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Encyclopedia > Intel Core 2
Core 2
Central processing unit

Codename "Conroe"
Produced: From 2006
Manufacturer: Intel
CPU speeds: 1.06 GHz to 3 GHz
FSB speeds: 533 MT/s to 1333 MT/s
Process:
(MOSFET channel length)
0.065 µm to 0.065 µm
Instruction set: x86, MMX, SSE, SSE2, SSE3, SSSE3, x86-64
Microarchitecture: Intel Core microarchitecture
Cores: 1, 2, or 4 (2x2)
Sockets:
Core name: Conroe, Allendale, Merom, Merom-2M, Kentsfield

The Core 2 brand refers to a range of Intel's consumer 64-bit dual-core and MCM quad-core CPUs with the x86-64 instruction set, and based on the Intel Core microarchitecture, which derived from the 32-bit dual-core Yonah laptop processor. (Note: The Yonah had two interconnected cores, similar to those branded as Pentium M, but comprising a single silicon chip or die.) The 2x2 MCM quad-core CPU (dual-die dual-core[1]) had two separate dual-core CPUs (dies) - next to each other - in one quad-core MCM package. The Core 2 relegated the Pentium brand to a lower-end market, and reunified the laptop and desktop CPU lines divided into the Pentium 4, D, and M brands. “CPU” redirects here. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (654x648, 281 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Intel Core 2 ... Intel Corporation (NASDAQ: INTC, SEHK: 4335), founded in 1968 as Integrated Electronics Corporation, is an American multinational corporation that is best known for designing and manufacturing microprocessors and specialized integrated circuits. ... “CPU” redirects here. ... This article is about the SI unit of frequency. ... This article is about the SI unit of frequency. ... In computers, the front side bus (FSB) or system bus is the physical bi-directional data bus that carries all electronic signal information between the central processing unit (CPU) and the northbridge. ... Megatransfer is a term used in computer technology, referring to a number of data transfers (or operations). ... Megatransfer is a term used in computer technology, referring to a number of data transfers (or operations). ... The metal–oxide–semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET, MOS-FET, or MOS FET) is by far the most common field-effect transistor in both digital and analog circuits. ... A micrometre (American spelling: micrometer, symbol µm) is an SI unit of length equal to one millionth of a metre, or about a tenth of the diameter of a droplet of mist or fog. ... An instruction set is (a list of) all instructions, and all their variations, that a processor can execute. ... x86 or 80x86 is the generic name of a microprocessor architecture first developed and manufactured by Intel. ... MMX is a SIMD instruction set designed by Intel, introduced in 1997 in their Pentium MMX microprocessors. ... SSE (Streaming SIMD Extensions, originally called ISSE, Internet Streaming SIMD Extensions) is a SIMD (Single Instruction, Multiple Data) instruction set designed by Intel and introduced in 1999 in their Pentium III series processors as a reply to AMDs 3DNow! (which had debuted a year earlier). ... SSE2, Streaming Single Instruction, Multiple Data Extensions 2, is one of the IA-32 SIMD instruction sets, first introduced by Intel with the initial version of the Pentium 4 in 2001. ... SSE3, also known by its Intel code name Prescott New Instructions (PNI), is the third iteration of the SSE instruction set for the IA-32 architecture. ... Supplemental Streaming SIMD Extension 3 (SSSE3)[1] is Intels name for the SSE instruction sets fourth iteration, as they appear to consider it merely a revision of SSE3. ... The AMD64 or x86-64 is a 64-bit processor architecture invented by AMD. It is a superset of the x86 architecture, which it natively supports. ... In computer engineering, microarchitecture (sometime abbreviated to µarch or uarch) is a description of the electrical circuitry of a computer, central processing unit, or digital signal processor that is sufficient for completely describing the operation of the hardware. ... The Intel Core microarchitecture (previously known as the Intel Next-Generation Micro-Architecture, or NGMA) is a multi-core processor microarchitecture unveiled by Intel in Q1 2006. ... Diagram of an Intel Core 2 dual core processor, with CPU-local Level 1 caches, and a shared, on-die Level 2 cache. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Socket M (sometimes referred to as FCPGA6) is a CPU interface introduced by Intel in 2006 for the Intel Core line of mobile processors [1]. It is currently used in all Intel Core products, as well as the Core-derived Dual-Core Xeon codenamed Sossaman. It is also used in... The Intel Socket P is the next processor socket replacement for the new Intel Core 2 Chips. ... A notebook processor is a CPU optimized for notebook computers. ... Intel Corporation (NASDAQ: INTC, SEHK: 4335), founded in 1968 as Integrated Electronics Corporation, is an American multinational corporation that is best known for designing and manufacturing microprocessors and specialized integrated circuits. ... In computing, a 64-bit component is one in which data are processed or stored in 64-bit units (words). ... POWER5 MCM with four processors and four 36 MB external L3 cache modules on a ceramic substrate. ... CPU can stand for: in computing: Central processing unit in journalism: Commonwealth Press Union in law enforcement: Crime prevention unit in software: Critical patch update, a type of software patch distributed by Oracle Corporation in Macleans College is often known as Ash Lim. ... The AMD64 or x86-64 is a 64-bit processor architecture invented by AMD. It is a superset of the x86 architecture, which it natively supports. ... The Intel Core Microarchitecture is Intels new processor architecture. ... 32-bit is a term applied to processors, and computer architectures which manipulate the address and data in 32-bit chunks. ... A Dual-core CPU combines two independent processors and their respective caches and cache controllers onto a single silicon die, or integrated circuit. ... This article is about the Intel mobile processor family. ... This article is about the Intel mobile processor family. ... Introduced in March 2003, the Pentium M is an x86 architecture microprocessor designed and manufactured by Intel. ... Integrated circuit of Atmel Diopsis 740 System on Chip showing memory blocks, logic and input/output pads around the periphery Microchips with a transparent window, showing the integrated circuit inside. ... A die in the context of integrated circuits is a small piece of semiconducting material on which a given circuit is fabricated. ... POWER5 MCM with four processors and four 36 MB external L3 cache modules on a ceramic substrate. ... POWER5 MCM with four processors and four 36 MB external L3 cache modules on a ceramic substrate. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The new Pentium Dual-Core logo The Pentium Dual-Core brand (limited to 2007[1]) refers to lower-end x86-architecture microprocessors from Intel. ... The Pentium name is included in a family of brands of Intels single- and multi-core x86-compatible microprocessors[1]. It was first used for the Pentium[2] branded CPUs with the Intels fifth-generation P5 microarchitecture. ... The Pentium 4[1] brand refers to Intels mainstream desktop and mobile single-core CPUs (introduced on November 20, 2000[2]) with the seventh-generation NetBurst architecture, which was the companys first all-new design since the Intel P6 of the Pentium Pro branded CPUs of 1995. ... Pentium D logo as of 2006. ... Introduced in March 2003, the Pentium M is an x86 architecture microprocessor designed and manufactured by Intel. ...


