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Encyclopedia > Intelligence

Intelligence is a property of the mind that encompasses many related abilities, such as the capacities to reason, to plan, to solve problems, to think abstractly, to comprehend ideas, to use language, and to learn. There are several ways to define intelligence. In some cases, intelligence may include traits such as creativity, personality, character, knowledge, or wisdom. However, some psychologists prefer not to include these traits in the definition of intelligence. Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ... Shortcut: WP:NPOVD Articles that have been linked to this page are the subject of an NPOV dispute (NPOV stands for Neutral Point Of View; see below). ... Look up intelligence in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Mind (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Reason (disambiguation). ... For other meanings of this term, see plan (disambiguation) Informal or ad-hoc plans are created by individual humans in all of their pursuits. ... Problem solving forms part of thinking. ... This article is about the concept of abstraction in general. ... Learning is the acquisition and development of memories and behaviors, including skills, knowledge, understanding, values, and wisdom. ... For other uses of Creativity, see Creativity (disambiguation). ... Personality psychology is a branch of psychology which studies personality and individual differences. ... For other uses, see Knowledge (disambiguation). ... For the apocryphal book of the Bible, see Book of Wisdom. ...

Intelligence is what you use when you don't know what to do.

Jean Piaget Jean Piaget (August 9, 1896 – September 16, 1980) was a Swiss philosopher, natural scientist and developmental psychologist, well known for his work studying children, his theory of cognitive development and for his epistemological view called genetic epistemology. He created in 1955 the International Centre for Genetic Epistemology in Geneva and...

Look up intelligence in
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Contents

Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ...

Definitions

The definition of intelligence has long been a matter of controversy.


Intelligence comes from the Latin verb "intellegere", which means "to understand". By this rationale, intelligence (as understanding) is arguably different from being "smart" (able to adapt to one's environment), or being "clever" (able to creatively adapt). By the Latin definition, intelligence arguably has to do with a deeper understanding of the relationships of all things around us; and with a capability for metaphysical manipulation of such objects once such understanding is mastered. Plato (Left) and Aristotle (right), by Raphael (Stanza della Segnatura, Rome) Metaphysics is the branch of philosophy concerned with explaining the ultimate nature of reality, being, and the world. ...


At least two major "consensus" definitions of intelligence have been proposed. First, from Intelligence: Knowns and Unknowns, a report of a task force convened by the American Psychological Association in 1995: The American Psychological Association (APA) is a professional organization representing psychology in the US. It has around 150,000 members and an annual budget of around $70m. ...

Individuals differ from one another in their ability to understand complex ideas, to adapt effectively to the environment, to learn from experience, to engage in various forms of reasoning, to overcome obstacles by taking thought. Although these individual differences can be substantial, they are never entirely consistent: a given person’s intellectual performance will vary on different occasions, in different domains, as judged by different criteria. Concepts of "intelligence" are attempts to clarify and organize this complex set of phenomena. Although considerable clarity has been achieved in some areas, no such conceptualization has yet answered all the important questions and none commands universal assent. Indeed, when two dozen prominent theorists were recently asked to define intelligence, they gave two dozen somewhat different definitions.[1]

A second definition of intelligence comes from "Mainstream Science on Intelligence", which was signed by 52 intelligence researchers in 1994: Mainstream Science on Intelligence is a 1994 editorial written by Linda Gottfredson and published in the Wall Street Journal on December 13. ...

a very general mental capability that, among other things, involves the ability to reason, plan, solve problems, think abstractly, comprehend complex ideas, learn quickly and learn from experience. It is not merely book learning, a narrow academic skill, or test-taking smarts. Rather, it reflects a broader and deeper capability for comprehending our surroundings—"catching on", "making sense" of things, or "figuring out" what to do.[2]

Other definitions

Additionally, many researchers, prominent in the fields of Psychology and Learning, have offered their own definitions of human intelligence: Image File history File links Emblem-important. ...

  • Carolus Slovinec: "Intelligence is the ability to recognize connections."
  • Alfred Binet: "...judgment, otherwise called good sense, practical sense, initiative, the faculty of adapting one's self to circumstances...auto-critique."
  • David Wechsler: "... the aggregate or global capacity of the individual to act purposefully, to think rationally, and to deal effectively with his environment."
  • Cyril Burt: "...innate general cognitive ability."
  • Howard Gardner: "To my mind, a human intellectual competence must entail a set of skills of problem solving—enabling the individual to resolve genuine problems or difficulties that he or she encounters and, when appropriate, to create an effective product—and must also entail the potential for finding or creating problems—and thereby laying the groundwork for the acquisition of new knowledge."
  • Linda Gottfredson: "... the ability to deal with cognitive complexity."
  • Herrnstein and Murray: "...cognitive ability."
  • Sternberg and Salter: "...goal-directed adaptive behavior."
  • John Kotter on Leadership Intelligence: A "keen mind" i.e., strong analytical ability, good judgement, and the capacity to think strategically and multi-dimensionally.
  • D. Samuel Nuessle: "A mind's ability to apply knowledge to a problem-solving situation."

