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Encyclopedia > Intel Corporation
Intel Corporation
Type Public (NASDAQ: INTC, SEHK: 4335)
Founded 1968 1
Headquarters Santa Clara, California
Flag of the United States United States
Key people Paul S. Otellini, CEO
Craig Barrett, Chairman
Industry Semiconductors
Products Microprocessors
Flash memory
Motherboard Chipsets
Network Interface Card
Bluetooth Chipsets
Revenue $31.5 billion USD (2006)[2][3]
Operating income $5.7 billion USD (2006)
Net income $5 billion USD (2006)
Employees 94,100 (2006)[1]
Slogan Leap Ahead
Website www.intel.com
1Incorporated in California in 1968, reincorporated in Delaware in 1989.[4]

Intel Corporation (NASDAQ: INTC; SEHK: 4335) is the world's largest semiconductor company and the inventor of the x86 series of microprocessors, the processors found in many personal computers. Founded in 1968 as Integrated Electronics Corporation and based in Santa Clara, California, USA, Intel also makes motherboard chipsets, network cards and ICs, flash memory, graphic chips, embedded processors, and other devices related to communications and computing. Founded by semiconductor pioneers Robert Noyce and Gordon Moore, Intel combines advanced chip design capability with a leading-edge manufacturing capability. Originally known primarily to engineers and technologists, Intel's successful "Intel Inside" advertising campaign of the 1990s made it and its Pentium processor household names. Intel, short for intelligence, may refer to: Intelligence (information gathering), information valued for its currency and relevance rather than its detail or accuracy Intel Corporation, the worlds largest semiconductor company founded in 1968 as Integrated Electronics Corporation and based in Santa Clara, California, USA Intel processor Intel, a fictional... Look up intelligence in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Image File history File links Gnome-globe. ... Image File history File links Intel-logo. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... NASDAQ in Times Square, New York City. ... The Hong Kong Stock Exchange (traditional Chinese: , also 港交所; abbreviated as HKEX; SEHK: 0388) is the stock exchange of Hong Kong. ... Year 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Location of Santa Clara within Santa Clara County, California. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Paul S. Otellini (born October 12, 1950) is Intel Corporations fifth Chief Executive Officer. ... Craig Barrett Craig R. Barrett (born August 29, 1939) has been the President of Intel Corporation since 1997 and its Chief Executive Officer since 1998. ... A semiconductor is a material that is an insulator at very low temperature, but which has a sizable electrical conductivity at room temperature. ... A microprocessor is a programmable digital electronic component that incorporates the functions of a central processing unit (CPU) on a single semiconducting integrated circuit (IC). ... A USB flash drive. ... A motherboard is the central or primary circuit board making up a complex electronic system, such as a modern computer. ... Chipset refers to a group of integrated circuits (chips) that are designed to work together, and are usually marketed as a single product. ... A transitional network card with both BNC Thinnet (left) and Twisted pair (right) connectors. ... Bluetooth logo This article is about the electronic protocol named after Harald Bluetooth Gormson. ... Chipset refers to a group of integrated circuits (chips) that are designed to work together, and are usually marketed as a single product. ... Look up revenue in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Image File history File links Red_Arrow_Down. ... USD redirects here. ... Earnings before interest and taxes (EBIT), also known as operating income and operating profit, is a term used to describe a companys earnings. ... Image File history File links Green_Arrow_Up. ... USD redirects here. ... Net income is equal to the income that a firm has after subtracting costs and expenses from the total revenue. ... Image File history File links Green_Arrow_Up. ... USD redirects here. ... This article is about work. ... Look up slogan in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A website (alternatively, Web site or web site) is a collection of Web pages, images, videos or other digital assets that is hosted on one or several Web server(s), usually accessible via the Internet, cell phone or a LAN. A Web page is a document, typically written in HTML... Incorporation (abbreviated Inc. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Largest metro area Greater Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... Year 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... NASDAQ in Times Square, New York City. ... The Hong Kong Stock Exchange (traditional Chinese: , also 港交所; abbreviated as HKEX; SEHK: 0388) is the stock exchange of Hong Kong. ... A semiconductor is a solid whose electrical conductivity is in between that of a conductor and that of an insulator, and can be controlled over a wide range, either permanently or dynamically. ... Intel Pentium 4 (Northwood version), one example out of a huge number of x86 implementations from Intel, AMD, and others. ... Location of Santa Clara within Santa Clara County, California. ... A motherboard is the central or primary circuit board making up a complex electronic system, such as a modern computer. ... A network card, network adapter or NIC (network interface controller) is a piece of computer hardware designed to allow computers to communicate over a computer network. ... A USB flash drive. ... Robert Noyce Robert Noyce (December 12, 1927 – June 3, 1990), nicknamed the Mayor of Silicon Valley, co-founded Fairchild Semiconductor in 1957 and Intel in 1968. ... Gordon Earle Moore (b. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Intel was an early developer of SRAM and DRAM memory chips, and this represented the majority of its business until the early 1990s.[citation needed] While Intel created the first commercial microprocessor chip in 1971, it was not until the creation of the personal computer (PC) that this became their primary business. During the 1990s, Intel invested heavily in new microprocessor designs and in fostering the rapid growth of the PC industry. During this period Intel became the dominant supplier of microprocessors for PCs, and was known for aggressive and sometimes controversial tactics in defense of its market position, as well as a struggle with Microsoft for control over the direction of the PC industry.[citation needed] Static random access memory (SRAM) is a type of semiconductor memory. ... Dynamic random access memory (DRAM) is a type of random access memory that stores each bit of data in a separate capacitor within an integrated circuit. ... Microsoft Corporation, (NASDAQ: MSFT, HKSE: 4338) is a multinational computer technology corporation with global annual revenue of US$44. ...


The 2007 rankings of the world's 100 most powerful brands published by Millward Brown Optimor showed the company's brand value falling 10 places – from number 15 to number 25. [5] Millward Brown is a global market research company,[2] with its headquarters based in the United Kingdom. ...

Contents

Corporate history

Intel headquarters in Santa Clara
Intel headquarters in Santa Clara

Intel was founded in 1968 by Gordon E. Moore (a chemist and physicist) and Robert Noyce (a physicist and co-inventor of the integrated circuit) when they left Fairchild Semiconductor. A number of other Fairchild employees also went on to participate in other Silicon Valley companies. Intel's fourth employee was Andy Grove (a chemical engineer), who ran the company through much of the 1980s and the high-growth 1990s. Grove is now remembered as the company's key business and strategic leader. By the end of the 1990s, Intel was one of the largest and most successful businesses in the world.[citation needed] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 551 pixel Image in higher resolution (1427 × 982 pixel, file size: 329 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) The headquarters of Intel Corporation in Santa Clara, California. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 551 pixel Image in higher resolution (1427 × 982 pixel, file size: 329 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) The headquarters of Intel Corporation in Santa Clara, California. ... Gordon Moore Gordon Earl Moore (born January 3, 1929) is co-founder of Intel Corporation and the author of Moores law. ... A chemist pours from a round-bottom flask. ... Not to be confused with physician, a person who practices medicine. ... Robert Noyce Robert Noyce (December 12, 1927 – June 3, 1990), nicknamed the Mayor of Silicon Valley, co-founded Fairchild Semiconductor in 1957 and Intel in 1968. ... Integrated circuit of Atmel Diopsis 740 System on Chip showing memory blocks, logic and input/output pads around the periphery Microchips with a transparent window, showing the integrated circuit inside. ... Fairchild Semiconductor introduced the first commercially available integrated circuit (although at almost the same time as one from Texas Instruments), and would go on to become one of the major players in the evolution of Silicon Valley in the 1960s. ... Dr. Andrew Stephen Grove (born September 2, 1936 in Budapest, Hungary) is an American businessman. ... In the field of engineering, a chemical engineer is the profession in which one works principally in the chemical industry to convert basic raw materials into a variety of products, and deals with the design and operation of plants and equipment to perform such work. ...


