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Encyclopedia > Intellectual movements in Iran
Dariush Shayegan.
Dariush Shayegan.

Intellectual movements in Iran involve the Iranian experience of modernism, through which Iranian modernity and its associated art, science, literature, poetry, and political structures have been evolving since the 19th century. Image File history File links Dariush_Shayegan. ... Image File history File links Dariush_Shayegan. ... Modernism is a term which covers a variety of political, cultural and artistic movements rooted in the changes in Western society at the end of the 19th century and beginning of the 20th century. ...

Contents

History of Persian modernity

Long before the European Renaissance generated the radical ideas that eventually reshaped Europe and the United States, Persian statesmen, artists, and intellectuals had formulated ideas that strikingly anticipate those of modernity. Since more than thousand years ago there has been a conflict in Persia between the search for modernity and the forces of religious obscurantism. Raphael was famous for depicting illustrious figures of the Classical past with the features of his Renaissance contemporaries. ...


Some twenty five hundred years ago, when Herodotus was writing his Histories, Persia was the West's ultimate other. Bust of Herodotus Herodotus of Halicarnassus (Greek: , Herodotos Halikarnasseus) was a Dorian Greek historian who lived in the 5th century BC (484 BC - ca. ...

Cyrus the Great
Cyrus the Great

It has been a common belief of scholars that modernity began in the West and is by its philosophical nature, economic underpinning, and cultural exigencies a uniquely western phenomenon. All other cultures, those who have lived on the darker side of Renaissance must emulate the Western experinece, if they want to be modern. From Max Weber to Milan Kundera, many Western scholars and writers have argued that everything from representative democracy and rational thought to the art of the novel and the essay are not only western in origin but also uniquely suited to its culture, and native to its temperature climes. Image File history File links Cyrus_portrait. ... Image File history File links Cyrus_portrait. ... Maximilian Weber (IPA: ) (April 21, 1864 – June 14, 1920) was a German political economist and sociologist who is considered one of the founders of the modern study of sociology and public administration. ... Milan Kundera Milan Kundera (born April 1, 1929 in Brno, Czechoslovakia) is a Franco-Czech writer. ...


Persia with its impressively rich and varied cultural legacy had a formative role in shaping Western consciousness. The Bible is replete with profuse praise for Persia and its kings. The Bible's praise for Cyrus was partially in recognition of his role in freeing the Jews from their Babylonian captivity; of equal importance was the fact that the vast Persian empire of the time was a paragon of religious and cultural tolerance. For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... The Bible (From Greek βιβλια—biblia, meaning books, which in turn is derived from βυβλος—byblos meaning papyrus, from the ancient Phoenician city of Byblos which exported papyrus) is the sacred scripture of Christianity. ... The name Cyrus (or Kourosh in Persian) may refer to: [[Cyrus I of Anshan]], King of Persia around 650 BC [[Cyrus II of Persia | Cyrus the Great]], King of Persia 559 BC - 529 BC — See also Cyrus in the Judeo-Christian tradition Cyrus the Younger, brother to the Persian king... Babylonia was an ancient state in Iraq), combining the territories of Sumer and Akkad. ... The Persian Empire was a series of historical empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau (Irān - Land of the Aryans) and beyond. ...


Hegel whose writings are considered by many as the apex of the Western philosophical tradition, uses superlatives in praising the role of Persia and Zarathustra in history. Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (August 27, 1770 - November 14, 1831) was a German philosopher born in Stuttgart, Württemberg, in present-day southwest Germany. ... Zarathustra can refer to one of two people: Zarathustra, also spelled Zarathushtra or Zoroaster, was an ancient Iranian prophet, founder of the Zoroastrian religion. ...


Hegel wrote his remarks around the time Nietzsche was writing his magnum opus, Thus Spoke Zarathustra. Nietzsche's book offers a radical critique, almost a total debunking, of the whole Western tradition of philosophy. It is no mere accident that Nietzsche chose to articulate his critical views in the name of Zarathustra. The end of 19th century was not the only or the last time Zarathustra played a prominent role in shaping Western consciousness and philosophic discourse. In 1990's Persian influences on the millennial fever, and on other New Age themes, were so strong that Harold Bloom, the eminent American critic, suggested that the last decade of the twentieth century should in truth be called a return to Zoroastrian origins. Friedrich Nietzsche, 1882 Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (October 15, 1844 - August 25, 1900) was a highly influential German philosopher. ... Harold Bloom, Literary Critic Dr. Harold Bloom (born July 11, 1930) is an American professor and prominent literary and cultural critic. ...


Western art, no less than history and theology, bear testimony to the ubiquity of the Persian presence in antiquity. Of all the extant works of Greek tragedy, for example, the only one that is about a non-Greek subject is Aeschylus' play The Persians. Bust of Aeschylus from the Capitoline Museums, Rome Aeschylus (525 BC—456 BC; Greek: Ασχύλος) was a playwright of Ancient Greece. ...


Generations of Iranian intellectualls

First generation

The nineteenth century Persian reformers whom we can consider as the first generation of Iranian intellectuals were perfectly conscious of the fact that it was not enough to rely upon the antiquity of Persian civilization to think about its continued ability to survive. They tried to establish a relationship with men of power that would have permitted them to dictate their blueprints for reforms. These blueprints naturally remained without immediate impact among the men of power to whom they were addressed. These intellectual reforms encountered a widespread opposition from the court and the Ulama.