Other researchers prominent in the fields of Mathematics and Engineering, have offered their own definitions of intelligence: Alfred Binet Alfred Binet (July 8, 1857 – October 18, 1911), French psychologist and inventor of the first usable intelligence test, the basis of todays IQ test. ... David Wechsler (January 12, 1896, Lespedi, Romania - May 2, 1981, New York, New York) was a leading Romanian-American psychologist. ... Sir Cyril Lodowic Burt (March 3, 1883 – October 10, 1971) was a prominent British educational psychologist. ... It has been suggested that Naturalist Intelligence be merged into this article or section. ... Problem solving forms part of thinking. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Richard Herrnstein (1930-1994) was a prominent researcher in comparative psychology who did pioneering work on pigeon intelligence employing the Experimental Analysis of Behavior. ... Charles Murray Charles Alan Murray (born 1943) is a controversial libertarian American political scientist. ... Robert J. Sternberg (8 December 1949-) is the Dean of Arts and Sciences at Tufts University and is the former IBM Professor of Psychology and Education at Yale University. ... A system, person, or organization that tends to achieve a goal and demonstrate it in subsequent actions. ... John Paul Kotter is a retired professor of organizational behaviour and human resource management at Harvard Business School. ...

  • Alan Turing: "To respond like a human being"[3]
  • G.N. Saridis: "The entropy of control responses"[4]

In an educational context, one's intelligence should not be equated with one's academic performance, or with the volume of knowledge one has acquired through through formal education. A person's ability to think critically and analytically about his or her knowledge and experience is more important than command of a large number of facts. Intelligence is not confined to thinking either. Purposeful actions demonstrating appropriate responses to the situation and reasoned application of one's knowledge are evidence of intelligence. It is also important to note that analytic skills only constitute one part of intelligence -- mimesis, synthesis, creative and the ability to find innovative solutions to unfamiliar problems are also important. Mimesis (μίμησις from μιμεîσθαι) in its simplest context means imitation or representation in Greek. ... Synthesis (from the ancient Greek σύν (with) and θεσις (placing), is commonly understood to be an integration of two or more pre-existing elements which results in a new creation. ...


Psychometric approach

Main articles: IQ, General intelligence factor

Despite the variety of concepts of intelligence, the most influential approach to understanding intelligence (i.e., with the most supporters and the most published research over the longest period of time) is based on psychometric testing. Such intelligence quotient (IQ) tests include the Stanford-Binet, Raven's Progressive Matrices, the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale and the Wechsler-Bellevue. IQ redirects here. ... The general intelligence factor (abbreviated g) is a controversial construct used in the field of psychology (see also psychometrics) to quantify what is common to the scores of all intelligence tests. ... Psychometrics is the science of measuring psychological aspects of a person such as knowledge, skills, abilities, or personality. ... IQ redirects here. ... The modern field of intelligence testing began with the Stanford-Binet IQ test. ... The cover of a test booklet for Ravens Standard Progressive Matrices Ravens Progressive Matrices (often referred to simply as Ravens Matrices) are multiple choice tests of abstract reasoning, originally developed by Dr John C. Raven in 1938. ... Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale or WAIS is a general test of intelligence (IQ), published in February 1955 as a revision of the Wechsler-Bellevue test (1939), standardised for use with adults over the age of 16. ...


All forms of IQ tests correlate highly with one another. The traditional view is that these tests measure g or "general intelligence factor". g can be derived as the principal factor using the mathematical method of factor analysis. However, psychometricians can also measure a wide range of abilities, which are distinct yet correlated. For example, g itself is sometimes considered to be a two part construct, gF and gC, which stand for fluid and crystallized intelligence. Positive linear correlations between 1000 pairs of numbers. ... The general intelligence factor (abbreviated g) is a controversial construct used in the field of psychology (see also psychometrics) to quantify what is common to the scores of all intelligence tests. ... Factor analysis is a statistical data reduction technique used to explain variability among observed random variables in terms of fewer unobserved random variables called factors. ... In psychometric psychology, fluid and crystallized intelligence (abbreviated gF and gC, respectively) are factors of general intelligence identified by Raymond Cattell (1971). ...