Origin of the name

At its founding, Gordon Moore and Robert Noyce wanted to name their new company "Moore Noyce". This name, however, sounded remarkably similar to "more noise" — an ill-suited name for an electronics company, since noise is typically associated with bad interference. They then used the name NM Electronics for almost a year, before deciding to call their company INTegrated ELectronics or "Intel" for short. However, Intel was already trademarked by a hotel chain, so they had to buy the rights for that name at the beginning.[6] This article is about the engineering discipline. ... For other uses, see Interference (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Hotel (disambiguation). ...


Company's evolution

Intel has grown through several distinct phases. At its founding, Intel was distinguished simply by its ability to make semiconductors, and its primary product were static random access memory (SRAM) chips. Intel's business grew during the 1970s as it expanded and improved its manufacturing processes and produced a wider range of products, still dominated by various memory devices. Static random access memory (SRAM) is a type of semiconductor memory. ...


While Intel created the first microprocessor in 1971 and one of the first microcomputers in 1972,[7][8] by the early 1980s its business was dominated by dynamic random access memory chips. However, increased competition from Japanese semiconductor manufacturers had by 1983 dramatically reduced the profitability of this market, and the sudden success of the IBM personal computer convinced then-CEO Grove to shift the company's focus to microprocessors and to change fundamental aspects of that business model. By the end of the 1980s this decision had proven successful, and Intel embarked on a 10-year period of unprecedented growth as the primary (and most profitable) hardware supplier to the PC industry. The Intel 4004 is a 4-bit central processing unit (CPU) released by Intel Corporation in 1971. ... The Commodore 64 was one of the most popular microcomputers of its era, and is the best selling model of home computer of all time. ... Dynamic random access memory (DRAM) is a type of random access memory that stores each bit of data in a separate capacitor within an integrated circuit. ... For other uses, see IBM (disambiguation) and Big Blue. ...


After 2000, growth in demand for high-end microprocessors slowed and competitors garnered significant market share, initially in low-end and mid-range processors but ultimately across the product range, and Intel's dominant position was reduced. In the early 2000s then-CEO Craig Barrett attempted to diversify the company's business beyond semiconductors, but few of these activities were ultimately successful.


In 2005, CEO Paul Otellini reorganized the company to refocus its core processor and chipset business on platforms (enterprise, digital home, digital health, and mobility) which led to the hiring of over 20,000 new employees. In September of 2006 due to falling profits, the company announced a restructuring that resulted in layoffs of 10,500 employees or about 10 percent of its workforce by July of 2006. Its research lab located at Cambridge University was closed at the end of 2006.


Sale of XScale processor business

On June 27, 2006, the sale of Intel's XScale assets was announced. Intel agreed to sell the XScale processor business to Marvell Technology Group for an estimated $600 million in cash and the assumption of unspecified liabilities. The move is intended to permit Intel to focus its resources on its core x86 and server businesses. The acquisition was completed on November 9, 2006.[9] The XScale, a microprocessor core, is Marvells (formerly Intels) implementation of the 5th generation of the ARM architecture, and consists of several distinct families: IXP, IXC, IOP, PXA and CE (see more below). ... Marvell (NASDAQ: MRVL) is an American producer of storage, communications and consumer semiconductor products. ...


Market history

SRAMS and the microprocessor

The company's first products were shift register memory and random-access memory integrated circuits, and Intel grew to be a leader in the fiercely competitive DRAM, SRAM, and ROM markets throughout the 1970s. Concurrently, Intel engineers Marcian Hoff, Federico Faggin, Stanley Mazor and Masatoshi Shima invented the first microprocessor. Originally developed for the Japanese company Busicom to replace a number of ASICs in a calculator already produced by Busicom, the Intel 4004 was introduced to the mass market on November 15, 1971, though the microprocessor did not become the core of Intel's business until the mid-1980s. (Note: Intel is usually given credit with Texas Instruments for the almost-simultaneous invention of the microprocessor.) In digital circuits a shift register is a group of flip flops set up in a linear fashion which have their inputs and outputs connected together in such a way that the data are shifted down the line when the circuit is activated. ... Primary storage, or internal memory, is computer memory that is accessible to the central processing unit of a computer without the use of computers input/output channels. ... Dynamic random access memory (DRAM) is a type of random access memory that stores each bit of data in a separate capacitor within an integrated circuit. ... Static random access memory (SRAM) is a type of semiconductor memory. ... Read-only memory (usually known by its acronym, ROM) is a class of storage media used in computers and other electronic devices. ... Dr. Marcian Edward Ted Hoff Jr. ... Federico Faggin (born 1 December 1941) is a physicist and electrical engineer considered to be one of the inventors of the microprocessor. ... Masatoshi Shima (嶋正利 Shima Masatoshi, born on August 22, 1943 in Shizuoka, Japan) was at least partly responsible for the design of the worlds first microprocessor, the Intel 4004. ... A microprocessor is a programmable digital electronic component that incorporates the functions of a central processing unit (CPU) on a single semiconducting integrated circuit (IC). ... Busicom was a company that owned the rights to the first microprocessor but sold them back to Intel. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Intel 4004 is a 4-bit central processing unit (CPU) released by Intel Corporation in 1971. ... is the 319th day of the year (320th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1971 Gregorian calendar. ... Texas Instruments (NYSE: TXN), better known in the electronics industry (and popularly) as TI, is an American company based in Dallas, Texas, USA, renowned for developing and commercializing semiconductor and computer technology. ...


From DRAM to microprocessors

In 1983, at the dawn of the personal computer era, Intel's profits came under increased pressure from Japanese memory-chip manufacturers, and then-President Andy Grove drove the company into a focus on microprocessors. Grove described this transition in the book Only the Paranoid Survive. A key element of his plan was the notion, then considered radical, of becoming the single source for successors to the popular 8086 microprocessor. This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... The 8086[1] is a 16-bit microprocessor chip designed by Intel in 1978, which gave rise to the x86 architecture. ...


Until then, manufacture of complex integrated circuits was not reliable enough for customers to depend on a single supplier, but Grove began producing processors in three geographically distinct factories, and ceased licensing the chip designs to competitors such as Zilog and AMD. When the PC industry exploded in the late 1980s and 1990s, Intel was one of the primary beneficiaries. Zilog, often seen as ZiLOG, is a manufacturer of 8-bit, 16-bit, 24-bit, and 32-bit CPUs, and is most famous for its Intel 8080-compatible Z80 series. ... Advanced Micro Devices, Inc. ...


