) is a non-profit organization affiliated with the American Association for the Advancement of Science. ... The Thomas More Law Center is a conservative Christian, not-for-profit law center based in Ann Arbor, Michigan and active throughout the United States. ... A bench trial in the U.S. is a trial before a judge in which the defendant has waived his/her right to a jury trial. ... John E. Jones III John Edward Jones III (born June 13, 1955) is an American lawyer, political figure, and jurist from the U.S. state of Pennsylvania. ... Ken Miller Kenneth R. Miller (born 1948) is a biology professor at Brown University. ... Brian J. Alters (B.Sc. ... Robert T. Pennock is a philosopher now working on the Avida digital organism project at Michigan State University where he is an associate professor. ... Barbara Carroll Forrest, PhD. is a professor of philosophy at Southeastern Louisiana University in Hammond, Louisiana. ... John (Jack) F. Haught is Landegger Distinguished Professor of Theology at Georgetown University. ... Michael J. Behe (born January 18, 1952, in Altoona, Pennsylvania) is an American biochemist and intelligent design advocate. ... Steve Fuller in 2005. ... Scott Minnich is an associate professor of microbiology at the University of Idaho, and a fellow at the Discovery Institutes Center for Science and Culture. ...


On December 20, 2005 Judge Jones issued his 139-page findings of fact and decision, ruling that the Dover mandate was unconstitutional, and barring intelligent design from being taught in Pennsylvania's Middle District public school science classrooms. The eight Dover school board members who voted for the intelligent design requirement were all defeated in a November 8, 2005 election by challengers who opposed the teaching of intelligent design in a science class, and the current school board president stated that the board does not intend to appeal the ruling.[150] A finding of fact is a determination on the evidence regarding a issue of fact raised by one party to case made by the fact finder, usually a judge or a jury. ...


Judge Jones himself anticipated that his ruling would be criticized, saying in his decision that:

Those who disagree with our holding will likely mark it as the product of an activist judge. If so, they will have erred as this is manifestly not an activist Court. Rather, this case came to us as the result of the activism of an ill-informed faction on a school board, aided by a national public interest law firm eager to find a constitutional test case on ID, who in combination drove the Board to adopt an imprudent and ultimately unconstitutional policy. The breathtaking inanity of the Board's decision is evident when considered against the factual backdrop which has now been fully revealed through this trial. The students, parents, and teachers of the Dover Area School District deserved better than to be dragged into this legal maelstrom, with its resulting utter waste of monetary and personal resources.

As predicted, Dr. John G. West, Associate Director of the Center for Science and Culture at Discovery Institute, said: "The Dover decision is an attempt by an activist federal judge to stop the spread of a scientific idea and even to prevent criticism of Darwinian evolution through government-imposed censorship rather than open debate, and it won't work. He has conflated Discovery Institute's position with that of the Dover school board, and he totally misrepresents intelligent design and the motivations of the scientists who research it."[151] The Center for Science and Culture (CSC), formerly known as the Center for Renewal of Science and Culture (CRSC), is part of the Discovery Institute, a conservative Christian think tank in the United States. ... The Discovery Institute is a think tank based in Seattle, Washington best known for its advocacy of intelligent design and its Teach the Controversy campaign to teach creationist beliefs in United States public high school science courses. ...


Newspapers have noted with interest that the judge is "a Republican and a churchgoer."[152][153][154][155] GOP redirects here. ... For the architectural structure, see Church (building). ...


Subsequently, the decision has been examined in a search for flaws and conclusions, partly by intelligent design supporters aiming to avoid future defeats in court. In the Spring of 2007 the University of Montana Law review published three articles.[156] In the first, David K. DeWolf, John G. West and Casey Luskin, all of the Discovery Institute, argued that intelligent design is a valid scientific theory, the Jones court should not have addressed the question of whether it was a scientific theory, and that the Kitzmiller decision will have no effect at all on the development and adoption of intelligent design as an alternative to standard evolutionary theory.[157] In the second Peter Irons responded, arguing that the decision was extremely well reasoned and spells the death knell for the intelligent design efforts to introduce creationism in public schools,[158] while in the third, DeWolf et al answer the points made by Irons.[159] However, fear of a similar lawsuit has resulted in other school boards abandoning intelligent design "teach the controversy" proposals.[4] Peter H. Irons is a political activist, civil rights attorney, legal scholar, and professor of political science. ...


Defining as science

The scientific method is a body of techniques for investigating phenomena and acquiring new knowledge of the natural world without assuming the existence or nonexistence of the supernatural, an approach sometimes called methodological naturalism. Intelligent design proponents believe that this can be equated to materialist metaphysical naturalism and have often said that not only is their own position scientific, but it is even more scientific than evolution, and that they want a redefinition of science as a revived natural theology or natural philosophy to allow "non-naturalistic theories such as intelligent design."[160] This presents a demarcation problem, which in the philosophy of science is about how and where to draw the lines around science.[161] For a theory to qualify as scientific,[162][163][164] it is expected to be: For other uses, see Phenomena (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Knowledge (disambiguation). ... Natural World (sometimes in the past titled Wildlife On One or Wildlife On Two) is a long-running BBC television series on natural history. ... This article is about methodological naturalism. ... In philosophy, materialism is that form of physicalism which holds that the only thing that can truly be said to exist is matter; that fundamentally, all things are composed of material and all phenomena are the result of material interactions; that matter is the only substance. ... Metaphysical naturalism is any worldview in which nature is all there is and all things supernatural (which stipulatively includes as well as spirits and souls, non-natural values, and universals as they are commonly conceived) do not exist. ... Natural theology is the knowledge of God accessible to all rational human beings without recourse to any special or supposedly supernatural revelation. ... Natural philosophy or the philosophy of nature, known in Latin as philosophia naturalis, is a term applied to the objective study of nature and the physical universe that was regnant before the development of modern science. ... The demarcation problem in the philosophy of science is about how and where to draw the lines around science. ... Philosophy of science is the study of assumptions, foundations, and implications of science, especially in the natural sciences and social sciences. ...

  • Consistent
  • Parsimonious (sparing in its proposed entities or explanations, see Occam's Razor)
  • Useful (describes and explains observed phenomena, and can be used predictively)
  • Empirically testable and falsifiable (see Falsifiability)
  • Based on multiple observations, often in the form of controlled, repeated experiments
  • Correctable and dynamic (modified in the light of observations that do not support it)
  • Progressive (refines previous theories)
  • Provisional or tentative (is open to experimental checking, and does not assert certainty)

For any theory, hypothesis or conjecture to be considered scientific, it must meet most, but ideally all, of these criteria. The fewer criteria are met, the less scientific it is; and if it meets only a few or none at all, then it cannot be treated as scientific in any meaningful sense of the word. Typical objections to defining intelligent design as science are that it lacks consistency,[165] violates the principle of parsimony,[166] is not scientifically useful,[167] is not falsifiable,[168] is not empirically testable,[169] and is not correctable, dynamic, tentative or progressive.[170] For the House television show episode called Occams Razor, see Occams Razor (House episode) Occams razor (sometimes spelled Ockhams razor) is a principle attributed to the 14th-century English logician and Franciscan friar William of Ockham. ... Falsifiability (or refutability or testability) is the logical possibility that an assertion can be shown false by an observation or a physical experiment. ...


In light of the apparent failure of intelligent design to adhere to scientific standards, in September 2005, 38 Nobel laureates issued a statement saying "Intelligent design is fundamentally unscientific; it cannot be tested as scientific theory because its central conclusion is based on belief in the intervention of a supernatural agent."[171] In October 2005, a coalition representing more than 70,000 Australian scientists and science teachers issued a statement saying "intelligent design is not science" and called on "all schools not to teach Intelligent Design (ID) as science, because it fails to qualify on every count as a scientific theory."[172] The Nobel Prize (Swedish: ) was established in Alfred Nobels will in 1895, and it was first awarded in Physics, Chemistry, Physiology or Medicine, Literature, and Peace in 1901. ...


Critics also say that the intelligent design doctrine does not meet the criteria for scientific evidence used by most courts, the Daubert Standard. The Daubert Standard governs which evidence can be considered scientific in United States federal courts and most state courts. The four Daubert criteria are: The scientific method or process is fundamental to the scientific investigation and acquisition of new knowledge based upon physical evidence. ... The Daubert Standard is a legal precedent set in 1993 by the Supreme Court of the United States regarding the admissibility of expert witnesses testimony during legal proceedings. ... The Daubert Standard is a legal precedent set in 1993 by the Supreme Court of the United States regarding the admissibility of expert witnesses testimony during legal proceedings. ...

  • The theoretical underpinnings of the methods must yield testable predictions by means of which the theory could be falsified.
  • The methods should preferably be published in a peer-reviewed journal.
  • There should be a known rate of error that can be used in evaluating the results.
  • The methods should be generally accepted within the relevant scientific community.

In deciding Kitzmiller v. Dover Area School District in 2005, Judge Jones agreed with the plaintiffs, ruling that "we have addressed the seminal question of whether ID is science. We have concluded that it is not, and moreover that ID cannot uncouple itself from its creationist, and thus religious, antecedents." Peer review (known as refereeing in some academic fields) is a scholarly process used in the publication of manuscripts and in the awarding of funding for research. ... For other uses, see Error (disambiguation). ...


Peer review

The failure to follow the procedures of scientific discourse and the failure to submit work to the scientific community that withstands scrutiny have weighed against intelligent design being considered as valid science.[173] To date, the intelligent design movement has yet to have an article published in a peer-reviewed scientific journal.[173][6] Nature, Science and PNAS In academic publishing, a scientific journal is a periodical publication intended to further the progress of science, usually by reporting new research. ...


Intelligent design, by appealing to a supernatural agent, directly conflicts with the principles of science, which limit its inquiries to empirical, observable and ultimately testable data and which require explanations to be based on empirical evidence. Dembski, Behe and other intelligent design proponents say bias by the scientific community is to blame for the failure of their research to be published. Intelligent design proponents believe that their writings are rejected for not conforming to purely naturalistic, nonsupernatural mechanisms rather than because their research is not up to "journal standards", and that the merit of their articles is overlooked. Some scientists describe this claim as a conspiracy theory.[174] The issue that supernatural explanations do not conform to the scientific method became a sticking point for intelligent design proponents in the 1990s, and is addressed in the wedge strategy as an aspect of science that must be challenged before intelligent design can be accepted by the broader scientific community. For other uses, see Supernatural (disambiguation). ... A principle (not principal) is something, usually a rule or norm, that is part of the basis for something else. ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... A central concept in science and the scientific method is that all evidence must be empirical, or empirically based, that is, dependent on evidence or consequences that are observable by the senses. ... This page discusses how a theory or assertion is falsifiable (disprovable opp: verifiable), rather than the non-philosophical use of falsification, meaning counterfeiting. ... For other uses, see Data (disambiguation). ... Scientific method is a body of techniques for investigating phenomena, acquiring new knowledge, or correcting and integrating previous knowledge. ... For other uses, see Conspiracy theory (disambiguation). ... Scientific method is a body of techniques for investigating phenomena, acquiring new knowledge, or correcting and integrating previous knowledge. ... The wedge strategy is a political and social action plan authored by the Discovery Institute, an organization that works to promote a Neo-Creationist religious agenda centering on Intelligent design, and is the hub of the Intelligent design movement. ...