The Core microarchitecture returned to lower clock speeds and improved processors' usage of both available clock cycles and power compared with preceding NetBurst of the Pentium 4/D branded CPUs[2]. It translated into more efficient decoding stages, execution units, caches, and buses, etc, reducing the power consumption of Core 2 branded CPUs, while enhancing their processing capacity. The Intel Core Microarchitecture is Intels new processor architecture. ... The clock rate is the fundamental rate in cycles per second (measured in hertz) at which a computer performs its most basic operations such as adding two numbers or transferring a value from one processor register to another. ... The Intel NetBurst Microarchitecture, called P68 inside Intel, was the successor to the P6 microarchitecture in the x86 family of CPUs made by Intel. ... The Pentium 4[1] brand refers to Intels mainstream desktop and mobile single-core CPUs (introduced on November 20, 2000[2]) with the seventh-generation NetBurst architecture, which was the companys first all-new design since the Intel P6 of the Pentium Pro branded CPUs of 1995. ... Pentium D logo as of 2006. ... CPU can stand for: in computing: Central processing unit in journalism: Commonwealth Press Union in law enforcement: Crime prevention unit in software: Critical patch update, a type of software patch distributed by Oracle Corporation in Macleans College is often known as Ash Lim. ... For other uses, see cache (disambiguation). ... In electrical engineering, power consumption refers to the electrical energy over time that must be supplied to an electrical device to maintain its operation. ... CPU can stand for: in computing: Central processing unit in journalism: Commonwealth Press Union in law enforcement: Crime prevention unit in software: Critical patch update, a type of software patch distributed by Oracle Corporation in Macleans College is often known as Ash Lim. ...