Intel, x86 processors, and the IBM PC

Despite the ultimate importance of the microprocessor, the 4004 and its successors the 8008 and the 8080 were never major revenue contributors at Intel. As the next processor, the 8086 (and its variant the 8088) was completed in 1978, Intel embarked on a major marketing and sales campaign for that chip nicknamed "Operation Crush", and intended to win as many customers for the processor as possible. One design win was the newly-created IBM PC division, though the importance of this was not fully realized at the time. The Intel 4004, a 4-bit CPU, was the worlds first single_chip microprocessor, as well as the first commercial one. ... Intel 8008 The Intel 8008 was an early microprocessor designed and manufactured by Intel, and introduced in April, 1972. ... The Intel 8080 was an early microprocessor designed and manufactured by Intel. ... The 8086 is a 16-bit microprocessor chip designed by Intel in 1978, which gave rise to the x86 architecture. ... The Intel 8088 is an Intel microprocessor based on the 8086, with 16-bit registers and an 8-bit external data bus. ... IBM PC (IBM 5150) with keyboard and green screen monochrome monitor (IBM 5151), running MS-DOS 5. ...


IBM introduced its personal computer in 1981, and it was rapidly successful. In 1982, Intel created the 80286 microprocessor, which, two years later, was used in the IBM PC/AT. Compaq, the first IBM PC "clone" manufacturer, in 1985 produced a desktop system based on the faster 80286 processor and in 1986 quickly followed with the first 80386-based system, beating IBM and establishing a competitive market for PC-compatible systems and setting up Intel as a key component supplier. The Intel 80286 is an x86-family 16-bit microprocessor that was introduced by Intel on February 1, 1982. ... Compaq Computer Corporation is an American personal computer company founded in 1982, and now a brand name of Hewlett-Packard. ... The Intel 80286 is an x86-family 16-bit microprocessor that was introduced by Intel on February 1, 1982. ... The Intel 80386 is a microprocessor which was used as the central processing unit (CPU) of many personal computers from 1986 until 1994 and later. ...


386 microprocessor

During this period Andy Grove dramatically redirected the company, closing much of its DRAM business and directing resources to the microprocessor business. Of perhaps greater importance was his decision to "single-source" the 386 microprocessor. Prior to this, microprocessor manufacturing was in its infancy, and manufacturing problems frequently reduced or stopped production, interrupting supplies to customers. To mitigate this risk, these customers typically insisted that multiple manufacturers produce chips they could use to ensure a consistent supply. The 8080 and 8086-series microprocessors were produced by several companies, notably Zilog and AMD. Grove made the decision not to license the 386 design to other manufacturers, instead producing it in three geographically distinct factories in Santa Clara (CA), Hillsboro (OR), and Phoenix (AZ), and convincing customers that this would ensure consistent delivery. As the success of Compaq's Deskpro 386 established the 386 as the dominant CPU choice, Intel achieved a position of near-exclusive dominance as its supplier. Profits from this funded rapid development of both higher-performance chip designs and higher-performance manufacturing capabilities, propelling Intel to a position of unquestioned leadership by the early 1990s. Dram can mean several things: Dram (unit), an imperial unit of volume Dram, an imperial unit of weight or mass, see avoirdupois and apothecaries system Ottoman dram, a unit of weight, see dirhem Armenian dram, a monetary unit DRAM, a type of RAM Category: ... Zilog, often seen as ZiLOG, is a manufacturer of 8-bit, 16-bit, 24-bit, and 32-bit CPUs, and is most famous for its Intel 8080-compatible Z80 series. ... Advanced Micro Devices, Inc. ...

Intel Pentium 4 Processor

Image File history File links Source:http://howstuffworks. ... Image File history File links Source:http://howstuffworks. ...

486, Pentium, and Itanium

Intel introduced the 486 microprocessor in 1989, and in 1990 formally established a second design team, designing the processors code-named "P5" and "P6" in parallel and committing to a major new processor every two years, versus the four or more years such designs had previously taken. The P5 was introduced in 1993 as the Intel Pentium, substituting a trademarked name for the former part number (numbers, like 486, cannot be trademarked). The P6 followed in 1995 as the Pentium Pro and improved into the Pentium II in 1997. New architectures were developed alternately in Santa Clara, California and Hillsboro, Oregon. The Intel486[1] brand refers to Intels family of i486 (incl. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Pentium Pro is a sixth-generation x86 architecture microprocessor (P6 core) produced by Intel and was originally intended to replace the original Pentium in a full range of applications, but later, was reduced to a more narrow role as a server and high-end desktop chip. ... Intel Pentium II Logo The Pentium II is an x86 architecture microprocessor by Intel, introduced on May 7, 1997. ... Location of Santa Clara within Santa Clara County, California. ... Nickname: Location of Hillsboro in the state of Oregon Coordinates: , County Washington County Incorporated 1876 Government  - Mayor Tom Hughes Area  - City 58. ...


The Santa Clara design team embarked in 1993 on a successor to the x86 architecture, codenamed "P7". The first attempt was dropped a year later, but quickly revived in a cooperative program with Hewlett-Packard engineers, though Intel soon took over primary design responsibility. The resulting implementation of the IA-64 64-bit architecture was the Itanium, introduced in June 2001. The Itanium's performance running legacy x86 code did not achieve expectations, and it initially failed to effectively compete with 64-bit extensions to the original x86 architecture, first from AMD (the AMD64), then from Intel itself (the Intel 64, formerly known as EM64T). Intel continues to develop and deploy the Itanium and the IA-64 architecture as the Itanium 2. The Hewlett-Packard Company (NYSE: HPQ), commonly known as HP, is a very large, global company headquartered in Palo Alto, California, United States. ... In computing, IA-64 (short for Intel Architecture-64) is a 64-bit processor architecture developed cooperatively by Intel Corporation and Hewlett-Packard (HP), and implemented in the Itanium and Itanium 2 processors. ... Itanium logo The Itanium is a microprocessor developed jointly by Hewlett-Packard and Intel. ... AMD64 Logo AMD64 (also x86-64 or x64) is a 64-bit microprocessor architecture and corresponding instruction set designed by Advanced Micro Devices. ... x86-64 is a 64-bit microprocessor architecture and corresponding instruction set; it is a superset of the Intel x86 architecture, which it natively supports. ... Itanium 2 logo The Itanium 2 is an IA-64 64-bit microprocessor developed jointly by Hewlett-Packard (HP) and Intel, and introduced on July 8, 2002. ...


The Hillsboro team designed the Willamette processor (code-named P67 and P68) which was marketed as the Pentium 4, and later developed the 64-bit extensions to the x86 architecture, present in some versions of the Pentium 4 and in the Intel Core 2 chips. Many chip variants were developed at an office in Haifa, Israel. The Pentium 4[1] brand refers to Intels mainstream desktop and mobile single-core CPUs (introduced on November 20, 2000[2]) with the seventh-generation NetBurst architecture, which was the companys first all-new design since the Intel P6 of the Pentium Pro branded CPUs of 1995. ... The Core 2 brand refers to a range of Intels consumer 64-bit dual-core and MCM quad-core CPUs with the x86-64 instruction set, and based on the Intel Core microarchitecture, which derived from the 32-bit dual-core Yonah laptop processor. ... Haifa (Hebrew חיפה; Arabic حيفا Ḥayfā) is the third-largest city in Israel, with a population close to 300,000. ...


