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Encyclopedia > Intellectual giftedness

Intellectual giftedness is an intellectual ability significantly higher than average. Look up gift in Wiktionary, the free dictionary There are many meanings for the word gift: Gift is an English word for present and the german word for poison. ...

Gifted children often develop asynchronously; their minds are often ahead of their physical growth, and specific cognitive and emotional functions are often developed differently (or to differing extents) at different stages of development. One frequently cited example of asynchronicity in early cognitive development is Albert Einstein, who did not speak until the age of two, but whose later fluency and accomplishments belied this initial delay. In regards to this fact, neuroscientist Steven Pinker theorized that, rather than viewing Einstein's (and other famously gifted late-talking individuals) adult accomplishments as existing distinct from, or in spite of, his early language deficits, and rather than viewing Einstein's lingual delay itself as a "disorder", it may be that Einstein's genius and his delay in speaking were developmentally intrinsic to one another.[1] Cognitive The scientific study of how people obtain, retrieve, store and manipulate information. ... In psychology and common terminology, emotion is the language of a persons internal state of being, normally based in or tied to their internal (physical) and external (social) sensory feeling. ... “Einstein” redirects here. ... Steven Pinker Steven Arthur Pinker (born September 18, 1954) is a prominent Canadian-born American experimental psychologist, cognitive scientist, and popular science writer known for his spirited and wide-ranging advocacy of evolutionary psychology and the computational theory of mind. ...


Developmental theory

It has been said that gifted children may advance more quickly through stages established by post-Freudian developmentalists such as Jean Piaget.[citation needed] Gifted individuals also experience the world differently, resulting in certain social and emotional issues. The work of Kazimierz Dabrowski suggests that gifted children have greater psychomotor, sensual, imaginative, intellectual, and emotional "overexcitabilities". In Developmental psychology, a stage is a distinct phase in an individuals development. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Jean Piaget (August 9, 1896 – September 16, 1980) was a Swiss philosopher, natural scientist and developmental psychologist, well known for his work studying children, his theory of cognitive development and for his epistemological view called genetic epistemology. He created in 1955 the International Centre for Genetic Epistemology in Geneva and... Kazimierz Dąbrowski Kazimierz Dąbrowski (September 1, 1902, Klarowo - December 26, 1980, Warsaw, Poland) was a Polish psychologist, psychiatrist, physician, and poet. ... The Theory of Positive Disintegration (TPD) by Kazimierz Dabrowski describes a theory of personality and personality development. ...

Identifying giftedness


The formal identification of giftedness first emerged as an important issue for schools, as the instruction of gifted students often presents special challenges. During the 20th century, gifted children were often classified via IQ tests, however, recent developments in theories of intelligence have raised serious questions regarding the appropriate uses and limits of such testing.[citation needed] Many schools in North America and Europe have attempted to identify students who are not challenged by standard school curricula and offer additional or specialized education for them in the hope of nurturing their talents. Gifted education is a broad term for special practices, procedures and theories used in the education of children who have been identified as gifted or talented. ... Rationale for Gifted Programs When children are at a young age, schools begin to analyze the youngsters’ abilities and sort them into clusters based on their predicted success. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999 in the... IQ redirects here; for other uses of that term, see IQ (disambiguation). ... Students in Rome, Italy. ... North American redirects here. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ...

Because of the key role that gifted education plays in the identification of gifted people (children or adults), it is worthwhile to examine how that discipline uses the term "gifted". Gifted education is a broad term for special practices, procedures and theories used in the education of children who have been identified as gifted or talented. ...

Definitions of giftedness

For many years, psychometricians and psychologists, following in the footsteps of Lewis Terman in 1916, equated giftedness with high IQ. This "legacy" survives to the present day, in that giftedness and high IQ continue to be equated in some conceptions of giftedness. Since that early time, however, other researchers (e.g., Cattell, Guilford, and Thurstone) have argued that intellect cannot be expressed in such a unitary manner, and have suggested more multifaceted approaches to intelligence. Research conducted in the 1980s and 1990s has provided data which support notions of multiple components to intelligence. This is particularly evident in the reexamination of "giftedness" by Sternberg and Davidson in their edited Conceptions of Giftedness. The many different conceptions of giftedness presented, although distinct, are interrelated in several ways. Most of the investigators define giftedness in terms of multiple qualities, not all of which are intellectual. IQ scores are often viewed as inadequate measures of giftedness. Motivation, high self-concept, and creativity are key qualities in many of these broadened conceptions of giftedness.