Second generation

The second generation intended to introduce modern civilization to Persia, not only by imitating the West, but through a coherent and systematic approach to European culture. Mohammad Ali Furughi belongs to this generation.


Third generation

Abdolhossein Zarrinkoub.
Abdolhossein Zarrinkoub.

Very different from the second generation, perceived as the heir of the Enlightenment, the third generation of Iranian intellectuals was mainly influenced by the totalitarian outlook of Russian Marxism. With the popularity of Marxist ideology among the third generation of Iranian intellectuals, the new culture for translation and knowledge of modernity was drawn inevitably toward moral and political absolutes. Intellectuals claimed to be "givers of lessons" and acted as "moral legislators" who were critics of both the state and the society. Image File history File links Abdolhossein_Zarrinkoub. ...


Fourth generation

Fourth generation of Iranian intellectuals are mainly characterized by the journals such as Goftegu and Kiyan. In contrast with the ideological generation of Iranian intellectuals who in their encounter with the western modernity favoured a monistic attitude exemplified by Marxist and Heideggerian philosophies, the Fourth Generation of Iranian intellectuals decided on a move away and a critical distanciation from master ideologies. The methodological position of the new generation of Iranian intellectuals is characterized by two main philosophical attitudes: the extension of an anti-utopian thinking on an intersubjective basis on the one hand, and the urge for a non-imitative dialogical exchange with the modern values of the West on the other.


Modern art movement

See main article Modern and Contemporary Art in Iran A cursory glance at the history of art reveals the social, political and economic conditions have always played a major role in the emergence of new artistic currents and styles. ...


Iranian experience and development of modernity led to a unique style of cinema, painting and music. Iranian New wave, a movement in Iranian cinema, has found worldwide reputation due to its deeply Philosophical, poetic and artistic style. Abbas Kiarostami is the most notable figure in the New wave of Iranian cinema. In the artistic and esthetic realm, features of New wave of Persian cinema, for example the works of Abbas Kiarostami, can be classified as postmodern. Iranian cinema (or Persian cinema), which has won thousands of International film awards, has become one of the most renowned in the world. ... Abbas Kiarostami (عباس کیارستمی in Persian) (born June 22, 1940 in Tehran) is one of the most influential and controversial post-revolutionary Iranian filmmakers and one of the most highly celebrated directors in the international film community of the last decade. ...


Modern poetry

See main article Persian poetry Persian literature is literature written in Persian, or by Persians in other languages. ...

Sadegh Hedayat
Sadegh Hedayat

Modern Persian poerty came to existence after Nima Yushij. Notable figures are: Image File history File links Sadeq_Hedayat. ...

External links Biography of Nima Yooshij Categories: People stubs | Iranian poets ... Ahmad shamlou Ahmad Shamlou (احمد شاملو in Persian; December 12, 1925 — July 24, 2000) was an Iranian poet, writer, and journalist. ... Mehdi Akhavan-Sales (also -Saless) (مهدی اخ&#امید) was a prominent Persian poet. ... Fereydoon Moshiri (Born 1926, Tehran, Iran) was one of most prominent contemporary Persian poets. ... Sohrab Sepehri (Persian: ‎ transliterated: ) (October 7, 1928 - April 21, 1980) was a popular modern Iranian poet and painter. ... Mohammad Reza Shafiei-Kadkani (Born 1939, Neishabour, Iran) is a celebrated Persian writer, poet, literary critic, editor and translator. ... Forooghs tomb is located in Darband, Shemiran, Tehran. ... Simin Behbahani (in Persian: سیمین بهبهانی; born in 1927, Tehran, Iran) is an Iranian poetess. ... Bijan Jalali (Born 1927 Tehran Iran) is one of outstanding figures in the history of modern persian poetry. ...

Modern literary movement

See main article Persian literature Persian literature (in Persian: ) spans two and a half millennia, though much of the pre-Islamic material has been lost. ...


Literary criticism and comparative literature in Iran entered a new phase in 19th century. Persian literature enjoyed the emergence of influential figures as Sadegh Hedayat, Ahmad Kasravi, Abdolhossein Zarrinkoub, Shahrokh Meskoob, Ebrahim Golestan and Sadegh Choubak. Persian literature (in Persian: ) spans two and a half millennia, though much of the pre-Islamic material has been lost. ... Sadegh (or Sadeq) Hedayat (in Persian: صادق هدایت), is Irans foremost modern writer of prose fiction and short stories. ... Ahmad Kasravi Tabrizi (b. ... ... Shahrokh Meskoob(Born 1924 Babol, Iran) was an outstanding Persian writer, translator, scholar and University professor. ... Ebrahim Golestan is an Iranian filmmaker and literary figure, with a career spanning half a century. ... Sadeq Chubak (August 5, 1916, Bushehr - July 3, 1998 , Berkeley , California) also spelled Sadiq Chubak author of short fiction, drama, and novels, one of the leading 20th-century writers of Iran. ...