Pentium flaw

Main article: Pentium FDIV bug

In June 1994, Intel engineers discovered a flaw in the floating-point math subsection of the Pentium microprocessor. Under certain data dependent conditions, low order bits of the result of floating-point division operations would be incorrect, an error that can quickly compound in floating-point operations to much larger errors in subsequent calculations. Intel corrected the error in a future chip revision, but nonetheless declined to disclose it.[citation needed] On October 30, 1994, Professor Thomas Nicely who was then at Lynchburg College reported a bug in the Pentium floating point unit. ...


In October 1994, Dr. Thomas Nicely, Professor of Mathematics at Lynchburg College independently discovered the bug, and upon receiving no response from his inquiry to Intel, on October 30 posted a message on the Internet.[10] Word of the bug spread quickly on the Internet and then to the industry press. Because the bug was easy to replicate by an average user (there was a sequence of numbers one could enter into the OS calculator to show the error), Intel's statements that it was minor and "not even an erratum" were not accepted by many computer users. During Thanksgiving 1994, the New York Times ran a piece by journalist John Markoff spotlighting the error. Intel changed its position and offered to replace every chip, quickly putting in place a large end-user support organization. This resulted in a $500 million charge against Intel's 1994 revenue. Lynchburg College is a private college in Lynchburg, Virginia, USA, related by covenant to the Christian Church (Disciples of Christ) with approximately 2,400 undergraduate and graduate students. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... John Markoff (born October 24, 1949) is an American writer and journalist. ...


Ironically, the "Pentium flaw" incident, Intel's response to it, and the surrounding media coverage propelled Intel from being a technology supplier generally unknown to most computer users to a household name. Dovetailing with an uptick in the "Intel Inside" campaign, the episode is considered by some to have been a positive event for Intel, changing some of its business practices to be more end-user focused and generating substantial public awareness, while avoiding (for most users) a lasting negative impression.[citation needed]


Intel Inside, Intel Systems Division, and Intel Architecture Labs

During this period, Intel undertook two major supporting programs that helped guarantee their processor's success. The first is widely-known: the 1990 "Intel Inside" marketing and branding campaign. This campaign established Intel, which had been a component supplier little-known outside the PC industry, as a household name. The second program is little-known: Intel's Systems Group began, in the early 1990s, manufacturing PC "motherboards", the main board component of a personal computer, and the one into which the processor (CPU) and memory (RAM) chips are plugged. Shortly after, Intel began manufacturing fully-configured "white box" systems for the dozens of PC clone companies that rapidly sprang up. At its peak in the mid-1990s, Intel manufactured over 15% of all PCs, making it the third-largest supplier at the time. By manufacturing leading-edge PC motherboards systems, Intel enabled smaller manufacturers to compete with larger manufacturers, accelerating the adoption of the newest microprocessors and system architecture, including the PCI bus, USB and other innovations. This led to more rapid adoption of each of its new processors in turn.[citation needed] Intel Corporation (NASDAQ: INTC, SEHK: 4335), founded in 1968 as Integrated Electronics Corporation, is an American multinational corporation that is best known for designing and manufacturing microprocessors and specialized integrated circuits. ... Sony Playstation motherboard A motherboard, also known as main board, logic board or system board, is the central or primary circuit board making up a complex electronic system, such as a computer. ... This article is about the computer bus type. ... Note: USB may also mean upper sideband in radio. ...


During the 1990s, Intel's Architecture Lab (IAL) was responsible for many of the hardware innovations of the personal computer, including the PCI Bus, the PCI Express (PCIe) bus, the Universal Serial Bus (USB), Bluetooth wireless interconnect, and the now-dominant architecture for multiprocessor servers. IAL's software efforts met with a more mixed fate; its video and graphics software was important in the development of software digital video, but later its efforts were largely overshadowed by competition from Microsoft. The competition between Intel and Microsoft was revealed in testimony by IAL Vice-President Steven McGeady at the Microsoft antitrust trial. Intel Architecture Labs, also known as IAL, is the development arm of Intel Corporation for the Intel Architecture segment of its business. ... This article is about the computer bus type. ... PCI Express (formerly known as 3GIO for 3rd Generation I/O, not to be mistaken with PCI-X) is an implementation of the PCI computer bus that uses existing PCI programming concepts and communications standards, but bases it on a much faster serial communications system. ... USB redirects here. ... Bluetooth logo This article is about the electronic protocol named after Harald Bluetooth Gormson. ... Microsoft Corporation, (NASDAQ: MSFT, HKSE: 4338) is a multinational computer technology corporation with global annual revenue of US$44. ... Steven McGeady is a former Intel executive best known as a witness in the Microsoft Antitrust Trial. ... United States v. ...


Another factor contributing to rapid adoption of Intel's processors during this period were the successive release of Microsoft Windows operating systems, each requiring significantly greater processor resources. The releases of Windows 95, Windows 98, and Windows 2000 provided impetus for successive generations of hardware. “Windows” redirects here. ... Windows 95 is a consumer-oriented graphical user interface-based operating system. ... Windows 98 (codenamed Memphis) is a graphical operating system released on June 25, 1998 by Microsoft and the successor to Windows 95. ... Windows 2000 (also referred to as Win2K) is a preemptive, interruptible, graphical and business-oriented operating system designed to work with either uniprocessor or symmetric multi-processor computers. ...


Competition, antitrust and espionage

Two factors combined to end this dominance: the slowing of PC demand growth beginning in 2000 and the rise of the low-cost PC. By the end of the 1990s, microprocessor performance had outstripped software demand for that CPU power. Aside from high-end server systems and software, demand for which dropped with the end of the "dot-com bubble", consumer systems ran effectively on increasingly low-cost systems after 2000. Intel's strategy of producing ever-more-powerful processors and obsoleting their predecessors stumbled, leaving an opportunity for rapid gains by competitors, notably AMD. This in turn lowered the profitability of the processor line and ended an era of unprecedented dominance of the PC hardware by Intel.[citation needed] The dot-com bubble was a speculative bubble covering roughly 1995–2001 during which stock markets in Western nations saw their value increase rapidly from growth in the new Internet sector and related fields. ...


Intel's dominance in the x86 microprocessor market led to numerous charges of antitrust violations over the years, including FTC investigations in both the late 1980s and in 1999, and civil actions such as the 1997 suit by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) and a patent suit by Intergraph. Intel's market dominance (at one time it controlled over 85% of the market for 32-bit PC microprocessors) combined with Intel's own hardball legal tactics (such as its infamous 338 patent[11] suit versus PC manufacturers) made it an attractive target for litigation, but few of the lawsuits ever amounted to anything. x86 or 80x86 is the generic name of a microprocessor architecture first developed and manufactured by Intel. ... This article is about anti-competitive business behavior. ... | logo_caption = | seal = US-FederalTradeCommission-Seal. ... The DEC logo Digital Equipment Corporation was a pioneering American company in the computer industry. ... Intergraph was founded in 1969 as M&S Computing, Inc. ...