One common view is that these abilities are hierarchically arranged with g at the vertex (or top, overlaying all other cognitive abilities). However, this is by no means universally accepted. Carroll (1993) and Snow (1984) put forward what might be described as an interpenetrating position having more in common with that of Charles Spearman (1924) who is credited with having developed the concept of g. Charles Edward Spearman (September 10, 1863 - September 7, 1945) was an English psychologist known for work in statistics, as a pioneer of factor analysis, and for Spearmans rank correlation coefficient. ...


Intelligence, as measured by IQ and other aptitude tests, is widely used in educational, business, and military settings because it is an effective predictor of behavior. Intelligence is significantly correlated with successful training and performance outcomes. According to research by Ree and Earles (1992), g is the single best predictor of job performance, with minimal statistical improvements gained by the addition of more specific ability measures. Using data from thousands of cases, they demonstrated that the average magnitude of correlation of g with various criterion measures ranges from r =.33 to .76. [5]


In a recent review of the empirical research, David Geary found that g is highly correlated with many important social outcomes.[6] Individuals with low IQs are more likely to be divorced, more likely to have a child out of marriage, more likely to be incarcerated, and more likely to need long term welfare support. Furthermore, he found that high IQs are associated with more years of education, higher status jobs, and higher income.


Controversies

IQ tests were originally devised specifically to predict educational achievement. The inventors of the IQ did not believe they were measuring fixed intelligence. Despite this, critics argue that intelligence tests have been used to support nativistic theories in which intelligence is viewed as a qualitatively unique faculty with a relatively fixed quantity.[7]


Critics of the psychometric approach point out that people in the general population have a somewhat different and broader conception of intelligence than what is measured in IQ tests. In turn, they argue that the psychometric approach measures only a part of what is commonly understood as intelligence. Furthermore, skeptics argue that even though tests of mental abilities are correlated, people still have unique strengths and weaknesses in specific areas. Consequently they argue that psychometric theorists over-emphasize g.


Researchers in the field of human intelligence have encountered a considerable amount of public concern and criticism-- much more than scientists in other areas normally receive (see Gottfredson, 2005). For example, a number of critics have challenged the relevance of psychometric intelligence in the context of everyday life. There have also been controversies over genetic factors in intelligence, particularly the question of whether these differences relate to race and gender (see Race and intelligence and Sex and intelligence). Another controversy in the field is how to interpret the increases in test scores that have occurred over time, the so-called Flynn effect. This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... The study of race and intelligence is the controversial study of how human intellectual capacities may vary among the different population groups commonly known as races. ... Sex and intelligence research investigates differences in the distributions of cognitive skills between men and women. ... The Matt effect is the rise of Matt Matt Quotient (IQ) test scores, an effect seen in most parts of the world, although at greatly varying rates. ...


Stephen Jay Gould was one of the most vocal critics of intelligence testing. In his book, The Mismeasure of Man, Gould argued that intelligence is not truly measurable, and also challenged the hereditarian viewpoint on intelligence. Many of Gould's criticisms were aimed at Arthur Jensen. Jensen responded that his work had been misrepresented.[8] He further replied that making conclusions about modern IQ tests by criticizing the flaws of early intelligence research is like condemning the auto industry by criticizing the performance of the Model T. Stephen Jay Gould (September 10, 1941 – May 20, 2002) was an American paleontologist, evolutionary biologist, and historian of science. ... First edition (1981) of The Mismeasure of Man The Mismeasure of Man is a controversial, best-selling 1981 book written by the Harvard paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould (1941-2002). ... Hereditarianism is the doctrine or school of thought that heredity is at least as important as environment in determining human nature and character traits, such as intelligence and personality. ... For the Danish actor, see Arthur Jensen (actor). ... 1908 Ford Model T advertisement The Model T (colloquially known as the Tin Lizzie and the Flivver) was an automobile produced by Henry Fords Ford Motor Company from 1908 through 1928. ...


Multiple intelligences

Dissatisfaction with traditional IQ tests has led to the development of a number of alternative theories, all of which suggest that intelligence is the result of a number of independent abilities that uniquely contribute to human performance. Most of these theories are relatively recent in origin, though it should be noted that Louis Thurstone proposed a theory of multiple "primary abilities" in the early 20th Century. The theory of multiple intelligences is a theory proposed by developmental psychologist Howard Gardner in 1983. ... Louis Leon Thurstone (29 May 1887–29 September 1955) was a U.S. pioneer in the fields of psychometrics and psychophysics. ...