Modern scientific movement

See main article Iranian science and Iranian contemporary medicine To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... A novel surgical method developed by G.R. Pourmand et. ...


The history of modern science in Iran dates back to the year 1851 and the establishment of Darolfonoon – which was founded as a result of the efforts of Mirza Taghi Khan Amir Kabir, aiming at training and teaching Iranian experts on many fields of sciences, and it was the future minded Abbas Mirza who first dispatched students to Europe to obtain a western education. [1] Daralfonoon (Persian دار الفنون), established 1851 was the first modern institution of higher learning in Iran. ... Amir Kabir (امیرکبیر in Persian), also known as Mirza Taghi Khan Amir_Nezam (میرزا تقی‌خان امیرنظام), was the chancellor of Persia under Nasereddin Shah. ... Abbas Mirza (عباس میرزا in Persian) ‎(August 26, 1789 - October 25, 1833), was a crown prince of Persia, known because of his wars with Russia and the Ottoman empire, and his death before his father, the shah. ...

M.M Sheikh-Jabbari's highly cited paper in high energy physics
M.M Sheikh-Jabbari's highly cited paper in high energy physics

By the establishment of Tehran University, science in Iran entered a new phase. Mahmoud Hessaby, Ali Asghar Hekmat, Moslem Bahadori and many others played roles in initiating and forming these movements. The outcome of the movement has been the emergence of researchers who have been trained and received doctorate degrees in the country and have found international reputations. A few of these scientists are: Ahmad Reza Dehpour, Reza Malekzadeh, Mohammad Khorrami, Vahid Karimipour and M.M. Sheikh-Jabbari. Image File history File linksMetadata Jabbari_most_cited_paper. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Jabbari_most_cited_paper. ... Mahmoud Hessaby (in Persian محمود حسابی - other spellings: Mahmood Hesabi) (1903 -- September 3, 1992) was a prominent Persian scientist, researcher and professor of the University of Tehran. ... Moslem Bahadori (Born 1927, Tonekabon, Iran) is a contemporary Persian Medical Scientist, Pathologist and University lecturer. ... Ahmad Reza Dehpour (Born 1948 in Iran) is a Persian pharmacologist and biomedical scienist. ... Reza Malekzadeh (Born 1952, Fars province, Iran) is an Iranian (Persian) medical scientist and gastroentrologist. ... Mohammad Khorrami is a contemporary Persian theoretical physicist. ...


Modernization of Iranian medicine did not occur through the straightforward replacement of traditional Persian medicine by modern European medicine. Rather, the integration of modern medicine went through a long process that included both the reinterpretation of traditional theories by traditional physicians and the assimilation of modern theories through the prism of traditional medicine.[1]


One of the main Iranian scientific movements in late 20th century was in the filed of chemistry and pharmaceutical chemistry. The main leaders of this movement were Abbas Shafiee, Bijan Farzami, Mohammad-Nabi Sarbolouki, Issa Yavari and Ahmad Reza Dehpour. The movement resulted in hundreds of research papers in peer reviewed international journals. Chemistry (from Greek χημεία khemeia meaning alchemy, see below for possible origins of this word) is the science of matter at the atomic to molecular scale, dealing primarily with collections of atoms (such as molecules, crystals, and metals). ... Abbas Shafiee (born 1937 Iran) is a notable Iranian (Persian) pharmaceutical chemist and one of the leading figures in Irans scientific movement in 20th century. ... Ahmad Reza Dehpour (Born 1948 in Iran) is a Persian pharmacologist and biomedical scienist. ...


Other notable figures who promoted world-class research in Iran during 20th century are: Reza Mansouri and Yousof Sobouti (Physics), Abolhassan Farhoudi (Immunology), Mohammad Reza Zarrindast (Pharmacology), Fereydoon Davachi (Rheumatology), Ardeshir Ghavamzadeh (Hematology) , Ali Radmehr (Radiology), Hossein Najmabadi (Medical genetics), Hormoz Shams (Ophthalmology), Moslem Bahadori (Pathology), Hormoz Dabirashrafi (Obstetrics and Gynecology), Hossein Estaki (Neuroscience), G.R. Baradaran Khosroshahi (Mathematics), Siavash Alamouti, Vahid Tarokh, Lotfi A. Zadeh , Caro Lucas (Electrical Engg., AI, and Cognitive Science), and Ali Kaveh (Civil Engg.). Mohammad Reza Zarrindast is a notable Persian pharmacologist and biomedical researcher. ... Moslem Bahadori (Born 1927, Tonekabon, Iran) is a contemporary Persian Medical Scientist, Pathologist and University lecturer. ... Siavash Alamouti is an Intel Fellow who is best known for the invention of the Alamouti space-time code disclosed jointly with Vahid Tarokh in the US patent (# 6,185,258) . Alamouti code is a 2 transmit antenna space-time block code and has been adapted in various global standards. ... Vahid Tarokh is a Persian Canadian scientist with fundamental contributions to telecommunication, specifically to signal processing for wireless communications. ... Lotfi Asker Zadeh (born February 4, 1921 in Baku, Azerbaijan as Lotfi Aliaskerzadeh) created fuzzy sets and fuzzy logic in 1965. ... Caro Lucas received the M.S. degree from the University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran in 1973 and the Ph. ...