The debate over whether intelligent design produces new research, as any scientific field must, and has legitimately attempted to publish this research, is extremely heated. Both critics and advocates point to numerous examples to make their case. For instance, the Templeton Foundation, a former funder of the Discovery Institute and a major supporter of projects seeking to reconcile science and religion, says that it asked intelligent design proponents to submit proposals for actual research, but none were ever submitted. Charles L. Harper Jr., foundation vice-president, said: "From the point of view of rigor and intellectual seriousness, the intelligent design people don't come out very well in our world of scientific review."[175] The John Templeton Foundation was established in 1987 by international money manager Sir John Templeton; it is usually referred to simply as the Templeton Foundation. ...


The only article published in a peer-reviewed scientific journal that made a case for intelligent design was quickly withdrawn by the publisher for having circumvented the journal's peer-review standards.[176] Written by the Discovery Institute's Center for Science & Culture Director Stephen C. Meyer, it appeared in the peer-reviewed journal Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington in August 2004.[177] The article was a literature review, which means that it did not present any new research, but rather culled quotations and claims from other papers to argue that the Cambrian explosion could not have happened by natural processes. The choice of venue for this article was also considered problematic, because it was so outside the normal subject matter (see Sternberg peer review controversy). Dembski has written that "perhaps the best reason [to be skeptical of his ideas] is that intelligent design has yet to establish itself as a thriving scientific research program."[178] In a 2001 interview, Dembski said that he stopped submitting to peer-reviewed journals because of their slow time-to-print and that he makes more money from publishing books.[179] Stephen C. Meyer. ... A Literature review is a body of text that aims to review the critical points of current knowledge on a particular topic. ... The Cambrian explosion is the geologically kukko sudden appearance in the fossil record of the ancestors of familiar animals, starting about 542 million years ago (Mya). ... Sternberg peer review controversy arose out of a conflict over whether an article published in a scientific journal that supported of the controversial concept of Intelligent Design was properly peer reviewed. ...


In the Dover trial, the judge found that intelligent design features no scientific research or testing.[32] There, intelligent design proponents cited just one paper, on simulation modeling of evolution by Behe and Snoke, which mentioned neither irreducible complexity nor intelligent design and which Behe admitted did not rule out known evolutionary mechanisms.[32] In sworn testimony, however, Behe said: "There are no peer reviewed articles by anyone advocating for intelligent design supported by pertinent experiments or calculations which provide detailed rigorous accounts of how intelligent design of any biological system occurred."[180] As summarized by the judge, Behe conceded that there are no peer-reviewed articles supporting his claims of intelligent design or irreducible complexity. In his ruling, the judge wrote: "A final indicator of how ID has failed to demonstrate scientific warrant is the complete absence of peer-reviewed publications supporting the theory."[173] Tammy Kitzmiller, et al. ...


Despite this, the Discovery Institute continues to insist that a number of intelligent design articles have been published in peer-reviewed journals,[181] including in their list the two articles mentioned above. Critics, largely members of the scientific community, reject this claim, pointing out that no established scientific journal has yet published an intelligent design article. Instead, intelligent design proponents have set up their own journals with "peer review" which lack impartiality and rigor,[182] consisting entirely of intelligent design supporters.[183] Impartiality is a principle of justice holding that decisions should be based on objective criteria, rather then on the basis of bias, prejudice, or preferring the benefit to one person over another for improper reasons. ... Look up Rigour in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Intelligence as an observable quality

The phrase intelligent design makes use of an assumption of the quality of an observable intelligence, a concept that has no scientific consensus definition. William Dembski, for example, has written that "Intelligence leaves behind a characteristic signature". The characteristics of intelligence are assumed by intelligent design proponents to be observable without specifying what the criteria for the measurement of intelligence should be. Dembski, instead, asserts that "in special sciences ranging from forensics to archaeology to SETI (the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence), appeal to a designing intelligence is indispensable."[184] How this appeal is made and what this implies as to the definition of intelligence are topics left largely unaddressed. Seth Shostak, a researcher with the SETI Institute, refuted Dembski's comparison of SETI and intelligent design, saying that intelligent design advocates base their inference of design on complexity—the argument being that some biological systems are too complex to have been made by natural processes—while SETI researchers are looking primarily for artificiality.[185] Intelligence is the mental capacity to reason, plan, solve problems, think abstractly, comprehend ideas and language, and learn. ... Scientific consensus is the collective judgment, position, and opinion of the community of scientists in a particular field of science at a particular time. ... For other uses, see Observation (disambiguation). ... Measurement is the estimation of the magnitude of some attribute of an object, such as its length or weight, relative to a unit of measurement. ... The word forensic (from Latin: forensis - forum) refers to something of, pertaining to, or used in a court of law. ... For referencing in Wikipedia, see Wikipedia:Citing sources. ... This article is about the search for extra-terrestrial intelligence. ... Seth Shostak. ... The SETI Institute is a private, nonprofit organization dedicated to scientific research, education and public outreach to explore, understand, and explain the nature and origin of the Universe. ... Look up artificial in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Critics say that the design detection methods proposed by intelligent design proponents are radically different from conventional design detection, undermining the key elements that make it possible as legitimate science. Intelligent design proponents, they say, are proposing both searching for a designer without knowing anything about that designer's abilities, parameters, or intentions (which scientists do know when searching for the results of human intelligence), as well as denying the very distinction between natural/artificial design that allows scientists to compare complex designed artifacts against the background of the sorts of complexity found in nature.[186]


As a means of criticism, certain skeptics have pointed to a challenge of intelligent design derived from the study of artificial intelligence. The criticism is a counter to intelligent design claims about what makes a design intelligent, specifically that "no preprogrammed device can be truly intelligent, that intelligence is irreducible to natural processes."[187] This claim is similar in type to an assumption of Cartesian dualism that posits a strict separation between "mind" and the material Universe. However, in studies of artificial intelligence, while there is an implicit assumption that supposed "intelligence" or creativity of a computer program is determined by the capabilities given to it by the computer programmer, artificial intelligence need not be bound to an inflexible system of rules. Rather, if a computer program can access randomness as a function, this effectively allows for a flexible, creative, and adaptive intelligence. Evolutionary algorithms, a subfield of machine learning (itself a subfield of artificial intelligence), have been used to mathematically demonstrate that randomness and selection can be used to "evolve" complex, highly adapted structures that are not explicitly designed by a programmer. Evolutionary algorithms use the Darwinian metaphor of random mutation, selection and the survival of the fittest to solve diverse mathematical and scientific problems that are usually not solvable using conventional methods. Furthermore, forays into such areas as quantum computing seem to indicate that real probabilistic functions may be available in the future. Intelligence derived from randomness is essentially indistinguishable from the "innate" intelligence associated with biological organisms, and poses a challenge to the intelligent design conception that intelligence itself necessarily requires a designer. Cognitive science continues to investigate the nature of intelligence along these lines of inquiry. The intelligent design community, for the most part, relies on the assumption that intelligence is readily apparent as a fundamental and basic property of complex systems.[188] To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... AI redirects here. ... Cartesian dualism was Descartess principle of the separation of mind and matter and mind and body. ... For other uses, see Universe (disambiguation). ... For other uses of Creativity, see Creativity (disambiguation). ... A computer program is a collection of instructions that describe a task, or set of tasks, to be carried out by a computer. ... A programmer or software developer is someone who programs computers, that is, one who writes computer software. ... Random redirects here. ... An evolutionary algorithm (also EA, evolutionary computation, artificial evolution) is a generic term used to indicate any population-based optimization algorithm that uses mechanisms inspired by biological evolution, such as reproduction, mutation and recombination (see genetic operators). ... Molecule of alanine used in NMR implementation of error correction. ... Cognitive science is usually defined as the scientific study either of mind or of intelligence (e. ...


Arguments from ignorance

Eugenie Scott, along with Glenn Branch and other critics, has argued that many points raised by intelligent design proponents are arguments from ignorance.[189] In the argument from ignorance, a lack of evidence for one view is erroneously argued to constitute proof of the correctness of another view. Scott and Branch say that intelligent design is an argument from ignorance because it relies upon a lack of knowledge for its conclusion: lacking a natural explanation for certain specific aspects of evolution, we assume intelligent cause. They contend most scientists would reply that the unexplained is not unexplainable, and that "we don't know yet" is a more appropriate response than invoking a cause outside of science.[189] Particularly, Michael Behe's demands for ever more detailed explanations of the historical evolution of molecular systems seem to assume a false dichotomy where either evolution or design is the proper explanation, and any perceived failure of evolution becomes a victory for design. In scientific terms, "absence of evidence is not evidence of absence" for naturalistic explanations of observed traits of living organisms. Scott and Branch also contend that the supposedly novel contributions proposed by intelligent design proponents have not served as the basis for any productive scientific research. Eugenie Scott. ... The argument from ignorance, also known as argumentum ad ignorantiam (appeal to ignorance [1]) or argument by lack of imagination, is a logical fallacy in which it is claimed that a premise is true only because it has not been proven false, or that a premise is false only because... Michael J. Behe (born January 18, 1952, in Altoona, Pennsylvania) is an American biochemist and intelligent design advocate. ... The logical fallacy of false dilemma, also known as fallacy of the excluded middle, false dichotomy, either/or dilemma or bifurcation, is to set up two alternative points of view as if they were the only options, when they are not. ... Life on Earth redirects here. ...


Intelligent design has also been characterized as a "god of the gaps" argument, which has the following form: The God of the gaps refers to a view of God deriving from a theistic position in which anything that can be explained by human knowledge is not in the domain of God, so the role of God is therefore confined to the gaps in scientific explanations of nature. ...

A god of the gaps argument is the theological version of an argument from ignorance. A key feature of this type of argument is that it merely answers outstanding questions with explanations (often supernatural) that are unverifiable and ultimately themselves subject to unanswerable questions.[190] An intelligent designer, also referred to as an intelligent agent, is the entity that the intelligent design movement argues had some role in the origin and/or development of life and who supposedly has left scientific evidence of this intelligent design. ... An intelligent designer, also referred to as an intelligent agent, is the entity that the intelligent design movement argues had some role in the origin and/or development of life and who supposedly has left scientific evidence of this intelligent design. ... Theology is literally rational discourse concerning God (Greek θεος, theos, God, + λογος, logos, rational discourse). By extension, it also refers to the study of other religious topics. ... The argument from ignorance, also known as argumentum ad ignorantiam (appeal to ignorance [1]) or argument by lack of imagination, is a logical fallacy in which it is claimed that a premise is true only because it has not been proven false, or that a premise is false only because... For other uses, see Supernatural (disambiguation). ...


Improbable versus impossible events

William Dembski formulated the universal probability bound, a reformulation of the creationist argument from improbability,[191] which he argues is the smallest probability of anything occurring in the universe over all time at the maximum possible rate. This value, 1 in 10120, represents a revision of his original formula, which set the value of the universal probability bound at 1 in 10150.[192] In 2005 Dembski again revised his definition to be the inverse of the product of two different quantities, 10120 and the variable rank complexity of the event under consideration.[193] William Dembski Dr William Albert Bill Dembski (born July 18, 1960) is an American mathematician, philosopher and theologian known for advocating the controversial idea of intelligent design. ... A universal probability bound is defined as[1] A degree of improbability below which a specified event of that probability cannot reasonably be attributed to chance regardless of whatever probabilitistic resources from the known universe are factored in. ...