The Core 2 brand was introduced on July 27, 2006[3] comprising of the Solo (single-core), Duo (dual-core), Quad (quad-core), and Extreme (dual- or quad-core CPUs for enthusiasts) branches, as of 2007[4]. is the 208th day of the year (209th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... A Dual-core CPU combines two independent processors and their respective caches and cache controllers onto a single silicon die, or integrated circuit. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Multi-core. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ...

Contents

Duo, Quad, and Extreme

The Core 2 branded CPUs include: "Conroe" and "Allendale" (dual-core for higher- and lower-end desktops), "Merom" (dual-core for laptops), "Kentsfield" (quad-core for desktops), and their variants named "Penryn" (dual-core for laptops), "Wolfdale" (dual-core for desktops) and "Yorkfield" (quad-core for desktops). (Note: For the server and workstation "Woodcrest", "Clovertown", and "Tigerton" CPUs see the Xeon brand[5].) This article is about the Intel microprocessor. ...


The Core 2 branded processors featured the Virtualization Technology (except T5500 or lower end E4x00), Execute Disable Bit, and SSE3. Their Core microarchitecture introduced also SSSE3, Trusted Execution Technology, Enhanced SpeedStep, and Active Management Technology (iAMT2). With a Thermal Design Power (TDP) of up to only 65 W, the Core 2 dual-core Conroe consumed only half the power of less capable, but also dual-core Pentium D-branded desktop chips[6] with a TDP of up to 130 W[7] (a high TDP requires additional cooling that can be noisy or expensive). x86 virtualization is the method by which x86-based guest operating systems are run under another host x86 operating system, with little or no modification of the guest OS. The x86 processor architecture did not originally meet the Popek and Goldberg virtualization requirements. ... The NX bit, which stands for No eXecute, is a technology used in CPUs to segregate areas of memory for use by either storage of processor instructions (or code) or for storage of data, a feature normally only found in Harvard architecture processors. ... SSE3, also known by its Intel code name Prescott New Instructions (PNI), is the third iteration of the SSE instruction set for the IA-32 architecture. ... The Intel Core Microarchitecture is Intels new processor architecture. ... Supplemental Streaming SIMD Extension 3 (SSSE3)[1] is Intels name for the SSE instruction sets fourth iteration, as they appear to consider it merely a revision of SSE3. ... Trusted Execution Technology (TET or TXT), formerly known as LaGrande Technology is a key component of Intels initiative of safer computing . Intel claims that it will be very useful, especially in the business world , as a way to defend against software-based attacks aimed at stealing sensitive information. ... SpeedStep has lowered this Pentium 4s Clock Speed from 3Ghz to 2. ... The Thermal Design Power (TDP) represents the maximum amount of power the thermal solution in a computer system is required to dissipate. ... For other uses, see Watt (disambiguation). ... Pentium D logo as of 2006. ...


Current processors

Core 2 Solo brand logo
Core 2 Duo brand logo
Core 2 Duo brand logo
Core 2 Quad brand logo
Core 2 Extreme brand logo
Core 2 Extreme brand logo

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Intel_Core_2_Duo. ... Image File history File links Intel_Core_2_Duo. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (822x1032, 153 KB) Intel Core 2 Quad logo, taken from a documentation of Intel. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (822x1032, 153 KB) Intel Core 2 Quad logo, taken from a documentation of Intel. ... Image File history File links Intel_Core_2_Extreme. ... Image File history File links Intel_Core_2_Extreme. ... The Core 2 brand refers to Intels x86 64-bit microprocessors (with the eighth-generation microarchitecture, named Core architecture) targeted at the consumer and business markets (except the servers) above Pentium Dual-Core. ...

