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Encyclopedia > Intellectual history

Intellectual history means either:

  1. the history of intellectuals, or:
  2. the history of the people who create, discuss, write about and in other ways propagate ideas. This includes not only western intellectual traditions, but those in the far east, near east, mid-east and Africa as well.

Intellectual history differs from the history of philosophy and the history of ideas, although these fields are closely related and often overlap. Its central perspective suggests that ideas do not change in isolation from the people who create and use them and that we must study the culture, lives and environments of people to understand their notions and ideas. HIStory: Past, Present And Future - Book 1 was a double-disc album by Michael Jackson released in 1995. ... An intellectual is a person who uses his or her intellect to study, reflect, or speculate on a variety of different ideas. ... An idea (Greek: ιδέα) is a specific concept which arises in the mind of a person as a result of thought. ... The history of philosophy tracks the multitudinous theories which aim at some kind of understanding, knowledge or wisdom on fundamental matters as diverse as reality, knowledge, meaning, value, being and truth. ... The history of ideas is a field of research in history and in related fields dealing with the expression, preservation, and change of human ideas over time. ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Culture The neutrality of this article is disputed. ...

Contents


Western intellectual history

The social/intellectual context in the writings of western European history includes: HIStory: Past, Present And Future - Book 1 was a double-disc album by Michael Jackson released in 1995. ...


The Enlightenment - human rights, new science, democracy (scholarly sources Kant, Dilthey). ... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ... Immanuel Kant Immanuel Kant (April 22, 1724 – February 12, 1804) was a Prussian philosopher, generally regarded as one of Europes most influential thinkers and the last major philosopher of the Enlightenment. ... Wilhelm Dilthey Wilhelm Dilthey (November 19, 1833–October 1, 1911) was a German historian, psychologist, sociologist, student of Hermeneutics, the study of interpretations and meanings, and a philosopher. ...


The Royal Society - a secular creation of an intellectual world led by figures such as Newton, Robert Hooke, Christopher Wren, Joseph Addison, Bishop Sprat. The Royal Society of London is claimed to be the oldest learned society still in existence and was founded in 1660. ... The newton (symbol: N) is the SI unit of force. ... A portrait, claimed by historian Lisa Jardine to be of Robert Hooke Robert Hooke, FRS (July 18, 1635 - March 3, 1703), one of the greatest experimental scientists of the seventeenth century, played an important role in the scientific revolution. ... Christopher Wren by Godfrey Kneller, 1711. ... Joseph Addison, the Kit-cat portrait, circa 1703–1712, by Godfrey Kneller. ...


The Encyclopaedists - the creation of central repositories of knowledge available to all outside of academies, including mass market encyclopaedias and dictionaries: Diderot, Samuel Johnson, Voltaire. The term encyclopedist is usually used for a group of French philosophers who collaborated in the 18th century in the production of the Encyclopédie, under the direction of Denis Diderot. ... Denis Diderot Denis Diderot (October 5, 1713 - July 31, 1784) was a French writer and philosopher. ... Samuel Johnson circa 1772, painted by Sir Joshua Reynolds. ... The last of Voltaires statues by Jean-Antoine Houdon (1781). ...


Romanticism - individual, subjective, imaginative, personal, visonary (scholarly sources Carlyle, Rousseau, Hook, Herder). This article is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... The most familiar view of Carlyle is as the bearded sage with a penetrating gaze. ... Jean-Jacques Rousseau (June 28, 1712 – July 2, 1778) was a Franco-Swiss philosopher, writer, political theorist, and self-taught composer of The Age of Enlightenment. ... Look up Hook in Wiktionary, the free dictionary The word hook has many meanings: A fishing hook is a device used to catch fish. ... Johann Gottfried Herder Johann Gottfried von Herder (August 25, 1744 – December 18, 1803), German poet, critic, theologian, and philosopher, is best known for his influence on authors such as Goethe and the role he played in the development of the larger cultural movement known as romanticism. ...