In "Innumeracy: Mathematical Illiteracy and Its Consequences", John Allen Paulos states that the apparent improbability of a given scenario cannot necessarily be taken as an indication that this scenario is more unlikely than any other potential one: "Rarity by itself shouldn't necessarily be evidence of anything. When one is dealt a bridge hand of thirteen cards, the probability of being dealt that particular hand is less than one in 600 billion [1 in 6 x 1011]. Still, it would be absurd for someone to be dealt a hand, examine it carefully, calculate that the probability of getting it is less than one in 600 billion, and then conclude that he must not have been [randomly] dealt that very hand because it is so very improbable." John Allen Paulos is a professor of mathematics at Temple University in Philadelphia who has gained fame as a writer and speaker, usually on the topic of public ignorance about mathematics. ... Probability is the likelihood that something is the case or will happen. ... Contract bridge, more usually known as Bridge, is a trick_taking card game for four players who form two partnerships, or sides. The partners on each side sit opposite one another. ...


Polls

Several surveys were conducted prior to the December 2005 decision in Kitzmiller v. Dover, which sought to determine the level of support for intelligent design among certain groups. According to a 2005 Harris poll, ten percent of adults in the United States viewed human beings as "so complex that they required a powerful force or intelligent being to help create them".[194] Although Zogby polls commissioned by the Discovery Institute show more support, these polls suffer from considerable flaws, such as having a very low response rate (248 out of 16,000), being conducted on behalf of an organization with an expressed interest in the outcome of the poll, and containing leading questions.[195][196][197] A May 2005 survey of nearly 1500 physicians in the US conducted by the Louis Finkelstein Institute and HCD Research showed that 63% of the physicians agreed more with evolution than with intelligent design."[198] Harris Interactive is a company. ... John Zogby (born 1948) is a noted American political pollster and first senior fellow at The Catholic University of Americas Life Cycle Institute. ...


Status outside the United States

Intelligent design has received little support outside of the U.S.


Europe

In June 2007 the Council of Europe's "Committee on Culture, Science and Education" issued a report, The dangers of creationism in education, which states "Creationism in any of its forms, such as 'intelligent design', is not based on facts, does not use any scientific reasoning and its contents are pathetically inadequate for science classes."[199] In describing the dangers posed to education by teaching creationism, it described intelligent design as "anti-science" and involving "blatant scientific fraud" and "intellectual deception" that "blurs the nature, objectives and limits of science" and links it and other forms of creationism to denialism. On October 4, 2007, the Council of Europe's Parliamentary Assembly approved a resolution stating that schools should "resist presentation of creationist ideas in any discipline other than religion", including "intelligent design" which it described as "the latest, more refined version of creationism", "presented in a more subtle way." The resolution emphasises that the aim of the report is not to question or to fight a belief, but to "warn against certain tendencies to pass off a belief as science".[200] Anthem Ode to Joy (orchestral)  ten founding members joined subsequently observer at the Parliamentary Assembly observer at the Committee of Ministers  official candidate Seat Strasbourg, France Membership 47 European states 5 observers (Council) 3 observers (Assembly) Leaders  -  Secretary General Terry Davis  -  President of the Parliamentary Assembly Rene van der Linden... Denialism is a term used to describe the position of governments, business groups, interest groups or individuals who reject propositions that are strongly supported by scientific or historical evidence and seek to influence policy processes and outcomes accordingly. ... is the 277th day of the year (278th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ...


In the United Kingdom, public education includes Religious Education as a compulsory subject, and many "faith schools" that teach the ethos of particular denominations. When it was revealed that a group called Truth in Science had distributed DVDs produced by the Discovery Institute affiliate Illustra Media[201] featuring Discovery Institute fellows making the case for design in nature,[202] and claimed they were being used by 59 schools,[203] the Department for Education and Skills (DfES) stated that "Neither creationism nor intelligent design are taught as a subject in schools, and are not specified in the science curriculum" (part of the National Curriculum which does not apply to independent schools or to Education in Scotland).[204][205] The DfES subsequently stated that "Intelligent design is not a recognised scientific theory; therefore, it is not included in the science curriculum", but left the way open for it to be explored in religious education in relation to different beliefs, as part of a syllabus set by local standing advisory councils on religious education.[206] In 2006 the Qualifications and Curriculum Authority produced a Religious Education model unit in which pupils can learn about religious and nonreligious views about creationism, intelligent design and evolution by natural selection.[207][208] This article does not cite any references or sources. ... // Public spending on education in 2005 Public education is education mandated for or offered to the children of the general public by the government, whether national, regional, or local, provided by an institution of civil government, and paid for, in whole or in part, by taxes. ... This article is about the teaching of religion. ... Truth in Science is a United Kingdom organisation which deploys teach the controversy, a strategy to get Intelligent Design, a pseudo-scientific theory of origins, taught alongside evolution in school science lessons. ... The Department for Education and Skills is a department in the United Kingdom government created in 2001. ... The National Curriculum was introduced into England, Wales and Northern Ireland, as a nationwide curriculum for primary and secondary state schools following the Education Reform Act 1988. ... An independent school in the United Kingdom is a school relying, for all of its funding, upon private sources, so almost invariably charging school fees. ... Educational oversight Cabinet Secretary Scottish Executive Education Department Fiona Hyslop MSP National education budget n/a (2007-08) Primary languages English and Scottish Gaelic National system Compulsory education 1872 Literacy (2005 est)  â€¢ Men  â€¢ Women 99% 99% 99% Enrollment  â€¢ Primary  â€¢ Secondary  â€¢ Post-secondary 1,452,240 390,2602 322,980 739... The Qualifications and Curriculum Authority (QCA) is an Executive Non-Departmental Public Body (NDPB) of the Department for Education and Skills in the United Kingdom. ... This article is about the teaching of religion. ...


On June 25, 2007, the UK Government responded to an e-Petition by saying that creationism and intelligent design should not be taught as science, though teachers would be expected to answer pupils' questions within the standard framework of established scientific theories.[209] Detailed government "Creationism teaching guidance" for schools in England was published on September 18, 2007.[207] It states that "Intelligent design lies wholly outside of science", has no underpinning scientific principles, or explanations, and is not accepted by the science community as a whole. Though it should not be taught as science, "questions about creationism and intelligent design which arise in science lessons, for example as a result of media coverage, could provide the opportunity to explain or explore why they are not considered to be scientific theories and, in the right context, why evolution is considered to be a scientific theory." However, "Teachers of subjects such as RE, history or citizenship may deal with creationism and intelligent design in their lessons."[11] is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 261st day of the year (262nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ...


The British Centre for Science Education lobbying group has the goal of "countering creationism within the UK" and has been involved in government lobbying in the UK in this regard.[210] However, in Northern Ireland the Democratic Unionist Party claims that the revised curriculum provides an opportunity for alternative theories to be taught, and has sought assurances that pupils will not lose marks if they give creationist or intelligent design answers to science questions.[211] In Lisburn the DUP has arranged that the City Council will write to post primary schools asking what their plans are to develop teaching material in relation to "creation, intelligent design and other theories of origin".[212] The British Centre for Science Education (BCSE) is a volunteer-run organization in the United Kingdom that has the goal of countering creationism within the UK[1] and was formed to campaign against the teaching of creationism in schools. ... Northern Ireland (Irish: , Ulster Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a constituent country of the United Kingdom lying in the northeast of the island of Ireland, covering 5,459 square miles (14,139 km², about a sixth of the islands total area). ... This article is about the political party in Northern Ireland. ... WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: , Statistics Province: Ulster County: District: Lisburn UK Parliament: Lagan Valley European Parliament: Northern Ireland Dialling Code: (+44) 02892 Post Town: Lisburn Postal District(s): BT27, BT28 Population (2001) 71,465 Website: www. ...


Plans by Dutch Education Minister Maria van der Hoeven to "stimulate an academic debate" on the subject in 2005 caused a severe public backlash. After the 2007 elections she was succeeded by Ronald Plasterk, described as a "molecular geneticist, staunch atheist and opponent of intelligent design."[213] Maria van der Hoeven (born September 13, 1949 in Meerssen) is a Dutch CDA politician and the current Minister of Education, Culture and Science of the Netherlands. ... Elections in the Netherlands for the Tweede Kamer of Parliament The next Dutch general election is scheduled to be held on May 16, 2007. ... Ronald Hans Anton Plasterk (born on April 12, 1957 in The Hague) is a Dutch biologist, columnist, and politician. ...


As a reaction on this situation in Holland, in Belgium the President of the Flemish Catholic Educational Board (VSKO) Mieke Van Hecke declared that Catholic scientists already accepted the theory of evolution for a long time and that intelligent design and creationism doesn't belong in Flemish Catholic schools. It's not the tasks of the politics to introduce new ideas, that's task and goal of science.[214]


Elsewhere

While creationism has strong political clout in many Islamic countries, intelligent design has not been adapted to Islam. Muzaffar Iqbal, a notable Muslim in Canada, has signed the Scientific Dissent list of the Discovery Institute. In general, however, Muslim creationists are partnering with the Institute for Creation Research.[215] Creationism is a religious belief that humanity, life, the Earth, and the universe were created in their original form by a deity or deities (often the Abrahamic God of Judaism, Christianity and Islam), whose existence is presupposed. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... This page is about the scholar Muzaffar Iqbal. ... A Scientific Dissent from Darwinism is a list produced by the Discovery Institute to support its claims of scientific validity for intelligent design with signatories to the statement that We are skeptical of claims for the ability of random mutation and natural selection to account for the complexity of life. ... The Discovery Institute is a think tank based in Seattle, Washington best known for its advocacy of intelligent design and its Teach the Controversy campaign to teach creationist beliefs in United States public high school science courses. ... The Institute for Creation Research (ICR) is a biblical research institute based in Santee, California that focuses on constructing and teaching a Young Earth Creationist world-view. ...


The status of intelligent design in Australia is somewhat similar to that in the UK. When the Australian Federal Education Minister, Brendan Nelson, raised the notion of intelligent design being taught in science classes, the public outcry caused the minister to quickly concede that the correct forum for intelligent design, if it were to be taught, is in religious or philosophy classes.[216] Dr. Brendan John Nelson (born 19 August 1958), Australian politician, has been a Liberal Party of Australia member of the Australian House of Representatives since March 1996, representing the Division of Bradfield, New South Wales. ...