Conroe

The first Intel Core 2 Duo branded processor cores, code-named Conroe (Intel product code 80557), were launched on July 27, 2006, at Fragapalooza, a yearly gaming event in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. These processors were fabricated on 300 mm wafers using a 65 nm manufacturing process, and intended for desktop computers, as a replacement for the Pentium 4 and Pentium D branded CPUs. Intel has claimed that Conroe provides 40% more performance at 40% less power compared to the Pentium D. All Conroe processors are manufactured with 4 MB L2 cache; however, due to manufacturing defects or possibly for marketing purposes, the E6300 and E6400 versions based on this core have half their cache disabled, leaving them with only 2 MB of usable L2 cache. These Conroe-based E6300 and E6400 CPUs have the B2 stepping. is the 208th day of the year (209th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Fragapalooza is a gaming festival that takes place in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. ... The 65 nanometer (65 nm) process is (as of 2006) the most advanced lithographic node for volume semiconductor manufacturing, however it will soon be eclipsed when 45 nanometer lithography becomes commercially viable. ... The Pentium 4[1] brand refers to Intels mainstream desktop and mobile single-core CPUs (introduced on November 20, 2000[2]) with the seventh-generation NetBurst architecture, which was the companys first all-new design since the Intel P6 of the Pentium Pro branded CPUs of 1995. ... Pentium D logo as of 2006. ... MB, Mb, mB or mb may mean: Mb (digraph) Megabit (1,000,000 bits) or mebibit (220 = 1,048,576 bits); the preferred symbols are Mb and Mibit, respectively¹ Megabyte (1,000,000 bytes) or mebibyte (220 = 1,048,576 bytes); the preferred symbols are MB and MiB, respectively¹ MB...


The lower end E6300 (1.86 GHz) and E6400 (2.13 GHz), both with a 1066 MT/s FSB, were released on July 27, 2006. Traditionally, CPUs of the same family with less cache simply have the unavailable cache disabled, since this allows parts that fail quality control to be sold at a lower rating. As yields improve, they may be replaced with versions that only have the cache amount needed on the die, to bring down manufacturing cost. At launch time, Intel's prices for the Core 2 Duo E6300 and E6400 processors were US$183 and US$224 each in quantities of 1000. Conroe CPUs have improved capabilities over previous models with similar processor speeds. According to reviews, the larger 4 MB L2 cache vs. the smaller 2 MB L2 cache at the same frequency and FSB can provide a 0–9% performance gain with certain applications and 0–16% performance gain with certain games.[8][9] The higher end Conroe processors are labeled as the E6600 and E6700 Core 2 Duo models, with the E6600 clocked at 2.4 GHz and the E6700 clocked at 2.67 GHz. The family has a 1066 MT/s front side bus, 4 MB shared L2 cache, and 65 watts TDP. These processors have been tested against AMD's current top performing processors (Athlon 64 FX Series), which were, until this latest Intel release, the fastest CPUs available. Conroe chips also experience much lower heat output compared to their predecessors — a benefit of the new 65 nm technology. At launch time, Intel's prices for the Core 2 Duo E6600 and E6700 processors were US$316 and US$530, respectively, each in quantities of 1000. Megatransfer is a term used in computer technology, referring to a number of data transfers (or operations). ... In computers, the front side bus (FSB) or system bus is the physical bi-directional data bus that carries all electronic signal information between the central processing unit (CPU) and the northbridge. ... is the 208th day of the year (209th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... In computers, the front side bus (FSB) or system bus is the physical bi-directional data bus that carries all electronic signal information between the central processing unit (CPU) and the northbridge. ... Megatransfer is a term used in computer technology, referring to a number of data transfers (or operations). ... In computers, the front side bus (FSB) or system bus is the physical bi-directional data bus that carries all electronic signal information between the central processing unit (CPU) and the northbridge. ... The Thermal Design Power (TDP) represents the maximum amount of power the thermal solution in a computer system is required to dissipate. ... Advanced Micro Devices, Inc. ... The Athlon 64 FX is an AMD K8 series processor targeted at enthusiasts. ...


E6320 and E6420 Conroe CPUs at 1.86 and 2.13 GHz respectively were launched on April 22, 2007 featuring a full 4 MB of cache and are considered Conroes. is the 112th day of the year (113th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ...