Post-Romanticism/reaction to naturalism, opposes external-only observations by adding internal observations (scholarly sources Comte, von Ranke). Naturalism refers to a number of different topics: Naturalism (philosophy): the view that nothing exists but the natural universe, either methodologically or ontologically — that there are no supernatural entities or at least no observations that show them to exist. ... For article about famous philosopher and sociologist, see Auguste Comte Comte is a title of French nobility. ... Leopold von Ranke (December 21, 1795- May 23, 1886) was one of the greatest German historians of the 19th century, and is frequently considered the founder of scientific history. ...


Modernism - rejects Christian academic scholarly tradition (scholarly sources Beard, Ferdinand de Saussure, Freud, Jung, Novick). Modernism is a cultural movement that generally includes progressive art and architecture, music and literature which emerged in the decades before 1914, as artists rebelled against late 19th century academic and historicist traditions. ... A man with a full beard A beard is the hair that grows on a mans chin, cheeks, neck, and the area above the upper lip (the opposite is a clean-shaven face). ... Saussure Ferdinand de Saussure (November 26, 1857 - February 22, 1913) was a Swiss linguist. ... Sigmund Freud His famous couch Sigmund Freud (May 6, 1856 - September 23, 1939) was an Austrian neurologist and the founder of the psychoanalytic school of psychology, a movement that popularized the theory that unconscious motives control much behavior. ... Carl Gustav Jung Carl Gustav Jung (July 26, 1875 – June 6, 1961) was a Swiss psychiatrist and founder of the neopsychoanalytic school of psychology. ...


Existentialism - pre- and post-WW2 rejection of Western norms and cultural values. Martin Heidegger Jean-Paul Sartre, Simone de Beauvoir, Albert Camus, Husserl, Hannah Arendt, Hans Jonas, Karl Löwith, Herbert Marc, Claude Levi-Strauss, Martin Buber, Edmund Husserl, religious and cultural values that allowed Nazism to achieve intellectual prominence in Germany and France in the 1930s and 1940s. And which they saw needed both repudiation and study, as a way to re-establish the individual against the values of a hostile and destructive series of communities creating alienation, isolation, and individual meaninglessness. The anti-fascist, anti-Catholic elements of some these thinkers naturally led them to Communism and Socialism with Sartre himself a dedicated atheist and Maoist til his death. Heidegger on the other hand was a member of the Nazi party. The inability to accept the implicit significance of western cultural values, from the Greco-Roman period onwards, led this group to fragment Western knowledge and approach it anthropologically, critically, and with a measure of hostility that spurred much academic debate against the established European power structure. This article may contain original research or unverified claims. ... Jean-Paul Charles Aymard Sartre (June 21, 1905 – April 15, 1980) was a French existentialist philosopher, dramatist, novelist and critic. ... Simone de Beauvoir Simone de Beauvoir (January 9, 1908 – April 14, 1986) was a French author and philosopher. ... Albert Camus Albert Camus (pronounced Kam-oo, IPA: ka. ... Edmund Husserl Edmund Gustav Albrecht Husserl (April 8, 1859 - April 26, 1938), philosopher, was born into a Jewish family in Prossnitz, Moravia (Prostejov, Czech Republic), Empire of Austria-Hungary. ... Hannah Arendt (October 14, 1906 – December 4, 1975) was a German political theorist. ... German-born philosopher Hans Jonas (May 10, 1903 - February 5, 1993) studied under Martin Heidegger and Rudolf Bultmann in the 1920s. ... Karl Löwith (9 January 1897 in Munich – 26 May 1973 in Heidelberg) was a German-Jewish philosopher, a student of Heidegger. ... Claude L vi-Strauss (born November 28, 1908) is a French anthropologist who became one of the twentieth centurys greatest intellectuals by developing structuralism as a method of understanding human society and culture Biography Claude L vi-Strauss was born in Brussels and studied law and philosophy at the... Martin Buber (8 February 1878 - 13 June 1965) was a Jewish philosopher, translator, editor, and pedagogue, whose work centered around the ideals of religious consciousness, interpersonal relations, and community. ... Edmund Husserl Edmund Gustav Albrecht Husserl (April 8, 1859 - April 26, 1938, Freiburg) was a German philosopher, known as the father of phenomenology. ... The term National Socialism has been used in self-description by a number of different political groups and ideologies, some of which have no connection with the Nazis; see National socialism (disambiguation). ... Communism refers to a conjectured future classless, stateless social organization based upon common ownership of the means of production, and can be classified as a branch of the broader socialist movement. ... Socialism is an ideology of a social and economic system where the means of production are owned and controlled by all of society. ... Maoism or Mao Zedong Thought (Chinese: 毛澤東思想, pinyin: Máo Zédōng Sīxiǎng), also called Marxism-Leninism–Mao Zedong Thought or Marxism-Leninism-Maoism (MLM), is a variant of communism derived from the teachings of Mao Zedong (1893–1976). ...