Howard Gardner's Theory of multiple intelligences is based on studies not only on normal children and adults but also by studies of gifted individuals (including so-called 'savants"), of persons who have suffered brain damage, of experts and virtuosos, and of individuals from diverse cultures. This led Gardner to break intelligence down into at least eight different components: logical, linguistic, spatial, musical, kinesthetic, naturalist, intrapersonal and interpersonal intelligences. He argues that psychometric tests address only linguistic and logical plus some aspects of spatial intelligence; other forms have been entirely ignored. Moreover, the paper and-pencil format of most tests rules out many kinds of intelligent performance that matter in everyday life, such as giving an extemporaneous talk (linguistic) or being able to find one's way in a new town (spatial). It has been suggested that Naturalist Intelligence be merged into this article or section. ... Multiple intelligences is educational theory put forth by psychologist Howard Gardner, which suggests that an array of different kinds of intelligence exists in human beings. ... Look up savant in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Virtuoso (disambiguation). ... Logic (from ancient Greek λόγος (logos), meaning reason) is the study of arguments. ... Broadly conceived, linguistics is the study of human language, and a linguist is someone who engages in this study. ... The word space has many meanings, including: Physics The definition of space in physics is contentious. ... For other uses, see Music (disambiguation). ... Proprioception (from Latin proprius, meaning ones own) is the sense of the position of parts of the body, relative to other neighbouring parts of the body. ... -1... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ...


Robert Sternberg's Triarchic theory of intelligence proposes three fundamental aspects of intelligence-analytic, creative, and practical--of which only the first is measured to any significant extent by mainstream tests. His investigations suggest the need for a balance between analytic intelligence, on the one hand, and creative and especially practical intelligence on the other. Robert J. Sternberg (8 December 1949-) is the Dean of Arts and Sciences at Tufts University and is the former IBM Professor of Psychology and Education at Yale University. ... The Triarchic Theory of Intelligence was formulated by Robert J. Sternberg, a prominent figure in the research of human intelligence. ...


Daniel Goleman and several other researchers have developed the concept of Emotional intelligence and claim it is at least as important as more traditional sorts of intelligence. These theories grew from observations of human development and of brain injury victims who demonstrate an acute loss of a particular cognitive function -- e.g. the ability to think numerically, or the ability to understand written language -- without showing any loss in other cognitive areas. Emotional Intelligence (EI), often measured as an Emotional Intelligence Quotient (EQ), describes an ability, capacity, or skill to perceive, assess, and manage the emotions of ones self, of others, and of groups. ...


IQ proponents have pointed out that IQ's predictive validity has been repeatedly demonstrated, for example in predicting important non-academic outcomes such as job performance (see IQ), whereas the various multiple intelligence theories have little or no such support. Meanwhile, the relevance and even the existence of multiple intelligences have not been borne out when actually tested. Thus far, no one has been able to develop a set of ability tests that do not correlate together, and this refutes the claim that multiple intelligences are independent of each other.[9] In psychometrics, predictive validity is the extent to which a scale predicts scores on some criterion measure. ... IQ redirects here. ...


Other species

Main article: Animal cognition

Although humans have been the primary focus of intelligence researchers, scientists have also attempted to investigate animal intelligence, or more broadly, animal cognition. These researchers are interested in studying both mental ability in a particular species, and comparing abilities between species. They study various measures of problem solving, as well as mathematical and language abilities. Some challenges in this area are defining intelligence so that it means the same thing across species, and then operationalizing a measure that accurately compares mental ability across different species and contexts. Animal cognition, is the title given to a modern approach to the mental capacities of animals other than humans. ... An operational definition is a showing of something—such as a variable, term, or object—in terms of the specific process or set of validation tests used to determine its presence and quantity. ...


Wolfgang Köhler's pioneering research on the intelligence of apes is a classic example of research in this area. Stanley Coren's book, The Intelligence of Dogs is a notable popular book on the topic. Maluma type shape Takete type shape Wolfgang Köhler (January 21, 1887, Reval (now Tallinn), Estonia – June 11, 1967, New Hampshire) was a German Gestalt psychologist. ... The Intelligence of Dogs is a book by Stanley Coren. ...