A case of industrial espionage arose in 1995 that involved both Intel and AMD. Guillermo Gaede, an Argentine formerly employed both at AMD and at Intel's Arizona plant, was arrested for attempting in 1993 to sell the i486 and Pentium designs to AMD and to certain foreign powers.[12] Gaede videotaped data from his computer screen at Intel and mailed it to AMD, which alerted Intel and authorities, resulting in Gaede's arrest. Gaede was convicted and sentenced to 33 months in prison in June of 1996.[13][14] It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Competitive Intelligence. ... Advanced Micro Devices, Inc. ... Location in Maricopa County and the state of Arizona Coordinates: , Country United States State Arizona Counties Maricopa Government  - Mayor Boyd W. Dunn (R) Area  - City  58. ... Intel i486 DX2- top view The Intel i486 (also called 486 or 80486) is a range of Intel CISC microprocessors which is part of the Intel x86 family of processors. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Partnership with Apple

For more details on this topic, see Apple Intel transition.
Steve Jobs confirms the rumors of the transition at the 2005 WWDC. The lowered "e" is a humorous reference to Intel's former logo.
Steve Jobs confirms the rumors of the transition at the 2005 WWDC. The lowered "e" is a humorous reference to Intel's former logo.

On June 6, 2005, Apple CEO Steve Jobs announced that Apple would be transitioning from its long favored PowerPC architecture to the Intel x86 architecture, because the future PowerPC road map was unable to satisfy Apple's needs. The first Apple computers containing Intel CPUs were announced on January 10, 2006. Apple initially planned to put Intel chips in all of their computers by the end of 2007, and later announced that it would be complete by the end of 2006[15], but Apple managed to have its entire consumer product line running on Intel processors by early August 2006. The Apple Xserve server was updated to Intel Xeon processors from November 2006 and is offered in a configuration similar to Apple's Mac Pro.[16] The Apple Intel transition was the process of changing the CPU of Macintosh computers from PowerPC processors to Intel x86 processors. ... Image File history File links Apple_Intel_transition_WWDC.jpg‎ Steve Jobs announces the Apple Intel transition at the 2005 WWDC. Source: PC Watch [1] This image is claimed to be used under fair use as: it is a photograph of a historically significant event it is relevant to the aforementioned article its... Image File history File links Apple_Intel_transition_WWDC.jpg‎ Steve Jobs announces the Apple Intel transition at the 2005 WWDC. Source: PC Watch [1] This image is claimed to be used under fair use as: it is a photograph of a historically significant event it is relevant to the aforementioned article its... is the 157th day of the year (158th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Apple Inc. ... Steven Paul Jobs (born February 24, 1955) is the co-founder and CEO of Apple and was the CEO of Pixar until its acquisition by Disney. ... PowerPC is a RISC microprocessor architecture created by the 1991 Apple–IBM–Motorola alliance, known as AIM. Originally intended for personal computers, PowerPC CPUs have since become popular embedded and high-performance processors as well. ... Intel Pentium 4 (Northwood version), one example out of a huge number of x86 implementations from Intel, AMD, and others. ... is the 10th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... This article is about the Intel microprocessor. ...


Core Duo advertisement controversy

In 2007, the company released a print advertisement for its Core Duo processor featuring six African American runners appearing to bow down to a Caucasian male inside of an office setting. According to Nancy Bhagat, Vice President of Intel Corporate Marketing, the general public found the ad to be "insensitive and insulting".[17] The campaign was quickly pulled and several Intel executives made public apologies on the corporate website.[18]


Corporate affairs

In September 2006, Intel had nearly 100,000 employees and 200 facilities world wide. Its 2005 revenues were $38.8 billion and its Fortune 500 ranking was 49th. Its stock symbol is INTC, listed on the NASDAQ. The Fortune 500 is a ranking of the top 500 United States corporations as measured by gross revenue. ... NASDAQ in Times Square, New York City. ...


Leadership and corporate structure

Robert Noyce was Intel's CEO at its founding in 1968, followed by co-founder Gordon Moore in 1975. Andy Grove became the company's President in 1979 and added the CEO title in 1987 when Moore became Chairman. In 1997 Grove succeeded Moore as Chairman, and Craig Barrett, already company president, took over. On May 18, 2005, Barrett handed the reins of the company over to Paul Otellini, who previously was the company president and was responsible for Intel's design win in the original IBM PC. The board of directors elected Otellini CEO, and Barrett replaced Grove as Chairman of the Board. Grove stepped down as Chairman, but will be retained as a special adviser. Robert Noyce Robert Noyce (December 12, 1927 – June 3, 1990), nicknamed the Mayor of Silicon Valley, co-founded Fairchild Semiconductor in 1957 and Intel in 1968. ... “Chief executive” redirects here. ... Gordon Earle Moore (b. ... Andrew Stephen Grove (born September 2, 1936) is co_founder and chairman of Intel Corporation. ... President is a title held by many leaders of organizations, companies, trade unions, universities, and countries. ... A Chairman is the presiding officer of a meeting, organization, committee, or other deliberative body. ... Craig R. Barrett (born August 29, 1939) has been the President of Intel Corporation since 1997 and its Chief Executive Officer since 1998. ... President is a title held by many leaders of organizations, companies, trade unions, universities, and countries. ... is the 138th day of the year (139th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Paul S. Otellini (born October 12, 1950) is Intel Corporations fifth Chief Executive Officer. ... IBM PC (IBM 5150) with keyboard and green screen monochrome monitor (IBM 5151), running MS-DOS 5. ... Chairman of the Board redirects here. ... Chairman of the Board redirects here. ...


Current members of the board of directors of Intel are Craig Barrett, Charlene Barshefsky, Susan Decker James Guzy, Reed Hundt, Paul Otellini, James Plummer, David Pottruck, Jane Shaw, John Thornton, and David Yoffie[19]. Chairman of the Board redirects here. ... Charlene Barshefsky (Chinese name: 白茜芙) served as United States Trade Representative, the countrys top trade negotiator, from 1997 to 2001. ... has been a director of Costco Corporation, and has served as Chief Financial Officer of Yahoo! Incorporated. ... Reed Hundt was chairman of the Federal Communications Commission. ...


Employee policies

Intel is not typical of its Silicon Valley counterparts. Its culture is not as relaxed and informal as companies such as Google or Sun Microsystems. It has a fairly strict meritocracy that rewards work generously and does not keep underrated employees around for very long.[20][21] This article is about the corporation. ... Sun Microsystems, Inc. ...


The firm promotes very heavily from within, most notably in its executive suite. The company has resisted the trend toward outsider CEOs. Paul Otellini was a 30-year veteran of the company when he assumed the role of CEO. All of his top lieutenants have risen through the ranks after many years with the firm. In many cases, Intel's top executives have spent their entire working careers with Intel, a very rare occurrence in volatile Silicon Valley.