Intel released four additional Core 2 Duo Processors on July 22, 2007. The release coincided with that of the Intel Bearlake (x3x) chipsets. The new processors are named Core 2 Duo E6540, E6550, E6750, and E6850. Processors with a number ending in "50" have a 1333 MT/s FSB. The processors all have 4 MB of L2 cache. Their clock frequency is similar to that of the already released processors with the same first two digits (E6600, E6700, X6800).[10] An additional model, the E6540, was launched with specifications similar to the E6550 but lacking Intel Trusted Execution Technology and vPro support. These processors are slated to compete with AMD's Stars processor line and are therefore priced below corresponding processors with a 1066 MT/s FSB.[11] is the 203rd day of the year (204th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... This is a list of computer motherboard chipsets made by Intel. ... The VPRO (originally an acronym for Vrijzinnig Protestantse Radio Omroep, or free-thinking protestant radio broadcasting company, but since long the acronym has been kept but its meaning dropped) was established in the Netherlands in 1926 as a religious broadcasting organization, linked to the protestant pillar. ...


Intel has stated that the E6300 and the E6400 are Conroe CPUs with the cache disabled. Allendale core CPUs are the E4XXX series of CPUs.


Conroe XE

The Core 2 Extreme was officially released on July 29, 2006. However some retailers appeared to have released it on July 13, 2006, though at a higher premium. The less powerful E6x00 models of Core 2 Duo were scheduled for simultaneous release with the X6800, which are both available at this time. It is powered by the Conroe XE core and replaces the dual-core Pentium Extreme Edition processors. Core 2 Extreme has a clock speed of 2.93 GHz and a 1066 MT/s FSB, although it was initially expected to be released with a 3.33 GHz and 1333 MT/s. The TDP for this family is 75–80 watts. With SpeedStep enabled, the average temperature of the CPU when idle is essentially that of the ambient atmosphere.[12] is the 210th day of the year (211th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 194th day of the year (195th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Pentium D logo as of 2006. ... In computers, the front side bus (FSB) or system bus is the physical bi-directional data bus that carries all electronic signal information between the central processing unit (CPU) and the northbridge. ... SpeedStep has lowered this Pentium 4s Clock Speed from 3Ghz to 2. ...


At launch time, Intel's price for the Core 2 Extreme X6800 was US$999 each in quantities of 1000. Like the desktop Core 2 Duo, it has 4 MiB of shared L2 cache available. This means that the only major difference between the regular Core 2 Duo and Core 2 Extreme is the clock speed and unlocked multiplier, usual advantages of the "Extreme Edition." The unlocked upward multiplier is of use to enthusiasts which allow the user to set the clockspeed higher than shipping frequency without modifying the FSB unlike mainstream Core 2 Duo models which are downward unlocked only. In computers, the front side bus (FSB) or system bus is the physical bi-directional data bus that carries all electronic signal information between the central processing unit (CPU) and the northbridge. ...


Conroe L

On October 21, 2007, Intel presented a new processor for its Intel Essential Series. It's called Celeron 220 and is soldered on the D201GLY2. With 1.2GHz and a 512KB second level cache it has a TDP of 19 Watt and can be cooled passively. The Celeron 220 is the successor of the Celeron 215 which is based on a Yonah core and used on the D201GLY. So to speak it's a transition from a stripped down Core Solo to a Core 2 Solo. This core variant is exclusively used on the mini-itxboards targeted to the sub-value market segment.[13] Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... is the 294th day of the year (295th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... TDP can mean: Telugu Desam Party, a regional political party in India Thermal depolymerization, a process for converting biomass into oil Thermal Design Point, a value describing the thermal limits of a computer system Theory of democratic peace Torsades de pointes, a form of cardiac arrhythmia Trans-Dimensional Police, a... For other uses, see Watt (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Intel Core. ... Mini-ITX is a low-power motherboard form factor developed by VIA Technologies. ...