Joseph Renzulli's (1978) "three ring" definition of giftedness is one well-researched conceptualization of giftedness. Renzulli’s definition, which defines gifted behaviors rather than gifted individuals, is composed of three components as follows: Gifted behavior consists of behaviors that reflect an interaction among three basic clusters of human traits—above average ability, high levels of task commitment, and high levels of creativity. Individuals capable of developing gifted behavior are those possessing or capable of developing this composite set of traits and applying them to any potentially valuable area of human performance. Persons who manifest or are capable of developing an interaction among the three clusters require a wide variety of educational opportunities and services that are not ordinarily provided through regular instructional programs.

In Identifying Gifted Children: A Practical Guide, Susan K. Johnsen explains that gifted children all exhibit the potential for high performance in the areas included in the United States' federal definition of gifted and talented students:[2]

The term "gifted and talented" when used in respect to students, children, or youth means students, children, or youth who give evidence of high performance capability in areas such as intellectual, creative, artistic, or leadership capacity, or in specific academic fields, and who require services or activities not ordinarily provided by the school in order to fully develop such capabilities." (P.L. 103–382, Title XIV, p. 388)

This definition has been adopted partially or completely by the majority of the states in the United States. The majority of them have some definition similar to that used in the State of Texas, whose definition states

[The phrase] "gifted and talented student" means a child or youth who performs at or shows the potential for performing at a remarkably high level of accomplishment when compared to others of the same age, experience, or environment, and who
  • exhibits high performance capability in an intellectual, creative, or artistic area;
  • possesses an unusual capacity for leadership; or
  • excels in a specific academic field." (74th legislature of the State of Texas, Chapter 29, Subchapter D, Section 29.121)

The major characteristics of these definitions are (a) the diversity of areas in which performance may be exhibited (e.g., intellectual, creativity, artistical, leadership, academically), (b) the comparison with other groups (e.g., those in general education classrooms or of the same age, experience, or environment), and (c) the use of terms that imply a need for development of the gift (e.g., capability and potential).

Identification methods

Many schools use a variety of measures of students' capability and potential when identifying gifted children.[2] These may include portfolios of student work, classroom observations, achievement measures, and intelligence scores. Most educational professionals accept that no single measure can be used in isolation to accurately identify a gifted child. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Intelligence is the mental capacity to reason, plan, solve problems, think abstractly, comprehend ideas and language, and learn. ...

One of the measures used in identification is the score derived from an intelligence measure. The general cutoff for many programs is often placed near the sigma 2 level on a standardized intelligence test, children above this level being labeled 'gifted'. In probability and statistics, the standard deviation of a probability distribution, random variable, or population or multiset of values is a measure of the spread of its values. ... Intelligence is the mental capacity to reason, plan, solve problems, think abstractly, comprehend ideas and language, and learn. ...

Some IQ testers use these classifications to describe differing levels of giftedness. The following bands apply with a standard deviation of σ = 15 on a standardized IQ test. Each band represents a difference of one standard deviation from the mean of a standard distribution. In probability and statistics, the standard deviation of a probability distribution, random variable, or population or multiset of values is a measure of the spread of its values. ... IQ redirects here; for other uses of that term, see IQ (disambiguation). ... This article is about mathematical mean. ... The normal distribution, also called the Gaussian distribution, is an important family of continuous probability distributions, applicable in many fields. ...