See also

Creationism Portal

Image File history File links Portal. ... The argument from poor design or dysteleological argument is an argument against the existence of God, specifically against the existence of a creator God (in the sense of a God that directly created all species of life). ... The Clockmaker hypothesis is a tenet of deism that states that some higher power, such as God, created the universe (for example, in the Big Bang) and then stepped aside after the moment of creation. ... The cosmological argument is a metaphysical argument for the existence of God, or a first mover of the cosmos. ... Creation science is the attempt to find scientific evidence that would justify a literal interpretation of the Biblical account of creation. ... Creationism is a religious belief that humanity, life, the Earth, and the universe were created in their original form by a deity or deities (often the Abrahamic God of Judaism, Christianity and Islam), whose existence is presupposed. ... The position of the Roman Catholic Church on the theory of evolution has changed over the last two centuries from a large period of no official mention, to a statement of neutrality in the 1950s, to a more explicit acceptance in recent years. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Bobby Henderson redirects here. ... Flock of Dodos is a documentary film by American evolutionary biologist and filmmaker Randy Olson. ... The intelligent design movement is a neo-creationist religious campaign that calls for broad social, academic and political changes derived from the concept of intelligent design. ... Intelligent falling (IF) is a parody of the intelligent design (ID) movement. ... A depiction of the Invisible Pink Unicorn, in the style of a heraldic animal rampant, though the nearest heraldic color to pink is purpure (purple). ... Junk or bunk science is a term used to describe purportedly scientific data, research, analyses or claims which are perceived to be driven by political, financial or other questionable motives. ... Over 70 scientific societies, institutions and other professional groups have issued statements supporting evolution education and opposing intelligent design. ... This is a list of works addressing the subject or the themes of intelligent design. ... Natural theology is the knowledge of God accessible to all rational human beings without recourse to any special or supposedly supernatural revelation. ... Neo-creationism is a movement whose goal is to restate creationism in terms more likely to be well received by the public, policy makers, educators, and the scientific community. ... The omphalos hypothesis was named after the title of an 1857 book by Philip Henry Gosse in which he argued that in order for the world to be functional, God must have created the Earth with mountains, canyons, trees with growth rings, Adam and Eve with hair, fingernails, and navels... Bill Reids sculpture The Raven and The First Men, showing part of a Haida creation story. ... For the definition, see Life. ... Project Steve is a list of scientists with the name Stephen or a variation thereof (e. ... A typical 18th century phrenology chart. ... The Santorum Amendment was an amendment to the 2001 education funding bill which became known as the No Child Left Behind Act, proposed by former Republican United States Senator Rick Santorum from Pennsylvania, which promotes the teaching of intelligent design while questioning the academic standing of evolution in U.S... Teach the Controversy is the name of a Discovery Institute intelligent design campaign to promote intelligent design creationism while discrediting evolution in United States public high school science courses. ... A teleological argument, or argument from design, is an argument for the existence of God or a creator based on perceived evidence of order, purpose, design and/or direction in nature. ... This timeline of intelligent design outlines the major events in the development of intelligent design as presented and promoted by the intelligent design movement. ...

Further reading

Chronological order of publication (oldest first)

  • Forrest, Barbara (2004), written at U.S., Creationism's Trojan Horse: The Wedge of Intelligent Design, Oxford University Press, ISBN 9780195157420
  • Humes, Edward (2007), written at U.S., Monkey Girl: Evolution, Education, Religion, and the Battle for America's Soul, Harper Collins, ISBN 978-0060885489
  • Shermer, Michael (2007), Why Darwin Matters: The Case Against Intelligent Design, New York: Henry Holt, ISBN 978-0-8050-8306-4
  • Slack, Gordy (2007), written at U.S., The Battle Over the Meaning of Everything: Evolution, Intelligent Design, and a School Board in Dover, PA, John Wiley& Sons, ISBN 9780787987862

For other uses of terms redirecting here, see US (disambiguation), USA (disambiguation), and United States (disambiguation) Motto In God We Trust(since 1956) (From Many, One; Latin, traditional) Anthem The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City National language English (de facto)1 Demonym American... For other uses of terms redirecting here, see US (disambiguation), USA (disambiguation), and United States (disambiguation) Motto In God We Trust(since 1956) (From Many, One; Latin, traditional) Anthem The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City National language English (de facto)1 Demonym American... Michael Shermer Michael Shermer (born September 8, 1954 in Glendale, California) is a science writer, historian of science, founder of The Skeptics Society, and editor of its magazine Skeptic, which is largely devoted to investigating and debunking pseudoscientific and supernatural claims. ... For other uses of terms redirecting here, see US (disambiguation), USA (disambiguation), and United States (disambiguation) Motto In God We Trust(since 1956) (From Many, One; Latin, traditional) Anthem The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City National language English (de facto)1 Demonym American...

External links

ID perspectives

Non-ID perspectives

Media articles

A jurist is a professional who studies, develops, applies or otherwise deals with the law. ... Clinton Richard Dawkins, FRS (born March 26, 1941) is a British ethologist, evolutionary biologist and popular science writer who holds the Charles Simonyi Chair for the Public Understanding of Science at the University of Oxford. ... Not to be confused with Public Broadcasting Services in Malta. ... Seattle Weekly is the third most popular newspaper in Seattle, Washington, United States, with a circulation of over 100,000. ... A paleontologist carefully chips rock from a column of dinosaur vertebrae. ... Peter D. Ward is a paleontologist and professor of Biology and of Earth and Space Sciences at the University of Washington. ... Stephen C. Meyer is an American philosopher of science and theologian. ... The Discovery Institute is a think tank based in Seattle, Washington best known for its advocacy of intelligent design and its Teach the Controversy campaign to teach creationist beliefs in United States public high school science courses. ... The Washington Post is the largest newspaper in Washington, D.C.. It is also one of the citys oldest papers, having been founded in 1877. ... The Columbia Journalism Review (CJR) is an American magazine for professional journalists published bimonthly by the Columbia University Graduate School of Journalism since 1961. ... The Associated Press, or AP, is an American news agency, the worlds largest such organization. ... The Christian Science Monitor (CSM) is an international newspaper published daily, Monday through Friday. ... For other uses, see New Yorker. ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ... NPR redirects here. ... “TIME” redirects here. ... The New England Journal of Medicine (New Engl J Med or NEJM) is a peer-reviewed medical journal published by the Massachusetts Medical Society. ... The International Herald Tribune is a widely read English language international newspaper. ... The American Institute of Graphic Arts (often known simply under the acronym AIGA) is the American professional organization for design. ...