See also

Science area

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:

Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is one of a family of wiki-based projects run by the Wikimedia Foundation, running on MediaWiki software. ... The term Animal intelligence is currently used in three distinct but overlapping ways: as a synonym for animal cognition, to pose the question “are animals intelligent?”, or to denote a discussion of relative levels of intelligence in different animal species. ... AI redirects here. ... Recent advances in current theory and research on the structure of human cognitive abilities have resulted in a new empirically derived model commonly referred to as the Cattell-Horn-Carroll theory of cognitive abilities (CHC theory). ... Educational psychology is the study of how humans learn in educational settings, the effectiveness of educational interventions, the psychology of teaching, and the social psychology of schools as organizations. ... The general intelligence factor (abbreviated g) is a widely accepted but controversial construct used in the field of psychology (see also psychometrics) to quantify what is common to the scores of all intelligence tests. ... Individual differences psychology studies the ways in which individual people differ in their behavior. ... For the parapsychology phenomenon of distance knowledge, see psychometry. ... Systems intelligence is a concept developed in the fields of engineering sciences and applied philosophy. ...

Engineering area

  • Intelligent antenna (IA) aims to ambiently reuse spatial resources.
  • Cognitive radio (CR) aims to dynamically share the frequency spectrum.

Understanding of SISO, SIMO, MISO and MIMO Multiple-input and multiple-output (antennas), or MIMO, (pronounced mee-moh or mai-moh) refers to the use of multiple antennas both at the transmitter and receiver to improve the performance of radio communication systems. ... Cognitive radio is a paradigm for wireless communication in which either a network or a wireless node changes its transmission or reception parameters to communicate efficiently avoiding interference with licensed or unlicensed users. ...

References

  1. ^ APA Task Force Report, "Intelligence: Knowns and Unknowns"
  2. ^ Mainstream Science on Intelligence reprinted in Gottfredson (1997). Intelligence p. 13
  3. ^ (Turing 1950) and see Turing test
  4. ^ G.N. SARIDIS 'An Integrated Theory of Intelligent Machines by Expressing the Control performance as Entropy' Control-Theory and Advanced Technology, Vol 1,No.2,pp.125-138,August 1985,Mita Press
  5. ^ Ree, M. J. & Earles, J. A. (1992). Intelligence is the best predictor of job performance. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 1, 86-89.
  6. ^ Geary, D. C. (2005). The origin of mind: Evolution of brain, cognition, and general intelligence. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
  7. ^ The myth of intelligence. The Psychological Record, Vol. 53, 2003
  8. ^ Jensen, A. (1982). The debunking of scientific fossils and straw persons
  9. ^ Hunt, E. (2001). Multiple views of multiple intelligence. [Review of Intelligence Reframed: Multiple Intelligences for the 21st Century.] Contemporary Psychology, 46, 5-7.

Intelligence is a psychology journal that addresses intelligence and psychometrics. ... Computing machinery and intelligence, written by Alan Turing and published in 1950, is a seminal paper on the topic of artificial intelligence in which the concept of what is now known as the Turing test was introduced. ... For the Doctor Who novel named after the test, see The Turing Test (novel). ...