  • Bright: 115+, or one in six (84th percentile)
  • Moderately gifted: 130+, or 1 in 50 (97.9th percentile)
  • Highly gifted: 145+, or 1 in 1000 (99.9th percentile)
  • Exceptionally gifted: 160+, or 1 in 30,000 (99.997th percentile)
  • Profoundly gifted: 175+, or 1 in 3 million (99.99997th percentile)

Most IQ tests do not have the capacity to discriminate accurately at higher IQ levels, and are perhaps only effective at determining whether a student is gifted rather than distinguishing among levels of giftedness. Although the Wechsler tests have a ceiling of about 160, their creator has admitted that they are intended to be used within the average range (between 70 and 130), and are not intended for use at the extreme ends of the population. The Stanford-Binet form L-M, currently outdated, was the only test that had a sufficient ceiling to identify the exceptionally and profoundly gifted. However, because the instrument is outdated, current results derived from the instrument generate inflated and inaccurate scores. The Stanford-Binet form V and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children—Fourth Revision, both recently released, are currently being evaluated for this population. Mensa offers IQ testing but these are only suitable for persons over the age of ten and a half years. The IQ assessment of younger children remains debated. Also, those who are more gifted in areas such as the arts and literature tend to do poorly on IQ tests, which are generally verbal- and mathematical-skills related. IQ redirects here; for other uses of that term, see IQ (disambiguation). ... The Prometheus Society is a high IQ society. ... Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale or WAIS is a general test of intelligence (IQ), published in February 1955 as a revision of the Wechsler-Bellevue test (1939), standardised for use with adults over the age of 16. ... The modern field of intelligence testing began with the Stanford-Binet IQ test. ... Mensa is the largest, oldest, and most famous high-IQ society in the world. ... The Arts is a broad subdivision of culture, comprised of many expressive disciplines. ... For other uses, see Literature (disambiguation). ...

While many people believe giftedness is a strictly quantitative difference, measurable by IQ tests, a number of people have described giftedness as a fundamentally different way of perceiving the world, which in turn affects every experience had by the gifted individual. These differences do not disappear when gifted children become adults or leave school. A scale for measuring mass A quantitative property is one that exists in a range of magnitudes, and can therefore be measured. ...

Gifted adults are seldom recognized as a special population, but they still have unique psychological, social, and emotional needs related to their high intelligence.[3]


Savants are people that perform exceptionally in one field of learning. Autistic savantism refers to the exceptional abilities exhibited by people with autism or other developmental disorders. The term was introduced in a 1978 article in Psychology Today that described this condition. Look up savant in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... An autistic savant (historically described as idiot savant) is a person with both autism and Savant Syndrome. ... Developmental disorders are disorders that occur at some stage in a childs development, often retarding the development. ... Cover of April 2004 issue of Psychology Today. ...

Characteristics of giftedness

Generally, gifted individuals learn more quickly, deeply, and broadly than their peers. Gifted children may learn to read early and operate at the same level as normal children who are significantly older. The gifted tend to demonstrate high reasoning ability, creativity, curiosity, a large vocabulary, and an excellent memory. They often can master concepts with few repetitions. They may also be physically and emotionally sensitive, perfectionistic, and may frequently question authority. Some have trouble relating to or communicating with their peers because of disparities in vocabulary size (especially in the early years), personality, interests and motivation. As children, they may prefer the company of older children or adults.[4] A vocabulary is a set of words known to a person or other entity, or that are part of a specific language. ... Perfectionism can refer to: perfectionism (philosophy) perfectionism (psychology) perfectionist movement a utopian societal movement in the late 19th, early 20th century United States from which hails Oneida Society and which is historically related to the Modern Spiritualist movement. ... Look up rebellion in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

Giftedness is frequently not evenly distributed throughout all intellectual spheres: an individual may excel in solving logic problems and yet be a poor speller; another gifted individual may be able to read and write at a far above average level and yet have trouble with mathematics. It is possible there are different types of giftedness with their own unique features, just as there are different types of developmental delay.