Postmodernism - rejects Modernism, meta-narrative - multiple perspective, role of individual (scholarly sources Lyotard, Foucault, Barthes). Postmodernism is a term describing a wide-ranging change in thinking beginning in the early 20th century. ... In critical theory, and particularly postmodernism, a metanarrative is a grand overarching account, or all-encompassing story, which is thought to give order to the historical record. ... Jean-François Lyotard (1924-1998) was a French philosopher and literary theorist. ... Michel Foucault Michel Foucault (October 15, 1926 – June 26, 1984) was a French philosopher who held a chair at the Collège de France, which he gave the title The History of Systems of Thought. ... Roland Barthes (November 12, 1915 _ March 25, 1980) was a French literary critic, literary and social theorist, philosopher and semiotician. ...


Structuralism - many phenomena do not occur in isolation but in relation to each other (scholarly sources Geertz, Levi-Strauss). Structuralism is a general approach in various academic disciplines that explores the inter-relationships between fundamental elements of some kind, upon which some higher mental, linguistic, social, cultural etc structures are built, through which then meaning is produced within a particular person, system, culture. ... Clifford James Geertz was born on August 23, 1926 in San Francisco. ... Levi Strauss (February 26, 1829–September 26, 1902) was a Jewish German Bavarian -born American clothing manufacturer. ...


Poststructuralism - deconstruction, destablizes the relationship between language and objects the language refers to (scholarly sources Lyotard, Derrida, Foucault). Post-structuralism is a body of work that followed in the wake of structuralism, and sought to understand the Western world as a network of structures, as in structuralism, but in which such structures are ordered primarily by local, shifting differences (as in deconstruction) rather than grand binary oppositions and... The term deconstruction was coined by French philosopher Jacques Derrida in the 1960s and is used in contemporary humanities and social sciences to denote a philosophy of meaning that deals with the ways that meaning is constructed and understood by writers, texts, and readers. ... Jean-François Lyotard (1924-1998) was a French philosopher and literary theorist. ... Jacques Derrida Jacques Derrida (July 15, 1930 – October 8, 2004) was an Algerian-born French literary critic and philosopher of Jewish descent, considered the first to develop deconstruction. Positioning Derridas thought Derrida had a significant effect on continental philosophy and on literary theory, particularly through his long-time association... See: Léon Foucault (physicist) Foucault pendulum Michel Foucault (philosopher) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


Far eastern intellectual history

Central to development of intellectual history has been the birth of scholarship in ancient China, the creation of Confucianism with its extensive exigesis of the texts of Confucius, and the active part of scholars in governments. In Korea, the yangban scholar movement drove the development of Korean intellectual history from the late Goryeo to the golden age of intellectual achievement in the Joseon dynasty.. The Yangban were a well educated scholarly class of male Confucian scholars who were part of the ruling elite within Korea prior to 1945 and the republics period of Korean history. ... The state of Goryeo ruled Korea from the fall of Silla in 935 until the founding of Joseon in 1392. ... Joseon or Chosun (Korean: 조선; Hanja: 朝鮮; Revised: Joseon; McCune-Reischauer: Chosŏn; Chinese: Cháoxiǎn; Japanese: Chōsen) is a name for Korea, as used in the following cases: As part of the name of several ancient kingdoms (including Gojoseon, Gija Joseon, and Wiman Joseon); During most of the Joseon...