Notes

  1. ^ a b Top Questions-1.What is the theory of intelligent design?. Discovery Institute. Retrieved on 2007-05-13..
  2. ^ Primer: Intelligent Design Theory in a Nutshell. Intelligent Design and Evolution Awareness Center (2004). Retrieved on 2007-05-13.
    • Intelligent Design. Intelligent Design network (2007). Retrieved on 2007-05-13.
  3. ^ a b "ID is not a new scientific argument, but is rather an old religious argument for the existence of God. He traced this argument back to at least Thomas Aquinas in the 13th century, who framed the argument as a syllogism: Wherever complex design exists, there must have been a designer; nature is complex; therefore nature must have had an intelligent designer." "This argument for the existence of God was advanced early in the 19th century by Reverend Paley" (the teleological argument) "The only apparent difference between the argument made by Paley and the argument for ID, as expressed by defense expert witnesses Behe and Minnich, is that ID's 'official position' does not acknowledge that the designer is God." Kitzmiller v. Dover Area School District,   04 cv 2688 (December 20, 2005), Ruling, p. 24.
  4. ^ a b c Forrest, Barbara (May, 2007), Understanding the Intelligent Design Creationist Movement: Its True Nature and Goals. A Position Paper from the Center for Inquiry, Office of Public Policy, Washington, D.C.: Center for Inquiry, Inc., <http://www.centerforinquiry.net/uploads/attachments/intelligent-design.pdf>. Retrieved on 2007-08-06.
  5. ^ a b "Q. Has the Discovery Institute been a leader in the intelligent design movement? A. Yes, the Discovery Institute's Center for Science and Culture. Q. And are almost all of the individuals who are involved with the intelligent design movement associated with the Discovery Institute? A. All of the leaders are, yes." Barbara Forrest, 2005, testifying in the Kitzmiller v. Dover Area School District trial. Kitzmiller v. Dover Area School District Trial transcript: Day 6 (October 5), PM Session, Part 1.. The TalkOrigins Archive (2005). Retrieved on 2007-07-19.
    • "The Discovery Institute is the ideological and strategic backbone behind the eruption of skirmishes over science in school districts and state capitals across the country." In: Wilgoren, J. "Politicized Scholars Put Evolution on the Defensive", The New York Times, 2005-08-21. Retrieved on 2007-07-19. 
    • Who is behind the ID movement?. Frequently Asked Questions About "Intelligent Design". American Civil Liberties Union (9/16/2005). Retrieved on 2007-07-20.
    • Kahn, JP. "[The Evolution of George Gilder. The Author And Tech-Sector Guru Has A New Cause To Create Controversy With: Intelligent Design", The Boston Globe, 2005-07-27. Retrieved on 2007-07-19. 
    • Who's Who of Intelligent Design Proponents. Science & Religion Guide. Science & Theology News (November 2005). Retrieved on 2007-07-20. (PDF file from Discovery Institute).
    • "The engine behind the ID movement is the Discovery Institute." Attie, Alan D.; Elliot Sober, Ronald L. Numbers, Richard M. Amasino, Beth Cox4, Terese Berceau, Thomas Powell and Michael M. Cox (2006). Defending science education against intelligent design: a call to action. Journal of Clinical Investigation 116:1134–1138. doi:10.1172/JCI28449. A publication of the American Society for Clinical Investigation.. Retrieved on 2007-07-20.
  6. ^ a b Science and Policy: Intelligent Design and Peer Review. American Association for the Advancement of Science (2007). Retrieved on 2007-07-19.
  7. ^ "the writings of leading ID proponents reveal that the designer postulated by their argument is the God of Christianity." Kitzmiller v. Dover Area School District,   04 cv 2688 (December 20, 2005), Ruling p. 26.
  8. ^ Top Questions about intelligent design. Discovery Institute. Retrieved on 2007-05-13.
  9. ^ Stephen C. Meyer and Paul A. Nelson, May 1, 1996, CSC – Getting Rid of the Unfair Rules, A book review, Origins & Design, Retrieved 2007-05-20,
    • Phillip E. Johnson, August 31, 1996, Starting a Conversation about Evolution, Access Research Network Phillip Johnson Files, Retrieved 2007-05-20,
    • Stephen C. Meyer, December 1, 2002, Ignatius Press. The Scientific Status of Intelligent Design: The Methodological Equivalence of Naturalistic and Non-Naturalistic Origins Theories,
    Kitzmiller v. Dover Area School District,   04 cv 2688 (December 20, 2005), Whether ID Is Science,
    Kitzmiller v. Dover Area School District,   04 cv 2688 (December 20, 2005), Lead defense expert Professor Behe admitted that his broadened definition of science, which encompasses ID, would also include astrology.
    • See also Evolution of Kansas science standards continues as Darwin's theories regain prominence International Herald Tribune, February 13, 2007, Retrieved 2007-05-20.
  10. ^ See: 1) List of scientific societies rejecting intelligent design 2) Kitzmiller v. Dover page 83. 3) The Discovery Institute's A Scientific Dissent From Darwinism petition begun in 2001 has been signed by "over 700 scientists" as of August 20, 2006. A four day A Scientific Support for Darwinism petition gained 7733 signatories from scientists opposing ID. The AAAS, the largest association of scientists in the U.S., has 120,000 members, and firmly rejects ID. More than 70,000 Australian scientists and educators condemn teaching of intelligent design in school science classes. List of statements from scientific professional organizations on the status intelligent design and other forms of creationism. According to The New York Times "There is no credible scientific challenge to the theory of evolution as an explanation for the complexity and diversity of life on earth." Dean, Cordelia. "Scientists Feel Miscast in Film on Life's Origin", The New York Times, September 27, 2007. Retrieved on 2007-09-28. 
  11. ^ a b Teachernet, Document bank. Creationism teaching guidance. UK Department for Children, Schools and Families (September 18, 2007). Retrieved on 2007-10-01. “The intelligent design movement claims there are aspects of the natural world that are so intricate and fit for purpose that they cannot have evolved but must have been created by an 'intelligent designer'. Furthermore they assert that this claim is scientifically testable and should therefore be taught in science lessons. Intelligent design lies wholly outside of science. Sometimes examples are quoted that are said to require an 'intelligent designer'. However, many of these have subsequently been shown to have a scientific explanation, for example, the immune system and blood clotting mechanisms.
    Attempts to establish an idea of the 'specified complexity' needed for intelligent design are surrounded by complex mathematics. Despite this, the idea seems to be essentially a modern version of the old idea of the "God-of-the-gaps". Lack of a satisfactory scientific explanation of some phenomena (a 'gap' in scientific knowledge) is claimed to be evidence of an intelligent designer.”
  12. ^ Nature Methods Editorial (2007). "An intelligently designed response". Nat. Methods 4 (12): 983. doi:10.1038/nmeth1207-983. 
  13. ^ National Academy of Sciences, 1999 Science and Creationism: A View from the National Academy of Sciences, Second Edition
  14. ^ National Science Teachers Association, a professional association of 55,000 science teachers and administrators in a 2005 press release: "We stand with the nation's leading scientific organizations and scientists, including Dr. John Marburger, the president's top science advisor, in stating that intelligent design is not science. ...It is simply not fair to present pseudoscience to students in the science classroom." National Science Teachers Association Disappointed About Intelligent Design Comments Made by President Bush National Science Teachers Association Press Release August 3, 2005.
    • "for most members of the mainstream scientific community, ID is not a scientific theory, but a creationist pseudoscience." Trojan Horse or Legitimate Science: Deconstructing the Debate over Intelligent Design David Mu. Harvard Science Review, Volume 19, Issue 1, Fall 2005..
    • "Creationists are repackaging their message as the pseudoscience of intelligent design theory." Professional Ethics Report American Association for the Advancement of Science, 2001.
  15. ^ Defending science education against intelligent design: a call to action Journal of Clinical Investigation 116:1134–1138 American Society for Clinical Investigation, 2006.
    "Biologists aren't alarmed by intelligent design's arrival in Dover and elsewhere because they have all sworn allegiance to atheistic materialism; they're alarmed because intelligent design is junk science." H. Allen Orr. Annals of Science. New Yorker May 2005.Devolution—Why intelligent design isn't. .
    • Also, Robert T. Pennock Tower of Babel: The Evidence Against the New Creationism. .
    • Junk science Mark Bergin. World Magazine, Vol. 21, No. 8 February 25 2006.
  16. ^ Kitzmiller v. Dover Area School District,   04 cv 2688 (December 20, 2005), Context pg. 32 ff, citing Edwards v. Aguillard,  482 U.S. 578 (1987).
  17. ^ a b c Kitzmiller v. Dover Area School District,   04 cv 2688 (December 20, 2005), pp. 31 – 33.
  18. ^ a b Media Backgrounder: Intelligent Design Article Sparks Controversy Discovery Institute. September 7, 2004.
    • Berkeley's Radical James M. Kushiner. Touchstone Magazine, June 2002.
    • Politicized Scholars Put Evolution on the Defensive Jodi Wilgoren. The New York Times, August 21 2005.
    • Downey, Roger. "Discovery's Creation", Seattle Weekly, February 1, 2006. Retrieved on 2007-07-27. 
  19. ^ Kitzmiller v. Dover Area School District,   04 cv 2688 (December 20, 2005), Conclusion of Ruling.
  20. ^ Edwards v. Aguillard,  482 U.S. 578 (1987)
  21. ^ Eugenie C. Scott; Gordon E. Uno (1989). NCSE Resource. Introduction to NCSE Bookwatch Reviews for Of Pandas and People'. Retrieved on 2007-09-24.
  22. ^ "Although science has made great progress by limiting itself to explaining only through natural causes, Johnson would have us allow the occasional supernatural intervention for those phenomena that cause problems for his particular theology." Darwin On Trial: A Review by Eugenie C. Scott. NCSE
  23. ^ Phillip E. Johnson (1999). The Wedge: Phillip Johnson. Touchstone: A Journal of Mere Christianity. Retrieved on 2007-09-24.
  24. ^ a b Nick Matzke (2004). NCSE Resource. Introduction: Of Pandas and People, the foundational work of the 'Intelligent Design' movement. NCSE. Retrieved on 2007-09-24.
  25. ^ "ID fails on three different levels, any one of which is sufficient to preclude a determination that ID is science. They are: (1) ID violates the centuries-old ground rules of science by invoking and permitting supernatural causation; (2) the argument of irreducible complexity, central to ID, employs the same flawed and illogical contrived dualism that doomed creation science in the 1980s; and (3) ID's negative attacks on evolution have been refuted by the scientific community" Kitzmiller v. Dover Area School District,   04 cv 2688 (December 20, 2005), Ruling, page 64 ff
    • "Broom shows conclusively that intelligent design's opposition to Darwinism rests primarily on scientific grounds." William Dembski, in the forward of How Blind is the Watchmaker? Nature's Design and the Limits of Naturalistic Science. Neil Broom. 2001
  26. ^ "If I ever became the president of a university (per impossibile), I would dissolve the biology department and divide the faculty with tenure that I couldn't get rid of into two new departments: those who know engineering and how it applies to biological systems would be assigned to the new "Department of Biological Engineering"; the rest, and that includes the evolutionists, would be consigned to the new "Department of Nature Appreciation" (didn't Darwin think of himself as a naturalist?)." "Truly Programmable Matter", William Dembski, 10 January 2007 published at Uncommon Descent. Downloaded 24 May 2007.
    •"Demonstrative charts introduced through Dr. Forrest show parallel arguments relating to the rejection of naturalism, evolution's threat to culture and society, 'abrupt appearance' implying divine creation, the exploitation of the same alleged gaps in the fossil record, the alleged inability of science to explain complex biological information like DNA, as well as the theme that proponents of each version of creationism merely aim to teach a scientific alternative to evolution to show its 'strengths and weaknesses,' and to alert students to a supposed 'controversy' in the scientific community." Kitzmiller v. Dover Area School District, Decision, p. 34 (emphasis added)
    •"Additionally, [leading intelligent design advocate] Dembski agrees that science is ruled by methodological naturalism and argues that this rule must be overturned if ID is to prosper." Kitzmiller v. Dover Area School District, Decision, p. 30.
    •"Intelligent Design ... supposes that the origins of living things require supernatural interventions to create the intricate, design-like, living forms that we see all around us." "Natural selection vs. intelligent design" From: USA Today (Magazine) January 1, 2004 Author: Ruse, Michael.
  27. ^ Dembski. The Design Revolution. pg. 27 2004
  28. ^ a b Wedge Document Discovery Institute, 1999.
    •"[M]embers of the national ID movement insist that their attacks on evolution aren't religiously motivated, but, rather, scientific in nature." ... "Yet the express strategic objectives of the Discovery Institute; the writings, careers, and affiliations of ID's leading proponents; and the movement's funding sources all betray a clear moral and religious agenda." Inferior Design Chris Mooney. The American Prospect, August 10, 2005.
  29. ^ "ID's rejection of naturalism in any form logically entails its appeal to the only alternative, supernaturalism, as a putatively scientific explanation for natural phenomena. This makes ID a religious belief." Expert Witness Report Barbara Forrest Kitzmiller v. Dover Area School District, April, 2005.
  30. ^ "...the ID movement has not proposed a scientific means of testing its claims..." AAAS Board Resolution on Intelligent Design Theory American Association for the Advancement of Science, 2002.
  31. ^ Kitzmiller v. Dover Area School District,   04 cv 2688 (December 20, 2005), p. 70.
  32. ^ a b c Kitzmiller v. Dover Area School District,   04 cv 2688 (December 20, 2005) 4: whether ID is science
  33. ^ Plato's Timaeus. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. The Metaphysics Research Lab, Stanford University (2005/10/25). Retrieved on 2007-07-22.
  34. ^ Plato. Timaeus. Internet Classics Archive. classics.mit.edu. Retrieved on 2007-07-22.
  35. ^ Aristotle, Metaphysics Bk. 12
  36. ^ Cicero, De Natura Deorum, Book I, 36–37, Latin Library.
  37. ^ Thomas Aquinas, Summa Theologiae. "Thomas Aquinas' 'Five Ways'" in faithnet.org.uk.
  38. ^ William Paley, Natural Theology: or, Evidences of the Existence and Attributes of the Deity, 1809, London, Twelfth Edition.
  39. ^ See, e.g., the publisher's editorial description of the 2006 paperback printing of William Paley (1803) Natural Theology" : "William Paley's classic brings depth to the history of intelligent design arguments. The contrivance of the eye, the ear, and numerous other anatomical features throughout the natural world are presented as arguments for God's presence and concern. While there are distinctive differences between Paley's argument and those used today by intelligent design theorists and creationists, it remains a fascinating glimpse of the nineteenth-century's debate over the roles of religion and science."
  40. ^ David C. Steinmetz (2005) "The Debate on Intelligent Design" in The Christian Century, (December, 27, 2005, pp. 27–31.)[1]
  41. ^ Leading intelligent design proponent William Dembski (2001) argues the opposing view in IS INTELLIGENT DESIGN A FORM OF NATURAL THEOLOGY?
  42. ^ Dr Barbara Forrest, Know Your Creationists: Know Your Allies
  43. ^ a b Stephen C. Meyer (March 1986). We Are Not Alone. Eternity. Access Research Network. Retrieved on 2007-10-10.
  44. ^ Charles B. Thaxton, Ph.D. (November 13–16, 1986). DNA, Design and the Origin of Life. Christian Leadership Ministries. Retrieved on 2007-10-10.
  45. ^ a b Charles B. Thaxton (June 23–26, 1988, revised July 1988 and May 1991). In Pursuit of Intelligent Causes: Some Historical Background. Retrieved on 2007-10-06.
  46. ^ a b William Safire. The New York Times. August 21, 2005.On Language: Neo-Creo
  47. ^ a b c Dembski: "Intelligent design is just the Logos theology of John's Gospel restated in the idiom of information theory," Touchstone Magazine. Volume 12, Issue4: July/August, 1999