Iran's university population has swelled from 100,000 in 1979 to 2 million in 2006. Indeed, in Iran some 70% of science and engineering students are women.[2]


Iranian women's movement

See also: Iranian women's movement Iranian womens movement ( also called Persian womens movement ) involves the Iranian womens experience of modernism, through which the concept of Modern Iranian woman and its associated art, science, literature, poetry, and political structures have been evolving since the 19th century. ...

The women's movement in modern Iran is nearly 150 years old.
The women's movement in modern Iran is nearly 150 years old.

The presence of women in Iranian intellectual movements (science, modern literature, cinema, human-rights activism, etc.) has been remarkable throughout the history of modern Iran. According to the research ministry of Iran, women accounted for 56% of all university students in the natural sciences, including one in five Ph.D. students. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (561x601, 78 KB) Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (561x601, 78 KB) Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... A Persian woman here as depicted during the Safavi period of Iran. ...


In cinema and the visual arts, Tahmineh Milani, Rakhshan Bani Etemad, and Samira Makhmalbaf created new cinematic styles which have attracted many from all over the world and in international festivals. Image:Makhmalbaf-samira. ...


Persian poet and literary figure Simin Behbahani was nominated for 1997 Nobel Prize for literature. The 2003 Nobel Peace Prize went to Shirin Ebadi for her efforts for democracy and human rights, especially for the rights of women and children. Simin Behbahani (in Persian: سیمین بهبهانی; born in 1927, Tehran, Iran) is an Iranian poetess. ... Catherine Zeta Jones congratulating Shirin Ebadi at the Nobel Peace Prize concert in Oslo, December 11 2003. ...


Simin Daneshvar's Savushun is a novel about the Iranian experience of modernity during the 20th century. Iranian writer and satirist, Bibi Khatoon Astarabadi was perhaps the first professional female satirist, critic and one of the notable figures involved in Persian constitutional revolution. Simin Daneshvar ( سیمین دانشور ;in Persian) ( 1921) was an Iranian novelist and translator . ... Bibi Khatoon Astarabadi was a notable Persian writer, satirist, and one of the pioneering figures in Iranian womens movement. ...


In early 20th century, Persian music enjoyed the emergence of Qamar ol-Molouk Vaziri, the "Lady of Iranian music". Qamar ol-Molouk Vaziri (1905 , Kashan - August 5, 1959 , Tehran) is Irans Lady of Persian Music, prominent vocalist and intellectual. ...


Historical landmarks

Persian constitutional revolution

Persia had undergone a phenomenal constitutional revolution at the turn of the twentieth century. The constitutional movement was concerned with modernity and human rights. It led to the establishment of a parliament in Persia. The Persian Constitutional Revolution (also Constitutional Revolution of Iran) against the despotic rule of the last Qajar Shah started in 1905 and lasted until 1911. ... States currently utilizing parliamentary systems are denoted in orange and red—the former being constitutional monarchies where authority is vested in a parliament, and the latter being parliamentary republics whose parliaments are effectively supreme over a separate head of state. ...


Iranian Revolution

Some researchers believe that the Iranian Revolution was not a simple clash between modernity and tradition but an attempt to accommodate modernity within a sense of authentic Islamic identity, culture and historical experience. [3] Perceived by many as a revolt against the secular modernity of the West, Iranian revolution was welcomed by some Western thinkers as a triumph of spiritual values over the profane world of capitalist materialism. For others the Iranian revolution was a protest against the very political rationality of the modern era. [4] Protestors take to the street in support of Ayatollah Khomeini. ...


2nd of Khordad movement

see main article: 2nd of Khordad Movement Second of Khordad Movement refers to a movement started by 6th presidental election in Iran. ...


The election of President Mohammad Khatami in May 1997 was through the emergence of a new political force -- youth -- inspired by simultaneously individualist and democratic ideals that are incompatible in every respect with the authoritarian values and symbols traditionally associated in the Iranian intellectual arena with Marxist and Heideggerian World views. It is in this new social atmosphere that the emergence of a global community or a cyberpolis was able to reveal to the Iranian youth the true nature of instrumental rationality as modern universal standards. Saeed Hajjarian was widely believed to be the main strategist behind the 1997 reform movement of Iran. He allegedly showed the supremacy of politics as such over any religious norm when he said that the survival of the Islamic Republic was paramount and that no religious ritual should stand in its way. This kind of decision, he states, means that politics are more important than religion and that this acknowledges the secularization of religion. In this context, he argues, it is possible to reassess velayat faqih and to reject its supremacy within the political field in Iran. While calling to build a new reform movement, Hajjarian believes that the reform movement started in 1997, died during Khatami's second term. He believes that the reform project started by Persian constitutional revolution, has not been completed yet. Seyyed Mohammad Khatami (Persian : سید محمد خاتمی), born September 29, 1943 in Ardakan city of Yazd province, is an Iranian intellectual, philosopher and political figure. ... Hajjarian, a former secret agent, was widely believed to be the main strategist behind the 1997 reform movement of Iran Hajjarian was shot in the head on the doorsteps of Tehran city council in March 2000 Hajjarian escaped almost certain death, but he has been paralyzed for life. ... Secularization is a contentious term because the concept of secularization can be confused with secularism, a philosophical and political movement that promotes the idea that society benefits by being less religious, whereas the opposing view is that the values and beliefs implicit in religions support a more moral and, therefore... Guardianship of the Jurisprudents or Trusteeship of the Jurisconsults (Arabic: ولاية الفقيه Wilayat al-Faqih, Persian: Velayat-e-Faqih) is a Shia Twelver doctrine regarding Islamic leadership // Definition According to it, those most knowledgeable about Islamic law (Shariah) should assume a guiding or leading political role in society. ...