Intel has a mandatory retirement policy for its CEO when they reach age 65, but only one CEO, Barrett, has actually retired at 65. Previous CEOs all retired before reaching that age; Grove retired at 62, while both Robert Noyce and Gordon Moore retired at 58. At 57, Otellini has a long career at the helm ahead of him, assuming he goes until age 65 and performs satisfactorily.


No one has an office; everyone, even Otellini, sits in a cubicle. This is designed to promote egalitarianism among employees, but some new hires have difficulty adjusting to this change. Intel is not alone in this policy. Hewlett-Packard has a similar no-office policy. A cubicle desk forms an integral whole with the five or six foot high partitions that separate it from the neighbors. ... Egalitarianism (derived from the French word égal, meaning equal or level) is a political doctrine that holds that all people should be treated as equals from birth. ... The Hewlett-Packard Company (NYSE: HPQ), commonly known as HP, is a very large, global company headquartered in Palo Alto, California, United States. ...


Diversity Initiative

Intel has a Diversity Initiative, including employee diversity groups as well as supplier diversity programs.[22] Like many companies with employee diversity groups, they include groups based on race and nationality as well as sexual identity and religion. In 1994, Intel sanctioned one of the earliest corporate Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, and Transgender employee groups,[23] and supports a Muslim employees group,[24] a Jewish employees group,[25] and a Bible-based Christian group.[26][27]


Intel received a 100% rating on the first Corporate Equality Index released by the Human Rights Campaign in 2002. It has maintained this rating in 2003 and 2004. In addition, the company was named one of the 100 Best Companies for Working Mothers in 2005 by Working Mother magazine. However, Intel's working practices still face criticism, most notably from Ken Hamidi,[28] a former employee who has been subject to multiple unsuccessful lawsuits from Intel. HRC logo The Human Rights Campaign (HRC) is one of the largest lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) equal rights organization in the United States. ...


Finances

Intel stock price, Nov 1986 - Nov 2006
Intel stock price, Nov 1986 - Nov 2006

Intel's market capitalization is $153.42 billion (October 31, 2007). It publicly trades on NASDAQ with the symbol INTC, and is a member of the following indices: Dow Jones Industrial Average, S&P 500, NASDAQ-100, SOX (PHLX Semiconductor Sector), and GSTI Software Index. Image File history File links Intc-hist-price-1986-2006. ... Image File history File links Intc-hist-price-1986-2006. ... Market capitalization, or market cap, is a measurement of corporate or economic size equal to the stock price times the number of shares outstanding of a public company. ... NASDAQ in Times Square, New York City. ... Linear graph of the DJIA from 1901 until today Logarithmic graph of the DJIA from 1901 until today The Dow Jones Industrial Average (NYSE: DJI, also called the DJIA, Dow 30, or informally the Dow Jones or The Dow) is one of several stock market indices created by nineteenth-century... The S&P 500 is an index containing the stocks of 500 Large-Cap corporations, most of which are American. ... The NASDAQ-100 is a stock market index of 100 of the largest domestic and international non-financial companies listed on the NASDAQ stock exchange based on market capitalization. ... The PHLX Semiconductor Sector (SOX) is a price-weighted stock market index composed of 19 companies primarily involved in the design, distribution, manufacture, and sale of semiconductors. ... GSTI Software Index stands for Goldman Sachs Technology Index (GSTI) Software Index. ...


INTC is a widely-held stock, with almost 5.85 billion shares outstanding. Institutional investors and mutual funds hold 60% of this stock, and corporate insiders, including Gordon Moore and Andy Grove, hold only about 3%. Intel achieved its all-time high closing stock price on August 31, 2000 at $74.87. Since then, it reached a low closing price of $14.62 on September 23, 2002. As of late October 2007, the stock price was trading in a range between $25.50 and $26.50.


Advertising and brand management

Intel has become one of the world's most recognizable computer brands following its long-running "Intel Inside" campaign. The campaign, which started in 1990, was created by Intel marketing manager Dennis Carter.[29] The four-note jingle was introduced the following year and by its tenth anniversary was being heard in 130 countries around the world.

Intel's old logo
(1968–December 2005)
The well known Intel Inside slogan (1990–2003)
The well known
Intel Inside slogan
(1990–2003)
Before its demise, the 'Intel Inside' logo was modified to resemble the original Intel logo by lowering the Intel 'e' and changing the font.
Before its demise, the 'Intel Inside' logo was modified to resemble the original Intel logo by lowering the Intel 'e' and changing the font.
Intel's new logo and slogan
(December 2005–Present)

The Intel Inside program was very lucrative for advertisers and further served to broaden the company's awareness as a key ingredient inside PCs. Intel paid half the advertising costs for any ad that used the "Intel Inside" logo. If the ads didn't meet these requirements, Intel did not pay half the cost, and the advertiser was prohibited from using the "Intel Inside" logo. PC companies advertising products containing Intel chips are required to include the jingle in their film and television advertisements in order to receive the reimbursement. Image File history File links Intel-logo. ... Image File history File links Intel-logo. ... Image File history File links Intel_Inside_Logo. ... Image File history File links Intel_Inside_Logo. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Intel_4c_100tag. ... Image File history File links Intel_4c_100tag. ...


The Centrino advertising campaign has been hugely successful, leading to the ability to access wireless internet from a laptop becoming linked in consumers' minds to Intel chips. In the UK this has caused some controversy, as the ASA upheld complaints that this was a misleading advert.[citation needed] Components of the Centrino platform. ... The Advertising Standards Authority (ASA) is the independent British self regulatory organisation (SRO) of the advertising industry. ...


In December 2005, Intel phased out the "Intel Inside" campaign in favor of a new logo and the slogan, "Leap ahead". The new logo is clearly inspired by the "Intel Inside" logo. In fact, sometimes "Intel Inside" is used, only this time with the processor name between the two words. Like so: "Intel Core Duo Inside".[citation needed]


In 2006, Intel expanded its promotion of open specification platforms beyond Centrino, to include the Viiv media centre PC and the business desktop Intel vPro. Intel Viiv brand logo. ... Logo for Intel vPro Intel vPro is a platform marketing initiative similar to that of Centrino and Viiv. ...


In mid January 2006, Intel announced that they were dropping the long running Pentium name from its processors. The Pentium name was first used to refer to the P5 core Intel processors (Pent refers to the 5 in P5,) and was done to circumvent court rulings that prevent the trademarking of a string of numbers, so competitors could not just call their processor the same name, as had been done with the prior 386 and 486 processors. (Both of which had copies manufactured by both IBM and AMD). They phased out the Pentium names from mobile processors first, when the new Yonah chips, branded Core Solo and Core Duo, were released. The desktop processors changed when the Core 2 line of processors were released. Yonah has several meanings: Yonah means bear in Cherokee Yonah is a variant transliteration for Jonah (יונה) in Hebrew Yonah was one of the four steam locomotives involved in the Great Locomotive Chase during the American Civil War. ... This article is about the Intel mobile processor family. ...


In March 2007, The Intel logo was shown briefly in one of the scenes of the movie, "The Last Mimzy."