Allendale

There was contention as to whether the previously-available low-end Core 2 Duo desktop processors (E6300, at 1.86 GHz and E6400, at 2.13 GHz, both with 2 MiB L2 cache) are specimens of the Allendale core. Prior to Q1 2007, all E6300 and E6400 processors released were Conroe (4 MiB L2 cache) cores with half their L2 cache disabled. The Allendale core, manufactured with 2 MiB L2 cache in total, offers a smaller die size and therefore greater yields. formula here</math></math></math></math></math>The three-letter acronym MIB may refer to any of several concepts: Management Information Base, a computing information repository used (for example) by Simple Network Management Protocol An abbreviation for mebibyte (MiB) or mebibit (Mib) Men in Black, a group of mysterious agents... Diagram of a CPU memory cache A CPU cache is a cache used by the central processing unit of a computer to reduce the average time to access memory. ...


Quoted from The Tech Report: The Tech Report is a web site dedicated to covering the latest trends in computer hardware, technology, and gaming. ...

You'll find plenty of sources that will tell you the code name for these 2 MB Core 2 Duo processors is "Allendale," but Intel says otherwise. These CPUs are still code-named "Conroe," which makes sense since they're the same physical chips with half of their L2 cache disabled. Intel may well be cooking up a chip code-named Allendale with 2 MB of L2 cache natively, but this is not that chip.[14]

Another difference between the premium E6000 series (Conroe core) or (Allendale core) and the E4000 series (Allendale core) is the front side bus clock rating. The E4000 series are rated to run on a quad-pumped 200 MHz front side bus ("800 MT/s") while the E6000 series are rated to run on a quad-pumped 266 MHz front side bus ("1066 MT/s"). The E4000 series also lack support for Intel VT-x instructions. In computers, the front side bus (FSB) or system bus is the physical bi-directional data bus that carries all electronic signal information between the central processing unit (CPU) and the northbridge. ... Pumping, when referring to computer systems, is simply how many times per clock cycle data is being transmitted. ... In computers, the front side bus (FSB) or system bus is the physical bi-directional data bus that carries all electronic signal information between the central processing unit (CPU) and the northbridge. ... x86 virtualization is the method by which x86-based guest operating systems are run under another host x86 operating system, with little or no modification of the guest OS. The x86 processor architecture did not originally meet the Popek and Goldberg virtualization requirements. ...


The currently available Core 2 Duo E4300 only uses an Allendale core, released on January 21, 2007. The Allendale processors use a smaller mask with only 2 MiB of cache, thereby increasing the number of chips per wafer. Allendale processors are produced in the LGA775 form factor, on the 65 nm process node. E6300 and E6400 CPUs have been made from both the 4 MB Conroe die and the 2 MB L2 Allendale die. The steppings of the chip differs depending on the die used- the Conroe-based E6300 and E6400 are stepping B2 and the Allendale-based E6300 and E6400 are stepping L2. is the 21st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Socket T, also known as LGA 775, is Intels latest CPU socket. ... Stepping is a designation used by Intel and AMD to identify how much the design of a microprocessor has advanced from the original design. ...


Initial list price per processor in quantities of one thousand for the E4300 was US$163. A standard OEM price was US$175, or US$189 for a retail package. Price cuts were enacted on April 22, 2007, when the E4400 was released at $133 and the E4300 dropped to $113. Allendale processors with half their L2 cache disabled were released in mid-June 2007 under the Pentium Dual-Core brand name. USD redirects here. ... is the 112th day of the year (113th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Diagram of a CPU memory cache A CPU cache is a cache used by the central processing unit of a computer to reduce the average time to access memory. ... The new Pentium Dual-Core logo The Pentium Dual-Core brand (limited to 2007[1]) refers to lower-end x86-architecture microprocessors from Intel. ...


On July 22, 2007, an E4500 Allendale was launched, phasing out the E4300 model.[11] This was accompanied by a price cut for the E4400 model. is the 203rd day of the year (204th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ...


Merom

Merom, the first mobile version of the Core 2, was officially released on July 27, 2006 but quietly began shipping to PC manufacturers in mid-July alongside Conroe.[15][16] Merom is Intel's premier line of mobile processors, with largely the same features as Conroe, but with more emphasis on low power consumption to enhance notebook battery life. Merom-based Core 2 Duo provides 20% more performance yet maintains the same battery life as the Yonah-based Core Duo. Merom is the first Intel mobile processor to feature Intel 64 architecture. is the 208th day of the year (209th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Intel Core. ... The AMD64 or x86-64 is a 64-bit processor architecture invented by AMD. It is a superset of the x86 architecture, which it natively supports. ...