Giftedness may become noticeable in individuals at different points of development. While early development (i.e. speaking or reading at a very young age) usually comes with giftedness, it is not a determinant of giftedness. The preschool years are when most gifted children begin to show the distinctive characteristics mentioned above. As the child becomes older, too-easy classes and emotional issues may slow or obstruct the rate of intellectual development.[5]

Some gifted individuals experience heightened sensory awareness and may seem overly sensitive to sight, sound, smell and touch. For example, they may be extremely uncomfortable when they have a wrinkle in their sock, or unable to concentrate because of the sound of a clock ticking on the other side of the room. Hypersensitivity to external stimuli can be said to resemble a proneness to "sensory overload", which can cause persons to avoid chaotic and crowded environments. Others, however, are able to tune out any unwanted distractions as they focus on a task or on their own thoughts, and seem to seek and thrive on being in the midst of lots of activity and stimulation. In many cases, awareness may fluctuate between conditions of hyperstimulation and of withdrawal. These conditions may appear to be similar to symptoms of hyperactivity, bipolar disorder, autism-spectrum conditions, and other psychological disorders, but are often explained by gifted education professionals by reference to Kazimierz Dabrowski's theory of Positive Disintegration. [6] Sensory overload (sometimes abbreviated to SO) is when one or more of the five senses are strained and it becomes difficult to focus on the task at hand. ... For other uses, see Bipolar. ... Kazimierz DÄ…browski Kazimierz DÄ…browski (September 1, 1902, Klarowo - December 26, 1980, Warsaw, Poland) was a Polish psychologist, psychiatrist, physician, and poet. ... The Theory of Positive Disintegration (TPD) by Kazimierz Dabrowski describes a theory of personality and personality development. ...

Social and emotional issues


Isolation is one of the main challenges faced by gifted individuals, especially those with no social network of gifted peers. In order to gain popularity, gifted children will often try to hide their abilities to win social approval. Strategies include underachievement (discussed below) and the use of less sophisticated vocabulary when among same-age peers than when among family members or other trusted individuals.[7]

The isolation experienced by gifted individuals may not be caused by giftedness itself, but by society's response to giftedness. "In this culture, there appears to be a great pressure for people to be 'normal' with a considerable stigma associated with giftedness or talent."[8] To counteract this problem, gifted education professionals recommend creating a peer group based on common interests and abilities. The earlier this occurs, the more effective it is likely to be in preventing isolation.[9]


Perfectionism is another common emotional issue for gifted individuals. D. E. Hamachek identified six specific, overlapping behaviors associated with perfectionism. They include: Perfectionism, in psychology, is a belief that perfection should be strived for. ...

"When perfectionism refers to having high standards, a desire to achieve, conscientiousness, or high levels of responsibility, it is likely to be a virtue rather than a problem. Perfectionism becomes a problem as it frustrates and inhibits achievements. Perfectionism becomes desirable when it stimulates the healthy pursuit of excellence."[11] For other uses, see Depression. ... For other uses, see Shame (disambiguation). ... “Guilty” redirects here. ... Look up shy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up Procrastination in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

There are many theories that try to explain the correlation between perfectionism and giftedness. Gifted children may have difficulty with perfectionism because they set standards that would be appropriate to their mental age (the level at which they think), but then can't meet them because they are trapped in a younger body. Perfectionism is also encouraged by the fact that gifted individuals tend to be successful in much or all of what they do because their abilities have not been challenged, and consequently try to avoid failure.


There is often a stark gap between the abilities of the gifted individual and his or her actual accomplishments. Many gifted students will perform extremely well on standardized or reasoning tests, only to fail a class exam. This disparity can result from various factors, such as loss of interest in too-easy classes or negative social consequences of being perceived as smart.[12] Underachievement can also result from emotional or psychological factors, including depression, anxiety, perfectionism, or self-sabotage.[13] An oft overlooked contributor to underachievement is undiagnosed learning differences. A gifted individual is less likely to be diagnosed with a learning disorder than a non gifted classmate, as the gifted child can more readily compensate for his/her paucities. This masking effect is dealt with by understanding that a difference of 1σ between scores constitutes a learning disability even if all of the scores are above average. One apparently effective way to attempt to reverse underachievement in gifted children includes educating teachers to provide enrichment projects based on students’ strengths and interests without attracting negative attention from peers. Reasoning is the mental (cognitive) process of looking for reasons to support beliefs, conclusions, actions or feelings. ... This article is about state anxiety. ...