Prominent historians

Ernst Cassirer (July 28, 1874 – April 13, 1945) was a German philosopher. ... Michel Foucault Michel Foucault (October 15, 1926 – June 26, 1984) was a French philosopher who held a chair at the Collège de France, which he gave the title The History of Systems of Thought. ... John G.A. Pocock is a British historian, noted for his studies of republicanism in the early modern period, for his contributions to the intellectual history of political thought in general, and his studies of historiography in relation to Edward Gibbon and his contemporiaries. ... Quentin Skinner is Regius Professor of Modern History at Cambridge University. ...

Timeline of intellectual history

1959: C.P. Snow calls for the "intellectual apartheid" between the "two cultures" of the sciences and the humanities to be bridged.


References

  • Dictionary of the History of Ideas: Studies of Selected Pivotal Ideas edited by Philip P. Wiener, New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1973-74. online
  • Noam Chomsky et. al., The Cold War and the University: Toward an Intellectual History of the Postwar Years, New Press 1997
  • Laura Fermi. Illustrious Immigrants: The Intellectual Migration from Europe, 1930/41, Chicago: U of Chicago, 1971. Europe's loss, America's gain. Included are many scientists who were instrumental to the nuclear bomb project.
  • George B. de Huszar, ed. The Intellectuals: A Controversial Portrait. Glencoe, Illinois: The Free Press, 1960. anthology by many contributors.
  • Jacques Le Goff, Intellectuals in the Middle Ages, translated by Teresa Lavender Fagan. (Oxford: Blackwell, 1993)
  • Herbert Mitgang. Dangerous Dossiers: Exposing the Secret War Against Americas's Greatest Authors, New York: David I. Fine, Inc, 1988. describes a strain of anti-intellectualism in the American culture, in this case within the FBI of Hoover. Describes files kept on several dozen writers and thinkers.
  • Bertrand Russell. A History of Western Philosophy: And Its Connection with Political and Social Circumstances from the Earliest Times to the Present Day, New York: Simon and Schuster, 1945.
  • John E. Toews, "Intellectual History after the Linguistic Turn. The Autonomy of Meaning and the Irreducibility of Experience", in: The American Historical Review, 92/4 (1987), 879-907.

Husband: Enrico Fermi. ... A French medievalist, representative of the Annales School of historiography. ... The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) is a Federal police force which is the principal investigative arm of the United States Department of Justice (DOJ). ... The name Hoover can refer to: J. Edgar Hoover, chief of the Federal Bureau of Investigation for many years Herbert Hoover, mining engineer, President of the United States Lou Henry Hoover, wife of President Herbert Hoover M. Herbert Hoover, an Ohio politician Bob Hoover, legendary airshow and test pilot, author... The Right Honourable Bertrand Arthur William Russell, 3rd Earl Russell, OM, FRS (18 May 1872 – 2 February 1970), was an influential British logician, philosopher, and mathematician, working mostly in the 20th century. ...

External links

  • International Dictionary of Intellectual Historians

  Results from FactBites:
 
Intellectual history - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (734 words)
Intellectual history differs from the history of philosophy and the history of ideas, although these fields are closely related and often overlap.
Central to development of intellectual history has been the birth of scholarship in ancient China, the creation of Confucianism with its extensive exigesis of the texts of Confucius, and the active part of scholars in governments.
In Korea, the yangban scholar movement drove the development of Korean intellectual history from the late Goryeo to the golden age of intellectual achievement in the Joseon dynasty..
Intellectual - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (863 words)
An intellectual is a person who uses his or her intellect to study, reflect, or speculate on a variety of different ideas.
Some intellectuals have been vehemently anti-academic; at times universities and their faculties have been synonymous with intellectualism, but in other periods and some places the centre of gravity of intellectual life has been elsewhere.
In general practice intellectual as label is more consistently applied to fields related to the arts and social sciences than it is to disciplines in the natural sciences, applied sciences, mathematics or engineering.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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