Further reading

  • Binet. A., & Simon, T. (1916). The development of intelligence in children. Baltimore, Williams & Wilkins. (Reprinted 1973, New York: Arno Press; 1983, Salem, NH: Ayer Company).
  • Belmont, M., & Marolla, F.A. (1973). "Birth order, family size, and intelligence". Science 182: 1096–1101. 
  • Coward, W.M. and Sackett, P.R. (1990). Linearity of ability-performance relationships: A reconfirmation. Journal of Applied Psychology, 75:297–300.
  • Carroll, J. B. (1993). Human Cognitive Abilities: A Survey of Factor-Analytic Studies. New York: Cambridge University Press.
  • Gardner, H., Kornhaber, M. and Wake, W. (1996). Intelligence: Multiple Perspectives. Fort Worth: Harcourt Brace College Publishers.
  • Gottfredson, L. S. (Ed.) (1997). Intelligence and social policy. Intelligence, 24(1). (Special issue) [1]PDF (798 KiB)
  • Gottfredson, L. S. (1998). The general intelligence factor. Scientific American Presents, 9(4):24-29. [2]PDF (319 KiB)
  • Gottfredson, L. S. (2005). Suppressing intelligence research: Hurting those we intend to help. In R. H. Wright & N. A. Cummings (Eds.), Destructive trends in mental health: The well-intentioned path to harm (pp. 155-186). New York: Taylor and Francis. Pre-print PDFPDF (282 KiB) PDFPDF (2.71 MiB)
  • Haier, R. J., Chueh, D., Touchette, P., Lott, I., Buchsbaum, M., Macmillan, D., et al. (1995). "Brain size and cerebral glucose metabolic rate in nonspecific mental retardation and Down syndrome". Intelligence 20: 191–210. 
  • Hawkings, Jeff (2005). On intelligence, Times Books, Henry Holt and Co. ISBN 0-8050-7456-2
  • Hunter, J.E. and Hunter, R.F. (1984). Validity and utility of alternate predictors of job performance. Psychological Bulletin, 96(1):72-98.
  • Jensen, A.R. (1998). The g Factor. Praeger, Connecticut, USA.
  • Kline, P. (2000). A Psychometrics Primer. London: Free Association Books.
  • McClearn, G. E., Johansson, B., Berg, S., Pedersen, N. L., Ahern, F., Petrill, S. A., & Plomin, R. (1997). Substantial genetic influence on cognitive abilities in twins 80 or more years old. Science, 276, 1560-1563.
  • Michael A. McDaniel, Big-brained people are smarter: A meta-analysis of the relationship between in vivo brain volume and intelligence, Intelligence, Volume 33, Issue 4, July-August 2005, Pages 337-346. [3]
  • Murray, Charles (1998). Income Inequality and IQ, AEI Press [4]PDF (3.23 MiB)
  • Nagoshi, C. T. & Johnson, R. C. (1986). "The ubiquity of g". Personality and Individual Differences 7: 201–207. 
  • Noguera, P.A. (2001). Racial politics and the elusive quest for excellence and equity in education. In Motion Magazine article
  • R. Plomin, J. C. DeFries, G. E. McClearn, M. Rutter, Behavioral Genetics (Freeman, New York, ed. 3, 1997).
  • Rushton, J.P. (1990). "Creativity, intelligence, and psychoticism". Personality and Individual Differences 11: 1291–1298. 
  • Snow, R. E., Kyllonen, P. C., & Marshalek, B. (1984). The topography of ability and learning correlations. In R. J. Sternberg (Ed.), Advances in the Psychology of Human Intelligence, Volume 2, (47-103). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
  • Terman, L. (1916). The Uses of Intelligence Tests.

Alfred Binet (July 11, 1857 – October 18, 1911), French psychologist and inventor of the first usable intelligence test, the basis of todays IQ test. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... “PDF” redirects here. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to... “PDF” redirects here. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to... “PDF” redirects here. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to... “PDF” redirects here. ... MiB redirects here. ... Jeff Hawkins (born June 1, 1957 in Huntington, New York) is the founder of Palm Computing (where he invented the Palm Pilot) [1] and Handspring (where he invented the Treo). ... For the Danish actor, see Arthur Jensen (actor). ... Charles Murray Charles Alan Murray (born 1943) is a controversial libertarian American political scientist. ... “PDF” redirects here. ... MiB redirects here. ... Professor J. Philippe Rushton John Philippe (Phil) Rushton (born December 3, 1943) is a psychology professor at the University of Western Ontario, Canada, who is most widely known for his work on intelligence and racial differences, particularly his book Race, Evolution And Behavior. ...

External links

Scholarly journals and societies “PDF” redirects here. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to...


  Results from FactBites:
 
MSN Encarta - Intelligence (1093 words)
Intelligence draws on a variety of mental processes, including memory, learning, perception, decision-making, thinking, and reasoning.
Most intelligence researchers define intelligence as what is measured by intelligence tests, but some scholars argue that this definition is inadequate and that intelligence is whatever abilities are valued by one’s culture.
In recent years, a number of theorists have argued that standard intelligence tests measure only a portion of the human abilities that could be considered aspects of intelligence.
Encyclopedia4U - Artificial intelligence - Encyclopedia Article (1774 words)
Approaches to artificial intelligence that do not focus on linguistic intelligence include robotics and collective intelligence approaches, which focus on active manipulation of an environment, or consensus decision making, and draw from biology and political science when seeking models of how "intelligent" behavior is organized.
Artificial intelligence theory also draws from animal studies, in particular with insects, which are easier to emulate as robots (see artificial life), as well as animals with more complex cognition.
Artificial intelligence began as an experimental field in the 1950s with such pioneers as Allen Newell and Herbert Simon, who founded the first artificial intelligence laboratory at Carnegie-Mellon University, and McCarthy and Minsky, who founded the MIT AI Lab in 1959.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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