It has been thought in the past that there is a correlation between giftedness and depression or suicide. This has not been proven. As Reis and Renzulli mention, "With the exception of creatively gifted adolescents who are talented in writing or the visual arts, studies do not confirm that gifted individuals manifest significantly higher or lower rates or severity of depression than those for the general population...Gifted children's advanced cognitive abilities, social isolation, sensitivity, and uneven development may cause them to face some challenging social and emotional issues, but their problem-solving abilities, advanced social skills, moral reasoning, out-of-school interests, and satisfaction in achievement may help them to be more resilient."[12] Also, no research points to suicide rates being higher in gifted adolescents than other adolescents.[14] However, a number of people have noted a higher incidence of existential depression, which is depression due to highly abstract concerns such as the finality of death, the ultimate unimportance of individual people, and the meaning (or lack thereof) of life. Gifted individuals are also more likely to feel existential anxiety. [15] On the Threshold of Eternity. ... For other uses, see Suicide (disambiguation). ... This article is about state anxiety. ...

However, numerous studies have shown that depression impairs intelligence because it leads to less neurogenesis in the hippocampus. [16] [17] [18] [19] Neurogenesis (birth of neurons) is the process by which neurons are created. ... For other uses, see Hippocampus (disambiguation). ...

Professional attitudes towards giftedness

Grobman discusses how some exceptionally and profoundly gifted individuals may unconsciously create deficits as a way of closing the asynchrony gap.[20] Some theorists in child development, including Linda Kreger Silverman and Dr. Fernette Eide, have estimated that between 20-40% of gifted individuals have a learning disability, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder or some other neurological disorder.[citation needed] Still other researchers, such as Stephanie Tolan, postulate that the attribution of controversial disorders such as "ADHD" - which other authors have argued has not been proven to exist by any means other than subjective behavioral analysis [21][22][23] - to gifted individuals arises from a misguided tendency to pathologize that which we don't understand.[24][25] Tolan also discusses that identifying as attention deficient has become fashionable in young adults.[24] It is generally agreed that giftedness may have a genetic component; research has shown that first-degree relatives of the intellectually gifted will often have IQs measuring within 10–15 points of each other.[citation needed] This article is about the use of the term in the United States and Canada. ... Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), is a neurobehavioural developmental disorder[1] [2] [3] affecting about 3-5% of the worlds population under the age of 19[4]. It typically presents itself during childhood, and is characterized by a persistent pattern of inattention and/or hyperactivity, as well as forgetfulness... Neurology is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the central and peripheral nervous systems. ... Stephanie S. Tolan is an American author. ... DISCLAIMER Please remember that Wikipedia is offered for informational use only. ... IQ redirects here. ...

See also

This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Wunderkind redirects here. ... The subject of the inheritance of intelligence is the genetics of mental abilities. ... The Triple Nine Society (TNS) is a voluntary association of individuals who have scored at or above the 99. ...