The first version of Merom is "drop-in" compatible with Napa platform for Core Duo, requiring at most a motherboard BIOS update. It has a similar thermal envelope of 34 W and the same 667 MT/s FSB rate.[17] The Merom die features 4 MiB L2 cache, half of which is deactivated in the T5xxx CPUs. A native 2 MB L2 version of the Merom core, called Merom-2M, was rolled out in early 2007. The Merom-2M core uses the steppings L2 and M0 and the ultra-low-voltage versions of the Core 2 Duo use this core. Components of the Centrino platform. ... The Thermal Design Power (TDP) represents the maximum amount of power the thermal solution in a computer system is required to dissipate. ...


A second wave of Merom processors featuring an 800 MT/s FSB and using the new Socket P was launched on May 9, 2007.[18] These chips are part of Santa Rosa platform.[19] Low voltage versions were also released on May 9, 2007. The Intel Socket P is the next processor socket replacement for the new Intel Core 2 Chips. ... is the 129th day of the year (130th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Components of the Centrino platform. ... is the 129th day of the year (130th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ...


The first Core 2 Solo processors were launched in Q3 2007 and consisted of the U2100 and U2200, which run at 1.06 and 1.2 GHz, respectively. They both feature a 533 MHz FSB and are part of Intel's ULW family, running at only 5W. Like the rest of the Core 2 family, they are 64-bit compatible. They were released with compatibility with the Napa platform rather than the newer Santa Rosa platform due to power consumption concerns. [20]


Merom (מרום) is the Hebrew word for a higher plane of existence or a level of heaven, BaMerom (במרום) means "in the heavens". The name was chosen by the Intel team in Haifa, Israel, who designed this processor. The word Hebrew most likely means to cross over, referring to the Semitic people crossing over the Euphrates River. ... Hebrew חֵיפָה Arabic حَيْفَا Founded in 3rd century CE Government City District Haifa Population 267,000 1,039,000 (metropolitan area) Jurisdiction 63,666 dunams (63. ...


See the Merom section of "List of Intel Core 2 microprocessors" for a list of Merom processors. The Core 2 brand refers to Intels x86 64-bit microprocessors (with the eighth-generation microarchitecture, named Core architecture) targeted at the consumer and business markets (except the servers) above Pentium Dual-Core. ...


Merom XE

The Core 2 Extreme Mobile processor, based on the Merom XE core, is a laptop CPU designed for ultra-high end laptops. It was released in two models, the X7900 and the X7800. These feature an 800 MHz FSB. The X7800, introduced on July 16, 2007,[21] is clocked at 2.6 GHz and costs around $851 for OEMs. The processor features a 44 W TDP and requires the new Intel Centrino (Santa Rosa) platform. The X7900, introduced on August 22, 2007, is clocked at 2.8 GHz. is the 197th day of the year (198th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 234th day of the year (235th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ...


The X7900 processor is currently used in the top-end iMacs, released in August 2007. IMACS stands for the Institute for Mathematics And Computer Science. ...


Kentsfield

The Kentsfield was the first Intel desktop quad core (dual-die dual-core[22]) CPU branded as Core 2 (and Xeon for lower-end servers and workstations) released on November 2, 2006. The top-of-the-line Kentsfields were Core 2 Extreme models numbered QX6xx0, while the mainstream ones branded Core 2 Quad were numbered Q6xx0. All of them featured two 4 MB L2 caches. The mainstream Core 2 Quad Q6600, clocked at 2.4 GHz, was launched on January 8, 2007 at US$851 (reduced to US$530 on April 7, 2007, and to US$266 on July 22, 2007). July 22, 2007 marked the release of the next Core 2: Quad Q6700 and Extreme QX6850 Kentsfields at US$530 and US$999 respectively, and also price reduction of Core 2: Quad Q6600 and Extreme QX6800 Kentsfields to US$266 and US$999 respectively.[23] Intel Corporation (NASDAQ: INTC, SEHK: 4335), founded in 1968 as Integrated Electronics Corporation, is an American multinational corporation that is best known for designing and manufacturing microprocessors and specialized integrated circuits. ... A dual-core CPU combines two independent processors and their respective caches and cache controllers onto a single silicon chip, or integrated circuit. ... CPU can stand for: in computing: Central processing unit in journalism: Commonwealth Press Union in law enforcement: Crime prevention unit in software: Critical patch update, a type of software patch distributed by Oracle Corporation in Macleans College is often known as Ash Lim. ... This article is about the Intel microprocessor. ... is the 306th day of the year (307th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see cache (disambiguation). ... is the 8th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... April 7 is the 97th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (98th in leap years). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 203rd day of the year (204th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 203rd day of the year (204th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ...