Intellectual circles in late 20th century

Some leading figures of Iranian literary intellectuals: (L to R) Morteza Keyvan, Ahmad Shamlou, Nima Yooshij, Siavash Kasraie, and Hushang Ebtehaj.
Some leading figures of Iranian literary intellectuals: (L to R) Morteza Keyvan, Ahmad Shamlou, Nima Yooshij, Siavash Kasraie, and Hushang Ebtehaj.

Intellectual circles in postrevolutionary Iran can be classified into the following categories: Image File history File linksMetadata Roshanfekran_e_Iran. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Roshanfekran_e_Iran. ... Ahmad shamlou Ahmad Shamlou (احمد شاملو in Persian; December 12, 1925 — July 24, 2000) was an Iranian poet, writer, and journalist. ... Nima Tammam (Persian) (November 12, 1897 - January 6, 1959) shortly called Nima), born Ali Esfandiari (Persian: علی اسفندیاری), was a contemporary Persian poet who started the she’r-e no (new poem) also known as she’r-e nimaai (nimaai poem) trend in Iran. ... Siavosh Kasrai (1927 , Isfahan - 1997 , Vienna) Kasrai graduated from Tehran University, Faculty of Law. ... Hushang Ebtehaj (هوشنگ ابتهاج), with the pen name of Sayeh (ه‍. ا. سایه) is an eminent Iranian poet of the 20th century, whose life and work spans Irans political, cultural and literary upheavals. ...

Revolutionary intellectual circles

The main figures in this category are Ali Shariati, Jalal Al Ahmad and Morteza Motahhari. Ali Shariati was the main theorist and thinker behind Iranian revolution. He is considered to be one of the most influential philosophical leaders of pre-revolutionary Iran and the impact and popularity of his thought continues to be felt throughout Iranian society many years later. He died unexpectedly one year before the revolution. Dr. Ali Shariati (Persian: علی شريعتی‎) (1933–1977) was an Iranian sociologist, well known and respected for his works in the field of sociology of religion. ... Jalal Al-e-Ahmad (December 2, 1923- September 9, 1969) was an Iranian writer, and social and political critic. ... Ayatollah Morteza Motahhari (مرتضی مطهری; February 3, 1920 – May 1, 1979) was an Iranian scholar, cleric, professor, and politician. ...


Reformist intellectual circles

Main figures in this category are Mehdi Bazargan, Abdolkarim Soroush, Mohammad Mojtahed Shabestari, Mostafa Malekian, Ehsan Naraghi, Mohsen Kadivar, Alireza Alavitabar and Hossein Bashiriyeh. Mehdi Bazargan (مهدی بازرگان In Persian) (September, 1907? - January 20, 1995) (also spelled Mahdi Bazargan) was head of Irans interim government, virtually Irans first prime minister after the Iranian Revolution of 1979. ... Image:Soroush. ... Mohammad Mojtahed Shabestari (b. ... Mostafa Malekian (Born in Iran), is a prominent Persian (Iranian) philosopher and thinker. ... Dr Ehsan Naraghi (Persian: احسان نراقی) is an Iranian sociologist and writer. ... Mohsen Kadivar Mohsen Kadivar (محسن کدیور, born June 7, 1959) is an Iranian Islamic philosopher, Shia cleric and activist. ... Alireza Alavitabar is an outstanding Persian political scientist and a leading Iranian reformist intellectual and writer Alireza Alavitabar is a member of Islamic Iran Participation Front and the editor of the Sobh-e-Emrooz newspaper. ... Hossein Bashiriyeh is a professor of political science at Tehran University. ...


The unifying traits of these intellectuals include their recognition of reform in the Islamic thought, democracy, civil society and religious pluralism and their opposition to the absolute supremacy of the Faqih. The rise of religious intellectuals can be followed through the writings of Abdolkarim Soroosh. Soroosh’s main idea is that there are perennial unchanging religious truths, but our understanding of them remains contingent on our knowledge in the fields of science and philosophy. Unlike Ali Shariati, who turned to Marxism to bring a historicist perspective to the Shiite thought, Soroosh debates the relation between democracy and religion and discusses the possibility of what he calls religious democracy. A Faqih is an expert in fiqh, or, Islamic jurisprudence. ...