Though some[Who?] in the Macintosh community were concerned that Intel's branding, including the decals and jingle, would be used with the new Intel-based Macintoshes (see Apple Intel transition), this has not occurred. Look up Decal in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A jingle is a memorable slogan, set to an engaging melody, mainly broadcast on radio and sometimes on television commercials. ... The Apple Intel transition was the process of changing the CPU of Macintosh computers from PowerPC processors to Intel x86 processors. ...


As from 2008, Intel plans to shift the emphasis of its "Intel Inside" campaign from traditional media such as television and print to newer media such as the Internet. Intel will require that a minimum of 35% of the money it provides to the companies in its co-op program be used for online marketing.[30]


Intel's "Intel Inside" campaign has generally been considered to be world class marketing. However, over the years there have been several plays on the Intel branding scheme which have appeared on the web. While such jabs at Intel are obviously beyond the company's ability to control, they do tend to show that not everyone believes that Intel's programs and policies are always world class. For example, there is the popular "evil inside" logo[2], the ubiquitous picture of a tombstone with "R.I.P Intel Inside" [31]


Sonic logo

The famous "D♭  D♭  G♭  D♭  A♭" jingle, sonic logo, tag, audio mnemonic (MP3 file of sonic logo) was written by Walter Werzowa from the Austrian 1980s sampling band Edelweiss.[32] A jingle is a memorable slogan, set to an engaging melody, mainly broadcast on radio and sometimes on television commercials. ... For other uses, see Mnemonic (disambiguation). ... Walter Thomas Werzowa is a composer and member of the 1980s Austrian sampling band Edelweiss. ... Edelweiss was an Austrian band which had two single hits: Bring me Edelweiss in 1988/1989; Starship Edelweiss in 1992 from the album Wonderful World of Edelweiss. The band used a lot humour and sexually suggestive lyrics in its music. ...


Open source support

Intel has a significant participation in the open source communities. For example, in 2006 Intel released MIT-licensed X.org drivers for their integrated graphics cards of the i965 family of chipsets. On other occasions, Intel released FreeBSD drivers for some networking cards,[33] available under a BSD-compatible licence, which were also ported to OpenBSD. Open source refers to projects that are open to the public and which draw on other projects that are freely available to the general public. ... The MIT License, originated at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, is a license for the use of certain types of computer software. ... The X.Org logo The X.Org Foundation is the consortium holding the stewardship for the development of the X Window System. ... FreeBSD is a Unix-like free operating system descended from AT&T UNIX via the Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD) branch through the 386BSD and 4. ... OpenBSD is a Unix-like computer operating system descended from Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD), a Unix derivative developed at the University of California, Berkeley. ...

However, after the release of the wireless products called Intel Pro/Wireless 2100, 2200BG/2225BG/2915ABG and 3945ABG in 2005, Intel was criticized for not granting free redistribution rights for the firmwares that are necessary to be included in the operating systems for the wireless devices to operate.[34] As a result of this, Intel became a target of campaigns to allow free operating systems to include binary firmwares on terms acceptable to the open source community. Linspire-Linux creator Michael Robertson outlined the difficult position that Intel was in releasing to Open Source, as Intel did not want to upset their large customer Microsoft.[35] Theo de Raadt of OpenBSD also claimed that Intel is being "an Open Source fraud" after an Intel employee presented a distorted view of the situation on an open-source conference.[36] In spite of the significant negative attention Intel received as a result of the wireless dealings, the binary firmware still has not gained a license compatible with free software principles. Image File history File links Emblem-important. ... Image File history File links Gnome_globe_current_event. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article is about operating systems that use the Linux kernel. ... Michael Robertson (born 1967) is the founder and former CEO of MP3. ... Microsoft Corporation, (NASDAQ: MSFT, HKSE: 4338) is a multinational computer technology corporation with global annual revenue of US$44. ... Theo de Raadt, (IPA pronunciation: ), born May 19, 1968 in Pretoria, South Africa, is a software engineer who lives in Calgary, Alberta, Canada. ... OpenBSD is a Unix-like computer operating system descended from Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD), a Unix derivative developed at the University of California, Berkeley. ...


Competition

During the 1980s, Intel was among the top ten worldwide semiconductor sales leaders (10th in 1987), dominated by Japanese chip makers. In 1991, Intel achieved the number one ranking and has held it ever since. Other top semiconductor companies include AMD, Samsung, Texas Instruments, Toshiba and STMicroelectronics. Advanced Micro Devices, Inc. ... Samsung Group is one of the largest South Korean business groupings. ... Texas Instruments (NYSE: TXN), better known in the electronics industry (and popularly) as TI, is an American company based in Dallas, Texas, USA, renowned for developing and commercializing semiconductor and computer technology. ... Toshiba Corporations headquarters (Center) in Hamamatsucho, Tokyo Toshiba Corporation sales by division for year ending March 31, 2005 Toshiba Corporation ) (TYO: 6502 ) is a Japanese multinational conglomerate manufacturing company, headquartered in Tokyo, Japan. ... STMicroelectronics is an international leading supplier of semiconductors. ...

Further information: Semiconductor sales leaders by year

Competitors in PC chipsets include VIA Technologies, SiS, ATI, and NVIDIA. Intel's competitors in networking include Freescale, Infineon, Broadcom, Marvell Technology Group and AMCC, and its competitors in flash memory include Spansion, Samsung, Qimonda, Toshiba, STMicroelectronics, and Hynix. The tone or style of this article or section may not be appropriate for Wikipedia. ... VIA Technologies logo VIA Technologies is a Taiwanese manufacturer of integrated circuits, mainly motherboard chipsets, CPUs, and memory, and is part of the Formosa Plastics Group. ... Silicon Integrated Systems (SiS) is a company that manufactures, among other things, motherboards. ... ATI may stand for: ATI Technologies Inc. ... NVIDIA Corporation (NASDAQ: NVDA) (pronounced IPA: ) is a U.S. corporation specializing in the manufacture of graphics processor technologies for workstations, desktop computers, and handhelds. ... American corporation Freescale Semiconductor, Inc. ... Infineon Technologies is a German manufacturer of integrated circuits and related products. ... Broadcom Corporation is a leading American supplier of integrated circuits (ICs) for broadband communications. ... Marvell (NASDAQ: MRVL) is an American producer of storage, communications and consumer semiconductor products. ... The current version of the article or section reads like an advertisement. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Samsung Group is one of the largest South Korean business groupings. ... Qimonda AG (NYSE: QI), (pronounced key-MON-duh) is the new memory company split out of Infineon Technologies AG on May 1, 2006, to form the third largest DRAM company worldwide, according to the industry research firm Gartner Dataquest. ... Toshiba Corporations headquarters (Center) in Hamamatsucho, Tokyo Toshiba Corporation sales by division for year ending March 31, 2005 Toshiba Corporation ) (TYO: 6502 ) is a Japanese multinational conglomerate manufacturing company, headquartered in Tokyo, Japan. ... STMicroelectronics is an international leading supplier of semiconductors. ... Hynix Semiconductor Inc. ...