  1. ^ Steven Pinker. His Brain Measured Up.
  2. ^ a b Johnsen, S. K. (2004). Identifying Gifted Students: A Practical Guide." Waco, Texas: Prufrock Press, Inc.
  3. ^ Hoagies' Gifted: Optimum IQ: My Experience as a Too Gifted Adult. Retrieved on 2006-09-17.
  4. ^ Characteristics of Gifted/Creative Children. Retrieved on 2007-07-03.
  5. ^ Lovecky, Deirdre V.. Different Minds: Gifted Children with Ad/Hd, Asperger Syndrome, and Other Learning Deficits. Jessica Kingsly Publishers, 20-24. ISBN 1853029645. 
  6. ^ SENG: Articles & Resources - Dabrowski's Theory of Positive Disintegration: Some implications for teachers of gifted students. Retrieved on 2006-09-17.
  7. ^ Swiatek, M. A. (1995). An Empirical Investigation Of The Social Coping Strategies Used By Gifted Adolescents. Gifted Child Quarterly, 39, 154-160.
  8. ^ Plucker, J. A., & Levy, J. J., (2001). The Downside of Being Talented [Electronic version]. American Psychologist, 56, 75-76.
  9. ^ Robinson, N. M. (2002). Introduction. In M. Neihart, S. M. Reis, N. M. Robinson, & S. M. Moon (Eds.) The Social and Emotional Development of Gifted Children. Waco, Texas: Prufrock Press, Inc. Lardner, C. (2005) "School Counselors Light-Up the Intra- and Inter-Personal Worlds of Our Gifted" as found on the World Wide Web at http://www.hoagiesgifted.org/light_up_the_world.htm.
  10. ^ Schuler, P. (2002). Perfectionism in Gifted Children and Adolescents. In M. Neihart, S. M. Reis, N. M. Robinson, & S. M. Moon (Eds.). The Social and Emotional Development of Gifted Children (pp. 71-79). Waco, Texas: Prufrock Press, Inc.
  11. ^ Parker, W. D. & Mills, C. J. (1996). The Incidence of Perfectionism in Gifted Students. Gifted Child Quarterly, 40, 194-199.
  12. ^ a b Reis, S. M. & Renzulli, J. S. (2004). Current Research on the Social and Emotional Development of Gifted and Talented Students: Good News and Future Possibilities. Psychology in the Schools, 41, published online in Wiley InterScience.
  13. ^ Reis, S. M. & McCoach, D. B. (2002). Underachievement in Gifted Students. In M. Neihart, S. M. Reis, N. M. Robinson, & S. M. Moon (Eds.). The Social and Emotional Development of Gifted Children (pp. 81-91). Waco, Texas: Prufrock Press, Inc.
  14. ^ Neihart, M. (2002). Risk and Resilience in Gifted Children: A Conceptual Framework. In M. Neihart, S. Reis, N. M. Robinson, & S. M. Moon (Eds.) The Social and Emotional Development of Gifted Children. (pp. 113-124). Waco, Texas: Prufrock Press, Inc.
  15. ^ SENG: Articles & Resources - Adolescence and gifted: Addressing existential dread. Retrieved on 2006-09-17.
  16. ^ Seed: The Reinvention of the Self
  17. ^ http://neuro.psychiatryonline.org/cgi/reprint/12/4/493.pdf
  18. ^ CJO - Abstract - Enlarged amygdala volume and reduced hippocampal volume in young women with major depression
  19. ^ CJO - Abstract - Quantitative MRI of the hippocampus and amygdala in severe depression
  20. ^ Grobman, J.(2006)Underachievement in Exceptionally Gifted Adolescents and Young Adults: A Psychiatrist's View. Journal of Secondary Gifted Education 17(4)199-210. http://www.psychotherapyservicesforthegifted.com/Gifted/UserFiles/File/GROBMAN_Underachievement_in_Gifted.pdf
  21. ^ Peter Breggin (February 2001). Reclaiming Our Children. Perseus Publishing, 21-22, 115-116, 159-162. 
  22. ^ Grace Jackson. A Curious Consensus: Brain Scan Proves Disease?.
  23. ^ Peter Breggin, Ginger Ross Breggin. The Hazards Of Treating "Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder" With Methylphenidate.
  24. ^ a b Douglas Eby. Interview With Stephanie Tolan.
  25. ^ James T. Webb, Elizabeth A. Mechstroth, Stephanie Tolan (March 1989). Guiding The Gifted Child. Great Potential Press. 
  • Renzulli, J. S., (1984). What Makes Giftedness. Phi Delta Kappan, 60, 127-130. Phi Delta Kappan Educational Foundation.

Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 260th day of the year (261st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 184th day of the year (185th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 260th day of the year (261st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 260th day of the year (261st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

  • GiftedHaven: A site for and by Gifted children and teenagers.
  • Hoagies' Gifted Education Page: web-based articles, information, and links related to gifted education, for parents, educators, and gifted children
  • GT Adults: gifted/high ability
  • GT CyberSource: news, free articles, and information about giftedness
  • Discussion and annotated bibliography of peer reviewed scholarly resources on giftedness
Image File history File links Broom_icon. ...



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