Influenced by Persian mysticism, Soroush advocated a type of reformist Islam that went beyond most liberal Muslim thinkers of the 20th century and argued that the search for reconciliation of Islam and democracy was not a matter of simply finding appropriate phrases in the Qur'an that were in agreement with modern science, democracy, or human rights. Drawing on the works of Molana Jalaleddin Balkhi, Immanuel Kant, G.W.F. Hegel, Karl Popper, and Erich Fromm, Soroush called for a reexamination of all tenets of Islam, insisting on the need to maintain the religion's original spirit of social justice and its emphasis on caring for other people.[5] Jalal al-Din Muhammad Rumi or Jalal al-Din Muhammad Balkhi Rumi (also known as Mowlavi or Moulana, meaning my guide in Iran, Central and South Asia or Mevlana meaning our guide in Turkey) (September 30, 1207 - December 17, 1273 CE) was a Persian poet and Sufi mystic, who was... Immanuel Kant (22 April 1724 – 12 February 1804), was a German philosopher from Königsberg in East Prussia (now Kaliningrad, Russia). ... Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (August 27, 1770 - November 14, 1831) was a German philosopher born in Stuttgart, Württemberg, in present-day southwest Germany. ... Sir Karl Raimund Popper, CH, MA, Ph. ... Erich Fromm Erich Fromm (March 23, 1900 – March 18, 1980) was an internationally renowned German-American psychologist and humanistic philosopher. ...


Other influential figures in these circles are Ali Paya, Saeed Hajjarian, Ahmad Sadri, Mahmoud Sadri, Ezzatollah Sahabi, Ahmad Ghabel and Hassan Yousefi Eshkevari. Akbar Ganji had also been associated with this circle before he published his Manifest of Republicanism. Moreover Akbar Ganji took a tour around the world in order to invite non Iranian intellectuals to join Iran's intellectual movement. Many Persian scholars believe that such interactions with world scholars would promote Iranian intellectualism and democratic reform. Richard Rorty, Noam Chomsky, Anthony Giddens, David Hild, Shmuel Noah Eisenstadt among a few others accepted the honorary membership of Iranian intellectual society. Ali Paya is a contemporary Iranian philosopher and writer. ... Hajjarian, a former secret agent, was widely believed to be the main strategist behind the 1997 reform movement of Iran Hajjarian was shot in the head on the doorsteps of Tehran city council in March 2000 Hajjarian escaped almost certain death, but he has been paralyzed for life. ... Ezzatollah Sahabi (Born 1930 in Tehran, Iran) is a Persian politician, former minister and former Parliament member. ... Ahmad Ghabel or Ahmad Qabel is a Persian theologian Seminary lecturer, researcher and author. ... Akbar Ganji, on the day of his release Akbar Ganji (Persian: اکبر گنجی , born 31 January 1960 in Qazvin) is an Iranian journalist and writer. ... Richard McKay Rorty (born October 4, 1931 in New York City) is an American philosopher. ... Noam Chomsky Avram Noam Chomsky (born December 7, 1928) is the Institute Professor Emeritus of linguistics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. ... Anthony Giddens in 2000. ... Shmuel Noah Eisenstadt (b. ...


Perhaps the most important achievement of this circle was training a new generation of Iranian intellectuals who are far ahead of their mentors and do not belong to any of well-established intellectual circles in Iran. Ahmad Zeidabadi and Mehdi Jami belong to this new generation of Persian scholars. Ahmad Zeidabadi is a notable Iranian journalist and political analyst. ... Mehdi Jami is a notable Persian (Iranian) journalist, Photographer, Filmmaker and writer. ...


Democratic religious circles

International conference on religion and modernity (Tehran 2006)
International conference on religion and modernity (Tehran 2006)

These groups are characterized by the followings: Image File history File links Religion_and_modernity. ... Image File history File links Religion_and_modernity. ...

The main thinker and theorist of this circle is Mohammad Khatami, former president of Iran. Other notable figures include Yousef Sanei, Abdollah Noori, Mir Hossein Mousavi and Mostafa Moin. They are mainly under the influence of ideas of Ayatollah Mirza Hossein Na'eeni and Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini. A form of government is a colloquial term that refers to the set of political institutions by which a state is organized in order to exert its powers over a political community [1] Note that this definition holds valid even if the government is illegitimate or if it is unsuccessful... Liberalism is an ideology, philosophical view, and political tradition which holds that liberty is the primary political value. ... Secularity is the state of being free from religious or spiritual qualities. ... Civil society or civil institutions refers to the totality of voluntary civic and social organizations or institutions which form the basis of a functioning society as opposed to the force backed structures of a state (regardless of that states political system). ... Ethics (from the Ancient Greek ethikos, meaning arising from habit), a major branch of philosophy, is the study of value or quality. ... Politics is the process by which groups make decisions. ... Seyyed Mohammad Khatami (Persian : سید محمد خاتمی), born September 29, 1943 in Ardakan city of Yazd province, is an Iranian intellectual, philosopher and political figure. ... Ayatollah al-Udhma Yousof al-Sanei is a Grand Marja of Shia Islam. ... Abdollah Noori (عبدالله نوری) was the Iranian Minister of Interior for four years in President Hashemi Rafsanjani cabinet. ... Mir-Hossein Mousavi (میرحسین موسوی) (born 1941?) was the Prime Minister of Iran from 1981 to 1988, at the time of Ali Khameneis presidency. ... Mostafa Moin, M.D. (مصطفی معین; born March 31, 1951 in Najaf Abad), is an Iranian politician, currently an Advisor to the President of Iran. ...