  48. ^ a b Phillip Johnson: "Our strategy has been to change the subject a bit so that we can get the issue of Intelligent Design, which really means the reality of God, before the academic world and into the schools." Johnson 2004. Christianity.ca. Let's Be Intelligent About Darwin. "This isn't really, and never has been a debate about science. It's about religion and philosophy." Johnson 1996. World Magazine. Witnesses For The Prosecution. "So the question is: "How to win?" That's when I began to develop what you now see full-fledged in the "wedge" strategy: "Stick with the most important thing"—the mechanism and the building up of information. Get the Bible and the Book of Genesis out of the debate because you do not want to raise the so-called Bible-science dichotomy. Phrase the argument in such a way that you can get it heard in the secular academy and in a way that tends to unify the religious dissenters. That means concentrating on, "Do you need a Creator to do the creating, or can nature do it on its own?" and refusing to get sidetracked onto other issues, which people are always trying to do." Johnson 2000. Touchstone magazine. Berkeley's Radical An Interview with Phillip E. Johnson
  49. ^ Stephen C. Meyer: "I think the designer is God..." Darwin, the marketing of Intelligent Design . Nightline ABC News, with Ted Koppel, August 10 2005.
  50. ^ Dove, Patrick Edward, The theory of human progression, and natural probability of a reign of justice. London, Johnstone & Hunter, 1850. LC 08031381 "Intelligence-Intelligent Design."
  51. ^ Letter 3154—Darwin, C. R. to Herschel, J. F. W., 23 May 1861, Charles Darwin, Darwin Correspondence Project, Letter 3154, 23 May 1861.
  52. ^ "The British Association", The Times, Saturday 20 September 1873, pp. pg. 10; col A.. 
  53. ^ "Teleological Argument for the Existence of God", William P. Alston, Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Macmillan Publishing Company, Inc. & The Free Press, New York City, New York; Collier Macmillan Publishers, London, Paul Edwards, editor, 1967, ISBN 0028949900
  54. ^ James E. Horigan, Chance or Design?'.' Philosophical Library, 1979.
  55. ^ 'Evolution according to Hoyle: Survivors of disaster in an earlier world', By Nicholas Timmins, The Times, Wednesday, 13 January 1982; pg. 22; Issue 61130; col F. Hoyle stated in a 1982 speech: "...one arrives at the conclusion that biomaterials with their amazing measure or order must be the outcome of intelligent design." [2]
  56. ^ Jonathan Witt (December 20, 2005). Evolution News & Views: Dover Judge Regurgitates Mythological History of Intelligent Design. Discovery Institute. Retrieved on 2007-10-05.
  57. ^ Nick Matzke (2006). NCSE Resource -- 9.0. Matzke (2006): The Story of the Pandas Drafts. National Center for Science Education. Retrieved on 2007-11-14.
    *Nick Matzke (2006). Evolution Education and the Law � Blog Archive � Missing Link discovered!. National Center for Science Education. Retrieved on 2007-11-14.
  58. ^ DarkSyde (March 11, 2006). Daily Kos: Know Your Creationists: Know Your Allies. interview with Barbara Forrest. Retrieved on 2007-10-05.
  59. ^ Richard P. Aulie (1998). A Reader's Guide to Of Pandas and People. National Association of Biology Teachers. Retrieved on 2007-10-05.
  60. ^ Nick Matzke; Jon Buell (October 13, 2005). I guess ID really was "Creationism's Trojan Horse" after all. The Panda's Thumb. Retrieved on 2007-10-05., links to Wayback Machine for pdf.
  61. ^ Behe, Michael (1997): Molecular Machines: Experimental Support for the Design Inference [3]
  62. ^ Irreducible complexity of these examples is disputed; see Kitzmiller, pp. 76–78, and Ken Miller Webcast
  63. ^ The Collapse of "Irreducible Complexity" Kenneth R. Miller Brown University[4]
  64. ^ John H. McDonald's "reducibly complex mousetrap"
  65. ^ David Ussery, "A Biochemist's Response to 'The Biochemical Challenge to Evolution'"
  66. ^ For example, Bridgham et al.showed that gradual evolutionary mechanisms can produce complex protein-protein interaction systems from simpler precursors. Bridgham et al. (2006). "Evolution of Hormone-Receptor Complexity by Molecular Exploitation". Science 312 (5770): 97–101. 
  67. ^ Orr, H. Allen. "Devolution", The New Yorker, 2005-05-30.  This article draws from the following exchange of letters in which Behe admits to sloppy prose and non-logical proof: Behe, M.; Dembski, Wells, Nelson, Berlinski (2003-03-26). Has Darwin met his match? Letters—An exchange over ID (HTML). Discovery Institute. Retrieved on 2006-11-30.
  68. ^ Kitzmiller v. Dover Area School District,   04 cv 2688 (December 20, 2005), p. 64.
  69. ^ Dembski. Intelligent Design, p. 47
  70. ^ Photograph of William Dembski, by Wesley R. Elsberry, taken at lecture given at University of California at Berkeley, 2006/03/17.
  71. ^ Branden Fitelson, Christopher Stephens, Elliott Sober: "How Not to Detect Design: A review of William A. Dembski's The Design Inference—Eliminating Chance Through Small Probabilities." Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 1998 [5]
  72. ^ Some of Dembski's responses to assertions of specified complexity being a tautology can be found at [6]
  73. ^ Richard Wein (2002): "Not a Free Lunch But a Box of Chocolates: A critique of William Dembski's book No Free Lunch" [7]
  74. ^ Nowak quoted. Claudia Wallis. Time Magazine, 15 August 2005 edition, page 32 Evolution Wars
  75. ^ John S. Wilkins and Wesley R. Elsberry. Biology and Philosophy, 16: 711–724. 2001. The Advantages of Theft over Toil: The Design Inference and Arguing from Ignorance
  76. ^ Richard Dawkins (2006). The God Delusion. ISBN 0-618-68000-4. 
  77. ^ Evolutionary algorithms now surpass human designers New Scientist, 28 July 2007
  78. ^ Guillermo Gonzalez (2004). The Privileged Planet: How Our Place in the Cosmos is Designed for Discovery. ISBN 0-89526-065-4. 
  79. ^ The Panda's Thumb. review of The Privileged Planet
  80. ^ Is The Universe Fine-Tuned For Us? Victor J. Stenger. University of Colorado. (PDF file)
  81. ^ The Anthropic Principle Victor J. Stenger. University of Colorado. (PDF file)
  82. ^ Our place in the Multiverse Joseph Silk. Nature, Volume 443 Number 7108, September 14 2006.
  83. ^ See, e.g., Gerald Feinberg and Robert Shapiro, "A Puddlian Fable" in Huchingson, Religion and the Natural Sciences (1993), pp. 220–221
  84. ^ Sewell, Granville. "Evolution's Thermodynamic Failure", The American Spectator, 2005-12-28. Retrieved on 2007-02-16. 
  85. ^ Evolution's Thermodynamic Failure. Discovery Institute. Retrieved on 2007-07-17.
  86. ^ Entropy, Disorder and Life. TalkOrigins.org. Retrieved on 2007-07-17.
  87. ^ "The theory of Intelligent Design holds that certain features of the universe and of living things are best explained by an intelligent cause, not an undirected process such as natural selection." Discovery Institute. What is Intelligent Design? Questions About Intelligent Design
  88. ^ Dembski. The Act of Creation: Bridging Transcendence and Immanence
  89. ^ Jerry Coyne. The New Republic, August 22 2005. The Case Against Intelligent Design
  90. ^ Jerry Coyne: "The Faith That Dare Not Speak Its Name: The Case Against Intelligent Design" The New Republic, Aug 22 & 29, 2005 issue, p. 21–33.
  91. ^ Dr. Donald E. Simanek. Intelligent Design: The Glass is Empty
  92. ^ IDEA "One need not fully understand the origin or identity of the designer to determine that an object was designed. Thus, this question is essentially irrelevant to intelligent design theory, which merely seeks to detect if an object was designed ... Intelligent design theory cannot address the identity or origin of the designer—it is a philosophical / religious question that lies outside the domain of scientific inquiry. Christianity postulates the religious answer to this question that the designer is God who by definition is eternally existent and has no origin. There is no logical philosophical impossibility with this being the case (akin to Aristotle's 'unmoved mover') as a religious answer to the origin of the designer..." FAQ: Who designed the designer? FAQ: Who designed the designer?
  93. ^ Richard Wein. 2002. Not a Free Lunch But a Box of Chocolates
  94. ^ a b Who Designed the Designer? Jason Rosenhouse. Creation & Intelligent Design Watch, Committee for the Scientific Investigation of Claims of the Paranormal.
  95. ^ Richard Dawkins. The Blind Watchmaker: Why the Evidence of Evolution Reveals a Universe without Design pg 141
  96. ^ See, e.g., Joseph Manson, "Intelligent design is pseudoscience", UCLA Today Vol. 26. No.2 Sept. 27, 2005. [8]; Rev Max, "The Incredibly Strange Story of Intelligent Design", New Dawn Magazine No. 97 (July–August 2006)
  97. ^ NCSE Resource. Evolving Banners at the Discovery Institute (August 29, 2002). Retrieved on 2007-10-07.
  98. ^ "for most members of the mainstream scientific community, ID is not a scientific theory, but a creationist pseudoscience." Trojan Horse or Legitimate Science: Deconstructing the Debate over Intelligent Design, David Mu, Harvard Science Review, Volume 19, Issue 1, Fall 2005.
    • "Creationists are repackaging their message as the pseudoscience of intelligent design theory." Professional Ethics Report, American Association for the Advancement of Science, 2001.
    • Conclusion of Kitzmiller v. Dover Area School District Ruling
  99. ^ Wise, D.U., 2001, Creationism's Propaganda Assault on Deep Time and Evolution, Journal of Geoscience Education, v. 49, n. 1, p. 30–35.
  100. ^ Who Believes What? Clearing up Confusion over Intelligent Design and Young-Earth Creationism, Marcus R. Ross, Journal of Geoscience Education, v. 53, n. 3, May, 2005, p. 319–323
  101. ^ The Creationists: From Scientific Creationism to Intelligent Design, Expanded Edition, Ronald L. Numbers, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, November 30, 2006, ISBN 0674023390.
  102. ^ Forrest, Barbara (May,2007), Understanding the Intelligent Design Creationist Movement: Its True Nature and Goals. A Position Paper from the Center for Inquiry, Office of Public Policy, Washington, D.C.: Center for Inquiry, Inc., <http://www.centerforinquiry.net/uploads/attachments/intelligent-design.pdf>. Retrieved on 2007-08-22; Forrest, B.C. and Gross, P.R., 2003, Evolution and the Wedge of Intelligent Design: The Trojan Horse Strategy, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 224 p., ISBN 0195157427
  103. ^ "Dembski chides me for never using the term "intelligent design" without conjoining it to "creationism." He implies (though never explicitly asserts) that he and others in his movement are not creationists and that it is incorrect to discuss them in such terms, suggesting that doing so is merely a rhetorical ploy to "rally the troops". (2) Am I (and the many others who see Dembski's movement in the same way) misrepresenting their position? The basic notion of creationism is the rejection of biological evolution in favor of special creation, where the latter is understood to be supernatural. Beyond this there is considerable variability...", from Wizards of ID: Reply to Dembski, Robert T. Pennock, p. 645–667 of Intelligent Design Creationism and Its Critics: Philosophical, Theological, and Scientific Perspectives, Robert T. Pennock (editor), Cambridge, MIT Press, 2001, 825 p., ISBN 0262661241; Pennock, R.T., 1999, Tower of Babel: Evidence Against the New Creationism, Cambridge, MIT Press, 440 p.
  104. ^ The Creation/Evolution Continuum, Eugenie Scott, NCSE Reports, v. 19, n. 4, p. 16–17, 23–25, July/August, 1999.; Scott, E.C., 2004, Evolution vs. Creationism: An Introduction, Westport, Greenwood Press, 296p, ISBN 0520246500
  105. ^ "The social consequences of materialism have been devastating. As symptoms, those consequences are certainly worth treating. However, we are convinced that in order to defeat materialism, we must cut it off at its source. That source is scientific materialism. This is precisely our strategy. If we view the predominant materialistic science as a giant tree, our strategy is intended to function as a 'wedge' that, while relatively small, can split the trunk when applied at its weakest points. The very beginning of this strategy, the 'thin edge of the wedge,' was Phillip Johnson's critique of Darwinism begun in 1991 in Darwinism on Trial, and continued in Reason in the Balance and Defeating Darwinism by Opening Minds. Michael Behe's highly successful Darwin's Black Box followed Johnson's work. We are building on this momentum, broadening the wedge with a positive scientific alternative to materialistic scientific theories, which has come to be called the theory of intelligent design (ID). Design theory promises to reverse the stifling dominance of the materialist worldview, and to replace it with a science consonant with Christian and theistic convictions." Wedge Document Discovery Institute, 1999. (PDF file)
  106. ^ a b Wedge Document Discovery Institute, 1999.
  107. ^ a b c "I have built an intellectual movement in the universities and churches that we call The Wedge, which is devoted to scholarship and writing that furthers this program of questioning the materialistic basis of science. ... Now the way that I see the logic of our movement going is like this. The first thing you understand is that the Darwinian theory isn't true. It's falsified by all of the evidence and the logic is terrible. When you realize that, the next question that occurs to you is, well, where might you get the truth? ... I start with John 1:1. In the beginning was the word. In the beginning was intelligence, purpose, and wisdom. The Bible had that right. And the materialist scientists are deluding themselves." Johnson 1999. Reclaiming America for Christ Conference. How the Evolution Debate Can Be Won
  108. ^ Discovery Institute fellows and staff. [9] Center for Science and Culture fellows and staff. [10]
  109. ^ Barbara Forrest. 2001. "The Wedge at Work: Intelligent Design Creationism and Its Critics
  110. ^ a b "...intelligent design does not address metaphysical and religious questions such as the nature or identity of the designer," and "...the nature, moral character and purposes of this intelligence lie beyond the competence of science and must be left to religion and philosophy." In: Discovery Institute Truth Sheet # 09-05 Does intelligent design postulate a "supernatural creator?. Retrieved on 2007-07-19.
  111. ^ Phillip Johnson. Keeping the Darwinists Honest, an interview with Phillip Johnson. Citizen Magazine. April 1999. "Intelligent Design is an intellectual movement, and the Wedge strategy stops working when we are seen as just another way of packaging the Christian evangelical message. ... The evangelists do what they do very well, and I hope our work opens up for them some doors that have been closed."
  112. ^ a b Phillip Johnson. Touchstone: A Journal of Mere Christianity. July/August 1999."...the first thing that has to be done is to get the Bible out of the discussion. ...This is not to say that the biblical issues are unimportant; the point is rather that the time to address them will be after we have separated materialist prejudice from scientific fact." The Wedge
  113. ^ a b William Dembski, 1998. The Design Inference.
  114. ^ Dembski, 1999. Intelligent Design: The Bridge Between Science and Theology. "Christ is indispensable to any scientific theory, even if its practitioners don't have a clue about him. The pragmatics of a scientific theory can, to be sure, be pursued without recourse to Christ. But the conceptual soundness of the theory can in the end only be located in Christ." p. 210
  115. ^ Dembski. 2005. Intelligent Design's Contribution to the Debate Over Evolution: A Reply to Henry Morris.Reply to Henry Morris
  116. ^ Barbara Forrest. Expert Testimony. Kitzmiller v. Dover Area School District trial transcript, Day 6 (October 5) "What I am talking about is the essence of intelligent design, and the essence of it is theistic realism as defined by Professor Johnson. Now that stands on its own quite apart from what their motives are. I'm also talking about the definition of intelligent design by Dr. Dembski as the Logos theology of John's Gospel. That stands on its own. ... Intelligent design, as it is understood by the proponents that we are discussing today, does involve a supernatural creator, and that is my objection. And I am objecting to it as they have defined it, as Professor Johnson has defined intelligent design, and as Dr. Dembski has defined intelligent design. And both of those are basically religious. They involve the supernatural."
  117. ^ Understanding the Intelligent Design Creationist Movement: Its True Nature and Goals. A Position Paper from the Center for Inquiry, Office of Public Policy Barbara Forrest. May, 2007.
  118. ^ Seattle Times. March 31 2005.m.html Does Seattle group "teach controversy" or contribute to it?
  119. ^ National Association of Biology Teachers Statement on Teaching Evolution
  120. ^ IAP Statement on the Teaching of Evolution Joint statement issued by the national science academies of 67 countries, including the United Kingdom's Royal Society.
  121. ^ From the American Association for the Advancement of Science, the world's largest general scientific society: 2006 Statement on the Teaching of Evolution, AAAS Denounces Anti-Evolution Laws
  122. ^ Coultan, Mark (November 27, 2005). Intelligent design a Trojan horse, says creationist. Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved on 2007-07-29.