The only major competitor to Intel on the x86 processor market is Advanced Micro Devices (AMD), with which Intel has had full cross-licensing agreements since 1976: each partner can use the other's patented technological innovations without charge after a certain time.[37] However, the cross-licensing agreement is canceled in the event of an AMD bankruptcy or takeover. [38] Some smaller competitors such as VIA and Transmeta produce low-power processors for small factor computers and portable equipment. x86 or 80x86 is the generic name of a microprocessor architecture first developed and manufactured by Intel. ... AMD redirects here. ... For other uses, see Patent (disambiguation). ... VIA Technologies logo VIA Technologies is a Taiwanese manufacturer of integrated circuits, mainly motherboard chipsets, CPUs, and memory, and is part of the Formosa Plastics Group. ... Transmeta NASDAQ: TMTA develops computing technologies with a focus on reducing power consumption in electronic devices. ... In electronics, the term low-power means one of two things about a device: Said of a radio transmitter, that the power of the broadcast is less, i. ...


Lawsuits

In September 2005, Intel filed its response to an AMD lawsuit,[39] disputing AMD's claims, and stating that its business practices are fair and lawful. In its rebuttal, Intel laid out the skeleton of its legal defense, which included a deconstruction of AMD's offensive strategy and levied the charge that AMD's long-struggling market position is largely a result of bad business decisions and management incompetence, including underinvestment in essential manufacturing capacity and over-reliance on contracting out chip foundries.[40]


Legal experts predict the lawsuit will most likely drag out for a number of years, since Intel's response indicates they are not likely to try to settle with AMD.[citation needed]


In October 2006, a Transmeta lawsuit was filed against Intel for patent infringement covering computer architecture and power efficiency technologies.[41] Transmeta NASDAQ: TMTA develops computing technologies with a focus on reducing power consumption in electronic devices. ...


In October 2007, the lawsuit was settled, with Intel agreeing to pay an initial US$150 million and US$20 million per year for the next 5 years. Both companies agreed to drop lawsuits against each other while Intel was granted a perpetual non-exclusive license to use current and future patented Transmeta technologies in its chips for 10 years.[42]


Anti-competitive allegations by regulatory bodies

In July 2007, the European Commission formally accused Intel of anti-competitive practices, mostly against its main competitor AMD.[43] The allegations, going back to 2003, include giving preferential prices to computer makers getting most or all CPU chips from Intel, paying computer makers to delay or cancel the launch of products using AMD chips and providing CPU chips at below cost to governments and educational institutions.[44] Berlaymont, the Commissions seat The European Commission (formally the Commission of the European Communities) is the executive branch of the European Union. ... AMD redirects here. ...


Intel responded that the allegations were unfounded and instead qualified its market behavior as consumer-friendly.[45] General counsel Bruce Sewell also responded that the Commission had misunderstood some factual assumptions concerning price and manufacturing costs.[46]


If found guilty of stifling competition, Intel could be fined up to 10% of its annual revenue.[45] Rival AMD also subsequently launched a website focusing on these allegations.[47][48]


In September 2007, South Korean regulators formally accused Intel of breaking antitrust law. The inquiry began in February 2006 when officials raided Intel's South Korean offices. If found guilty, the company risks being fined up to 3% of its annual sales.[49] For Korea as a whole, see Korea. ...


Quotes

Bad companies are destroyed by crisis, Good companies survive them, Great companies are improved by them Image File history File links Edit-copy_purple. ... Wikiquote is one of a family of wiki-based projects run by the Wikimedia Foundation, running on MediaWiki software. ...

Andy Grove, after the Pentium Processor flaw in December 1994

Each year the H1-B cap has been reached earlier and earlier and earlier. By hitting it the first day, it means it is severely under-rated how many we [the United States] need. [...] If the cap is truly reached, that means there are no [visas] available until 10/1/08. ...It will impact hiring." The H-1B is a non-immigrant visa category under the Immigration & Nationality Act, section 101(a)(15)(H). ...

Margie Jones, U.S. immigration manager at Intel Corp, "US reaches visa cap, skilled workers out of luck", Reuters, April 4, 2007

Reuters Group plc (LSE: RTR and NASDAQ: RTRSY); pronounced is known as a financial market data provider and a news service that provides reports from around the world to newspapers and broadcasters. ... is the 94th day of the year (95th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ...

See also

AMD redirects here. ... Transmeta NASDAQ: TMTA develops computing technologies with a focus on reducing power consumption in electronic devices. ... The Intel Graphics Media Accelerator (GMA) is Intels current line of graphics cards (as IGP). ... This table contains general information about NVIDIAs GPUs and videocards based on official NVIDIA specifications. ... This page contains general information about ATIs GPUs and video cards based on official ATI specifications in table form. ... The Intel Science Talent Search (ISTS) is a prestigious research-based science competition in the United States primarily for high school students. ... ASCI Red or ASCI Option Red, is a supercomputer installed at Sandia National Laboratories, located in Albuquerque, New Mexico. ... Justin Rattner is an Intel Senior Fellow and director of Intels Corporate Technology Group. ... This generational and chronological list of Intel microprocessors attempts to present all of Intels processors from the pioneering 4-bit 4004 (1971) to the present high-end offerings, the 64-bit Itanium 2 (2002) and Intel Core 2 and Xeon 5100 and 7100 series processors (2006). ... This is a list of computer motherboard chipsets made by Intel. ... . ... . ... . ... . ... . ... . ... . ... The Core 2 brand refers to Intels x86 64-bit microprocessors (with the eighth-generation microarchitecture, named Core architecture) targeted at the consumer and business markets (except the servers) above Pentium Dual-Core. ...

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Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 221st day of the year (222nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 258th day of the year (259th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 243rd day of the year (244th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 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Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 245th day of the year (246th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 284th day of the year (285th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Reuters Group plc (LSE: RTR and NASDAQ: RTRSY); pronounced is known as a financial market data provider and a news service that provides reports from around the world to newspapers and broadcasters. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 297th day of the year (298th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 298th day of the year (299th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 208th day of the year (209th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Reuters Group plc (LSE: RTR and NASDAQ: RTRSY); pronounced is known as a financial market data provider and a news service that provides reports from around the world to newspapers and broadcasters. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 208th day of the year (209th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 208th day of the year (209th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Reuters Group plc (LSE: RTR and NASDAQ: RTRSY); pronounced is known as a financial market data provider and a news service that provides reports from around the world to newspapers and broadcasters. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 208th day of the year (209th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 220th day of the year (221st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 221st day of the year (222nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 221st day of the year (222nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The International Herald Tribune is a widely read English language international newspaper. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 254th day of the year (255th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

  • Intel website
  • blogs.intel.com
  • Andy Grove interview by iinnovatecast
  • YouTube Intel Channel
  • Intel Corporation at the Open Directory Project
Business data

  Results from FactBites:
 
Intel Corporation - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2527 words)
Intel's core competency is based not only in its chip design capability but in its world class manufacturing operation; the company is at the leading edge of advanced process technology and also has advanced research projects in all aspects of semiconductor manufacturing, including MEMS.
Intel was founded in 1968 by Gordon E. Moore (a chemist and physicist) and Robert Noyce (a physicist and co-inventor of the integrated circuit) when they left Fairchild Semiconductor.
Intel's dominance in the x86 microprocessor market led to numerous charges of antitrust violations over the years, including FTC investigations in both the late 1980s and in 1999, and civil actions such as the 1997 suit by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) and a patent suit by Intergraph.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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