Neo-conservative intellectual circles

Unlike the reformist intellectuals, the neo- conservative intellectuals in Iran are in favor of the supremacy of the Leader and against concepts such as democracy, civil society and pluralism. This movement includes figures such as Reza Davari Ardakani, Javad Larijani and Mehdi Golshani. The famous personality among these is Reza Davari Ardakani, who as an anti- Western philosopher is very familiar with the works of Martin Heidegger. Davari, unlike Soroosh, takes some of the features of Heidegger’s thought, mainly the critic of modernity and puts it into an Islamic wording. He rejects the Western model of democracy, which is based on the separation of politics and religion. Reza Davari Ardakani (Born 1933 Ardakan) is an Iranian philosopher and University lecturer. ... External links Larijanis information page on IPM website Categories: People stubs | Iranian clerics | Iranian Majlis Representatives | Iranian scientists ... Mehdi Golshani Professor Mehdi Golshani (born 1939 Isfahan, Iran) is a contemporary Persian theroretical physicists and Philosopher. ... Martin Heidegger (September 26, 1889 – May 26, 1976), German philosopher, attempted to reorient Western philosophy away from metaphysical and epistemological and toward ontological questions, that is, questions concerning the meaning of being, or what it means to be. Heidegger also challenged the idea of phenomenology as defined by his teacher...


Non religious intellectual circles

Main figures in this category are Javad Tabatabaei, Dariush Shayegan, Amir Hossein Aryanpour, Ramin Jahanbegloo, Abbas Milani and Aramesh Doustdar. Javad Tabatabaei is a Persian philosopher and a distinguished university professor. ... Dariush Shayegan is one of Irans prominent thinkers and one of the contemporary worlds most influential cultural theorists and comparative philosophers. ... Amir Hossein Aryanpour(Born in 1924 Tehran) was a notable Persian philosopher, sociologist and literary figure. ... Dr. Ramin Jahanbegloo Dr. Ramin Jahanbegloo (Persian: رامین جهانبگلو , born 1961 in Tehran) is an Iranian political philosopher and a university professor. ... Abbas Milani is a contemporary persian historian, Iranologist and author. ... Aramesh Doustdar (Born in Tehran) is an Iranian writer, scholar and a former philosophy lecturer at Tehran University. ...


Javad Tabtabaei deplores the deep roots of religion in the Iranian culture. For Tabatabai, the decline of the Iranian political thought goes back to the 9th and 10th centuries and, since then, it has been impossible for them to adequately understand the modernity. The social sciences, according to him, have been introduced in Iran without the secularization of thought and its rationalization and therefore, they reproduce in an unconscious way the ancient prejudices and the inability to think adequately.

Shahrokh Meskoob.
Shahrokh Meskoob.

Dariush Shayegan criticizes a view of religion that does not take into account the major trends of the modern world where cultural homogeneity and religious absolutism are questioned. The quest for a holistic identity based on a monolithic view of Islam is alien to the evolution of modern world and means the isolation and regression of the (Iranian) society. Image File history File links Shahrokh_Meskoob. ...


Dariush Shayegan, who writes mainly in French (but has been extensively translated into Persian), shares some of the views of these particular intellectuals, but his major contribution is to invite Iranians to accept the ‘‘fragmented identity’’ of the modern world and to renounce a unitary view of the Self which leads to a fascination with utopian and mythological ideologies. He insists that, since Iran has undergone the change directly from tradition to postmodernity without the mediation of modernity, it is experiencing a strong malaise. His solution is to open up Iran to the new multicultural world in which one has to accept the diversity of the perspectives and, therefore, to be tolerant towards others who do not think and behave in the same way as the Self. This invitation to become open-minded and to give up the idea of a homogeneous culture exerts an undeniable influence on many young people in Iran.


Traditional scholars

The most notable circle was associated with Hossein Nasr, founder of Imperial Iranian Academy of Philosophy. For Nasr, the traditional world was pervaded by a tremendous sense of the Sacred and the Absolute, whereas the inception of modernity involved precisely the severing off of that awareness, resulting in what Max Weber would later dub the disenchantment of the world. Nasr has been an unrelenting opponent of Islamic fundamentalism in all its forms throughout his career because he sees it as a somewhat vigilante reactionary movement operating within the paradigm of the modern nation state, but even more so, because it lacks a well thought out metaphysical basis rooted in a traditional Muslim understanding of the world which respects both nature and human dignity. Nasr is an internationally acclaimed scholar [1]. Seyyed Hossein Nasr, (Persian: سيد حسين نصر) A lifelong student and follower of Frithjof Schuon, Persian philosopher and renowned scholar of comparative religion, is a prominent authority in the fields of Islamic esoterism, sufism, philosophy of science, and metaphysics. ... Imperial Iranian Academy of Philosophy (in Persian: انجمن شاهنشاهی فلسفه ایران) was founded in Iran during the Pahlavi era by Seyyed Hossein Nasr, a Professor of History of Science and Philosophy at Tehran University who also served for several years as President of Aryamehr University of Technology in Iran. ...