  123. ^ Intelligent Design: Creationism's Trojan Horse. Americans United for the Separation of Church and State (February 2005). Retrieved on 2007-07-29.
  124. ^ a b c Wallis, Claudia (August 7, 2005). The Evolution Wars. Time Magazine. Retrieved on 2007-07-23.
  125. ^ "The evolution wars" in Time, Events of 2005, News Archive, National Center for Science Education, August 11, 2005.
  126. ^ Forrest, Barbara (Fall-Winter 2000). "Methodological Naturalism and Philosophical Naturalism: Clarifying the Connection". Philo 3 (2): 7–29. Retrieved on 2007-07-27. 
  127. ^ Johnson, Phillip E. (1995). Reason in the Balance: The Case Against Naturalism in Science, Law and Education. InterVarsity Press. ISBN 0830819290. [Johnson positions himself as a "theistic realist" against "methodological naturalism."]
  128. ^ "My colleagues and I speak of 'theistic realism'—or sometimes, 'mere creation'—as the defining concept of our [the ID] movement. This means that we affirm that God is objectively real as Creator, and that the reality of God is tangibly recorded in evidence accessible to science, particularly in biology." [ Starting a Conversation about Evolution] Phillip Johnson.
  129. ^ See, for instance: Vuletic, Mark I. (February 1997). Methodological Naturalism and the Supernatural. Naturalism, Theism and the Scientific Enterprise: An Interdisciplinary Conference at the. University of Texas, Austin. Retrieved on 2007-07-27.
  130. ^ a b Watanabe, Teresa (March 25, 2001). Enlisting Science to Find the Fingerprints of a Creator. Los Angeles Times. Retrieved on 2007-07-22. “[Phillip E. Johnson quoted]: We are taking an intuition most people have and making it a scientific and academic enterprise ... We are removing the most important cultural roadblock to accepting the role of God as creator”
  131. ^ Belz, Joel (November 30, 1996). "Witnesses For The Prosecution" (Reprint by Leadership U.). World Magazine 11 (28). Retrieved on 2007-07-23. 
  132. ^ Nickson, Elizabeth (January 10, 2003). Let's Be Intelligent About Darwin. Christianity.ca. The Evangelical Fellowship of Canada. Retrieved on 2007-07-23. “[Phillip E. Johnson quoted]: Our strategy has been to change the subject a bit so that we can get the issue of Intelligent Design, which really means the reality of God, before the academic world and into the schools.”
  133. ^ Buell, Jon; Hearn, Virginia, eds. (March 1992). Darwinism: Science or Philosophy (PDF). Darwinism: Scientific Inference or Philosophical Preference? (Symposium). The Foundation for Thought and Ethics, Dallas Christian Leadership, and the C. S. Lewis Fellowship. Retrieved on 2007-07-23.
  134. ^ Giberson, Karl (December 5, 2005). Intelligent design's long march to nowhere. Templeton Foundation, Science & Theology News. Retrieved on 2007-07-23. [11]
  135. ^ Sorber, Elliott (March 2007). "What is wrong with intelligent design?" (PDF). Quarterly Review of Biology 82 (1): 3–6. Retrieved on 2007-07-23. 
  136. ^ What Is Wrong With Intelligent Design?. Science Daily (February 23, 2007). Retrieved on 2007-07-23.
  137. ^ Sonleitner, Frank J. (March 2006). "Intelligent Design is not Testable". Geological Society of America, Abstracts with Programs, 40th Annual Meeting 38 (1): 10. Retrieved on 2007-07-23. 
  138. ^ Murray, Michael J. (Forthcoming). Natural Providence (or Design Trouble) (PDF). Franklin & Marshall College. Retrieved on 2007-07-23.
  139. ^ Dembski, William A.. What is the position of the NRCSE on the teaching of intelligent design [ID] as an alternative to neo-Darwinian evolution in Nebraska schools?. Creighton University. Retrieved on 2007-07-23.
  140. ^ Schönborn, Cardinal Christoph (October 2, 2005). Catechetical Lecture at St. Stephan's Cathedral, Vienna (Reprint). Bring You To. Retrieved on 2007-07-22. “Purpose and design in the natural world, [has] no difficulty ... with the theory of evolution [within] the borders of scientific theory.”
  141. ^ Scott, Eugenie C. (December 7, 2000). The Creation/Evolution Continuum. National Center for Science Education. Retrieved on 2007-07-22.
  142. ^ Resseger, Jan (Chair) (March 2006). Science, Religion, and the Teaching of Evolution in Public School Science Classes (PDF). Committee on Public Education and Literacy. National Council of Churches. Retrieved on 2007-07-17.
  143. ^ Murphy, George L. (2002). Intelligent Design as a Theological Problem (Reprint). Creighton University. Retrieved on 2007-07-21.
  144. ^ Sheppard, Pam S. (February 4, 2006). Intelligent design: is it intelligent; is it Christian?. Answers in Genesis. Retrieved on 2007-07-21.
  145. ^ Ross, Hugh. More Than Intelligent Design. Facts for Faith. Reasons to Believe. Retrieved on 2007-07-21.
  146. ^ The "Intelligent Design" Distraction. Harun Yahya International (2007). Retrieved on 2007-07-20.
  147. ^ Wieland, Carl (August 30, 2002). AiG's views on the Intelligent Design Movement. Answers in Genesis. Retrieved on 2007-07-20.
  148. ^ Retired California surgeon Dr. Mel Mulder has produced a series of 50 radio spots, and a book entitled "Beyond intelligent design" that describes his feeling that the intelligent design movement does not go far enough in several ways.
  149. ^ Tammy Kitzmiller, et al. v. Dover Area School District, et al.,  [12] (2005)
  150. ^ Powell, Michael. "Judge Rules Against 'Intelligent Design'", The Washington Post, 2005-12-21. Retrieved on 2007-09-03. 
  151. ^ Crowther, Robert. "Dover Intelligent Design Decision Criticized as a Futile Attempt to Censor Science Education", Evolution News & Views, Discovery Institute, 2005-12-20. Retrieved on 2007-09-03. 
  152. ^ Associated Press. "Judge rules against 'intelligent design'", MSNBC. Retrieved on 2007-09-03. 
  153. ^ Provonsha, Michael. "Godless: The Church of Liberalism", eSkeptic, 2006-09-21. Retrieved on 2007-09-03. 
  154. ^ Padian, Kevin; Nick Matzke. "Discovery Institute tries to "swift-boat" Judge Jones", National Center for Science Education National Center for Science Education. Retrieved on 2007-09-03. 
  155. ^ Raffaele, Martha. "Intelligent design policy struck down", Dallas Morning News, 2005-12-20. Retrieved on 2007-09-03. 
  156. ^ Articles—Editor's Note: Intelligent Design Articles, University of Montana Law Review, Volume 68, Number 1, April 10, 2007.
  157. ^ Intelligent Design Will Survive Kitzmiller v. Dover, David K. DeWolf, John G. West, and Casey Luskin, University of Montana Law Review, Volume 68, Number 1, May 4, 2007.
  158. ^ Disaster In Dover: The Trials (And Tribulations) Of Intelligent Design, Peter Irons, University of Montana Law Review, Volume 68, Number 1, April 27, 2007.
  159. ^ Rebuttal to Irons, David K. DeWolf, John G. West, and Casey Luskin, University of Montana Law Review, Volume 68, Number 1, April 27, 2007.
  160. ^ Meyer, Stephen C. (December 1, 2002). The Scientific Status of Intelligent Design: The Methodological Equivalence of Naturalistic and Non-Naturalistic Origins Theories. Center for Science and Culture, Discovery Institute. Retrieved on 2007-07-19.
  161. ^ Wüthrich, Christian (January 11, 2007). Demarcating science vis-à-vis pseudoscience (PDF). Department of Philosophy. University of California at San Diego. Retrieved on 2007-07-19.
  162. ^ Gauch Jr., Hugh G. (2003). "Chapters 5–8", Scientific Method in Practice. Cambridge UP. ISBN 0521017084.  Discusses principles of induction, deduction and probability related to the expectation of consistency, testability, and multiple observations. Chapter 8 discusses parsimony (Occam's razor)
  163. ^ Elmes, David G.; Kantowitz, Barry H.; Roediger Henry L. (2005). "Chapter 2", Research Methods in Psychology, 8th, Wadsworth Publishing. ISBN 0534609767.  Discusses the scientific method, including the principles of falsifiability, testability, progressive development of theory, dynamic self-correcting of hypotheses, and parsimony, or "Occam's razor."
  164. ^ Kitzmiller v. Dover Area School District,   04 cv 2688 (December 20, 2005), 4: whether ID is science. The ruling discusses central aspects of expectations in the scientific community that a scientific theory be testable, dynamic, correctible, progressive, based upon multiple observations, and provisional,
  165. ^ See, e.g., Mark Perakh, "The Dream World of William Dembski's Creationism", in Skeptic Volume 11 (Number 4) 2005, 54–65. [13]
  166. ^ Intelligent design fails to pass Occam's razor. Adding entities (an intelligent agent, a designer) to the equation is not strictly necessary to explain events. See, e.g., Branden Fitelson, et al: "How Not to Detect Design–Critical Notice: William A. Dembski The Design Inference ", in Robert T. Pennock, ed. Intelligent Design Creationism and Its Critics: Philosophical, Theological, and Scientific Perspectives, (MIT Press, 2001) p597–616.
  167. ^ See, e.g., Jill E. Schneider (Dept. of Biological Sciences, Lehigh University, 2005) "Thoughts on Evolution and Intelligent Design" [14] "Q: Why couldn't intelligent design also be a scientific theory? A : The idea of intelligent design might or might not be true, but when presented as a scientific hypothesis, it is not useful because it is based on weak assumptions, lacks supporting data and terminates further thought."
  168. ^ The designer is not falsifiable, since its existence is typically asserted without sufficient conditions to allow a falsifying observation. The designer being beyond the realm of the observable, claims about its existence can be neither supported nor undermined by observation, making intelligent design and the argument from design analytic a posteriori arguments. See, e.g., Kitzmiller v. Dover Area School District,   04 cv 2688 (December 20, 2005) Ruling, p. 22 and p. 77.
  169. ^ That intelligent design is not empirically testable stems from the fact that it violates a basic premise of science, naturalism. See, e.g., Kitzmiller v. Dover Area School District,   04 cv 2688 (December 20, 2005) Ruling, p. 22 and p. 66.
  170. ^ Intelligent design professes to offer an answer that does not need to be defined or explained, the intelligent agent, designer. By asserting a conclusion that cannot be accounted for scientifically, the designer, intelligent design cannot be sustained by any further explanation, and objections raised to those who accept intelligent design make little headway. Thus intelligent design is not a provisional assessment of data which can change when new information is discovered. Once it is claimed that a conclusion that need not be accounted for has been established, there is simply no possibility of future correction. The idea of the progressive growth of scientific ideas is required to explain previous data and any previously unexplainable data. See, e.g., the brief explanation in Kitzmiller v. Dover Area School District,   04 cv 2688 (December 20, 2005) p. 66.
  171. ^ Nobel Laureates Initiative (PDF). The Elie Wiesel Foundation for Humanity (September 9, 2005). Retrieved on 2007-07-19.
  172. ^ Intelligent Design is not Science: Scientists and teachers speak out. University of New South Wales (October 2005). Retrieved on 2007-07-19.
  173. ^ a b c Kitzmiller v. Dover Area School District,   04 cv 2688 (December 20, 2005), 4. Whether ID is Science, p. 87
  174. ^ Hawks, John (August 2005). The President and the teaching of evolution. John Hawks Weblog. Retrieved on 2007-07-19.
  175. ^ Goodstein, Laurie (December 4, 2005). Intelligent Design Might Be Meeting Its Maker. The New York Times. Retrieved on 2007-07-19.
  176. ^ Statement from the Council of the Biological Society of Washington. Biological Society of Washington. Retrieved on 2007-07-19.
  177. ^ Meyer, S.C. (2004). "The origin of biological information and the higher taxonomic categories". Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 117 (2): 213–239. Retrieved on 2007-05-10. 
  178. ^ Dembski, William A. (2001). Is Intelligent Design a Form of Natural Theology?. Design Inference Website. Retrieved on 2007-07-19.
  179. ^ McMurtie, Beth (2001). Darwinism Under Attack. The Chronicle Of Higher Education.
  180. ^ Kitzmiller v. Dover Area School District, October 19, 2005, AM session Kitzmiller Testimony, Behe
  181. ^ Peer-Reviewed, Peer-Edited, and other Scientific Publications Supporting the Theory of Intelligent Design (Annotated). Discovery Institute (July 2007). Retrieved on 2007-07-17.
  182. ^ Isaak, Mark (2006). Index to Creationist Claims. The TalkOrigins Archive. “With some of the claims for peer review, notably Campbell and Meyer (2003) and the e-journal PCID, the reviewers are themselves ardent supporters of intelligent design. The purpose of peer review is to expose errors, weaknesses, and significant omissions in fact and argument. That purpose is not served if the reviewers are uncritical”
  183. ^ Brauer, Matthew J.; Forrest, Barbara; Gey Steven G. (2005). "Is It Science Yet?: Intelligent Design Creationism and the Constitution" (PDF). Washington University Law Quarterly 83 (1). Retrieved on 2007-07-18. “ID leaders know the benefits of submitting their work to independent review and have established at least two purportedly "peer-reviewed" journals for ID articles. However, one has languished for want of material and quietly ceased publication, while the other has a more overtly philosophical orientation. Both journals employ a weak standard of "peer review" that amounts to no more than vetting by the editorial board or society fellows.” 
  184. ^ Dembski, William A. (April 2002). Detecting Design in the Natural Sciences. Intelligent Design?. Natural History Magazine. Retrieved on 2007-07-18.
  185. ^ Shostak, Seth (December 2005). SETI and Intelligent Design. Space.com. Retrieved on 2007-07-18. “In fact, the signals actually sought by today's SETI searches are not complex, as the ID advocates assume. ... If SETI were to announce that we're not alone because it had detected a signal, it would be on the basis of artificiality”
  186. ^ "For human artifacts, we know the designer's identity, human, and the mechanism of design, as we have experience based upon empirical evidence that humans can make such things, as well as many other attributes including the designer's abilities, needs, and desires. With ID, proponents assert that they refuse to propose hypotheses on the designer's identity, do not propose a mechanism, and the designer, he/she/it/they, has never been seen. In that vein, defense expert Professor Minnich agreed that in the case of human artifacts and objects, we know the identity and capacities of the human designer, but we do not know any of those attributes for the designer of biological life. In addition, Professor Behe agreed that for the design of human artifacts, we know the designer and its attributes and we have a baseline for human design that does not exist for design of biological systems. Professor Behe's only response to these seemingly insurmountable points of disanalogy was that the inference still works in science fiction movies."—Kitzmiller v. Dover Area School District,   04 cv 2688 (December 20, 2005), p. 81
  187. ^ Edis, Taner (March/April 2001). Darwin in Mind: Intelligent Design Meets Artificial Intelligence. Skeptical Inquirer Magazine. Retrieved on 2007-07-17.
  188. ^ Primer: Intelligent Design Theory in a Nutshell. Intelligent Design and Evolution Awareness Center (2007). Retrieved on 2007-07-14.
  189. ^ a b Scott, Eugenie C.; Branch, Glenn (September 2002). "Intelligent Design" Not Accepted by Most Scientists. National Center for Science Education. Retrieved on 2007-07-14.
  190. ^ See, for instance: Hube, Richard H. (Fall 1971). "Man Come Of Age: Bonhoeffer's Response To The God-Of-The-Gaps". Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 14: 203–220. 
  191. ^ Rosenhouse, Jason (Fall 2001). "How Anti-Evolutionists Abuse Mathematics" (PDF). The Mathematical Intelligencer 23 (4): 3–8. Retrieved on 2007-07-14. 
  192. ^ Dembski, William A. (2004). The Design Revolution: Answering the Toughest Questions About Intelligent Design. InterVarsity Press. ISBN 0830823751. 
  193. ^ The rank complexity is Dembski's φ function, which ranks patterns in order of their descriptive complexity. See specified complexity.
  194. ^ Nearly Two-thirds of U.S. Adults Believe Human Beings Were Created by God. The Harris Poll #52. Harris Interactive (July 6, 2005). Retrieved on 2007-07-13.
  195. ^ Sandia National Laboratories says that the Intelligent Design Network (IDNet-NM/Zogby) "Lab Poll" is BOGUS!. New Mexicans for Science and Reason. Retrieved on 2007-07-13.
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  198. ^ According to the poll, 18% of the physicians believed that God created humans exactly as they appear today. An additional 42% believed that God initiated and guided an evolutionary process that has led to current human beings. The poll also found that "an overwhelming majority of Jewish doctors (83%) and half of Catholic doctors (51%) believe that intelligent design is simply "a religiously inspired pseudo- science rather than a legitimate scientific speculation." The poll also found that "more than half of Protestant doctors (63%) believe that intelligent design is a "legitimate scientific speculation."
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  Results from FactBites:
 