Other notable figures

There are several intellectual figures who continue to be very influential in Iranian society, while they do not belong to any of the above mentioned philosophical circles:

  • Daryoush Ashouri (prominent scholar, linguist and cultural theorist)
  • Arash Naraghi (prominent scholar, Philosopher on ethics and religion) [6]
  • Masoud Behnoud (prominent journalist and writer)
  • Khosrow Naghed (prominent expert on Iranian culture and philosophy)
  • Hamid Dabashi (prominent expert on contemporary Iran, Iranian art and cinema)
  • Hossein Elahi Ghomshei (prominent expert on Iranian mysthical thoughts)
  • Mousa Ghaninejad (senior Iranian economist)
  • Farhad Nomani (senior economist, former lecturer at Tehran University and writer of the book: Class and Labor in Iran)
  • Sohrab Behdad (senior economist, former lecturer at Tehran University and writer of the book: Class and Labor in Iran)
  • Amir Attaran lawyer and immunologist; expert on public health and global development issues.

Daryoush Ashouri ( born August 2, 1938 Tehran) a prominent Iranian thinker, author, translator, researcher, and public intellectual. ... Category: ... Massoud Behnoud Massoud Behnoud, (مسعود بهنود in Persian) a prominent Iranian journalist and writer, was born on July 27, 1947 in Tehran. ... Khosrow Naghed (Persian: خسرو ناقد, born 1950 Shiraz) is a notable Persian scholar, Iranologist and linguist. ... Hamid Dabashi is a American intellectual historian, cultural and literary critic best known for his research on Iran and Shia Islam. ... Hossein Elahi Ghomshei 2006 Dr. Hossein Mohyeddin Elahi Ghomshei known as (Elahi Ghomshei) (In Persian حسین محی الدین الهی قمشه ای ), is an Iranian world renowned scholar, author and lecturer on Persian literature and Islamic mysticism. ... Mousa Ghaninejad (Born in Iran) is a senior Iranian economist and a faculty member at the Oil Industry University. ...

Philosophy education in Iran

Philosophy has become a popular subject of study during last few decades in Iran. Comparing the number of philosophy books currently published in Iran with that in other countries, Iran possibly ranks first in this field but it is definitely on top in terms of publishing philosophy books. [7]


References

  1. ^ Patrick Clawson and Michael Rubin. Eternal Iran. Palgrave Macmillan. 2005. ISBN 1-4039-6276-6 p.34
  • Abbas Milani, Lost Wisdom: Rethinking Modernity in Iran, Mage Publishers, (2004). ISBN 0-934211-90-6.
  • The fourth generation of Iranian intellectuals, Ramin Jahanbegloo, (2000). [8]
  • Secularism, national identity, and the role of the intellectual, by Ramin Jahanbegloo, (2005). [9]
  • Ramin Jahanbegloo, Iranian intellectuals: from revolution to dissent. [10]
  • Farhad Khosrokhavar, The New Intellectuals in Iran, Social Compass, Vol. 51, No. 2, 191-202 (2004)
  • Afshin Matin-asgari, Iranian postmodernity: the rhetoric of irrationality?, Critique: Critical Middle Eastern Studies, Volume 13, Number 1 / Spring (2004).
  • Gheissari, Ali. Iranian Intellectuals in the 20th Century. Austin University of Texas Press, 1998.

Patrick Clawson is the Deputy Director for Research at the Washington Institute for Near East Policy and resident scholar at the American Enterprise Institute. ... Michael Rubin is a resident scholar at the American Enterprise Institute and editor of the Middle East Quarterly. ...

See also

Hoseiniyeh Ershad, where Ali Shariati used to hold many of his speeches.
Hoseiniyeh Ershad, where Ali Shariati used to hold many of his speeches.

Image File history File links Hoseiniyeh_Ershad. ... Image File history File links Hoseiniyeh_Ershad. ... The main facade of the center, facing Shariati Ave. ... Dr. Ali Shariati (Persian: علی شريعتی‎) (1933–1977) was an Iranian sociologist, well known and respected for his works in the field of sociology of religion. ... Intellectual history means either: the history of intellectuals, or: the history of the people who create, discuss, write about and in other ways propagate ideas. ... The history of philosophy tracks the multitudinous theories which aim at some kind of understanding, knowledge or wisdom on fundamental matters as diverse as reality, knowledge, meaning, value, being and truth. ... The history of ideas is a field of research in history and in related fields dealing with the expression, preservation, and change of human ideas over time. ... A cursory glance at the history of art reveals the social, political and economic conditions have always played a major role in the emergence of new artistic currents and styles. ... Iranian cinema (or Persian cinema), which has won thousands of International film awards, has become one of the most renowned in the world. ... Persian literature (in Persian: ) spans two and a half millennia, though much of the pre-Islamic material has been lost. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Iranian philosophy can be traced back as far as to Old Iranian philosophical traditions and thoughts which originated in ancient Indo-Iranian roots and were considerably influenced by Zarathustras teachings. ... The Isfahan School (Persian: مكتب اصفهان ) is a well known discipline in Islamic philosophy and is usually called a Renaissance in Islamic Philosophy. ...

External links

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