Intelligent design - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (9318 words)
Many intelligent design followers believe that "Scientism" is itself a religion that promotes secularism and materialism in an attempt to erase theism from public life, and view their work in the promotion of intelligent design as a way to return religion to a central role in education and other public spheres.
Intelligent design, by appealing to a supernatural agent, directly conflicts with the principles of science, which limit its inquiries to empirical, observable and ultimately testable data, and which require explanations to be based upon empirical evidence.
Intelligence derived from randomness is essentially indistinguishable from the "innate" intelligence associated with biological organisms, and poses a challenge to the intelligent design conception that intelligence itself necessarily requires a designer.
Intelligent design - definition of Intelligent design - Labor Law Talk Dictionary (3605 words)
Although the Intelligent Design movement is often portrayed as a variant of Bible-based Creationism, ID arguments are formulated in secular terms; they do not cite Biblical evidence of creation, nor do they require that their adherents accept the Bible’s accounts or even the existence of a creator god.
For example, the notion of an “intelligent designer” is compatible with the materialistic hypotheses that life on Earth was introduced by an alien species, or that it emerged as a result of panspermia, but would not be with the designer(s) of the "fine-tuned" universe.
Multiple designers might be the simplest explanation, if the variant of the theory being considered requires the intervention of design at multiple places and times, such as the beginning of the universe and at specific points in the evolution of life.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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