Kentsfield, like the Pentium D branded CPUs, comprised two separate silicon dies[24]. The same dual-core die with the Core architecture could be found alone in every Core 2's dual-core only CPU. Hence, the max. power consumption (TDP) of the Kentsfield (QX6800 - 130 watts,[25] QX6700 - 130 W,[26] Q6600 - 95 W[27]) was a double of its similarly clocked Core 2 Duo counterpart. For example, the QX6700 consisted of two E6700 chips connected together by a 1066 MT/s FSB on one MCM, resulting in lower costs but less bandwidth to the northbridge. The Kentsfield was one socket processor sitting in a LGA775 socket, as well as Core 2 Duo (AMD Quad FX consisted of two dual-core processors in two separate sockets on one motherboard with a 2 x 125 W[28] = 250 W TDP). Pentium D logo as of 2006. ... Inside the Intel Core Architecture The Intel Core microarchitecture (previously known as the Intel Next-Generation Micro-Architecture, or NGMA) is a multi-core processor microarchitecture unveiled by Intel in Q1 2006. ... CPU can stand for: in computing: Central processing unit in journalism: Commonwealth Press Union in law enforcement: Crime prevention unit in software: Critical patch update, a type of software patch distributed by Oracle Corporation in Macleans College is often known as Ash Lim. ... The Thermal Design Power (TDP) represents the maximum amount of power the thermal solution in a computer system is required to dissipate. ... For other uses, see Watt (disambiguation). ... In computers, the front side bus (FSB) or system bus is the physical bi-directional data bus that carries all electronic signal information between the central processing unit (CPU) and the northbridge. ... POWER5 MCM with four processors and four 36 MB external L3 cache modules on a ceramic substrate. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Socket 370 processor socket The term CPU socket (or CPU slot) is widely used to describe the connector linking the motherboard to the CPU(s) in certain types of desktop and server computers, particularly those compatible with the Intel x86 architecture. ... Socket T, also known as LGA 775, is Intels latest CPU socket. ... The AMD Quad FX platform is an AMD platform targeted at enthusiasts which allows users to plug two Socket F Athlon 64 FX or 2-way Opteron processors (CPUs) into a single motherboard for a total of four physical cores [1]. This is a type of dual processor setup, where... Socket 370 processor socket The term CPU socket (or CPU slot) is widely used to describe the connector linking the motherboard to the CPU(s) in certain types of desktop and server computers, particularly those compatible with the Intel x86 architecture. ...


The quad-core CPU, including the Kentsfield, processes very well with multi-threaded applications (typical for video editing, ray-tracing, or rendering), where its processing ability may approach double that of each of its halves. Each Kentsfield's half comprised an equally clocked dual-core CPU on a separate die. Both dies were in one package similarly to the Pentium D branded processors. A quad-core CPU (as a two-die set in particular), however, can rarely double the processing ability of each of its constituent halves (e.g. the Kentsfield rarely doubles the ability of the Conroe), due to a loss of performance resulting from connecting them (i.e. sharing the narrow memory bandwidth, and operating system overhead of handling twice as many cores and threads). For the form of code consisting entirely of subroutine calls, see Threaded code. ... Video editing software is application software which handles the editing of video sequences on a computer. ... A ray traced scene. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A die in the context of integrated circuits is a small piece of semiconducting material on which a given circuit is fabricated. ... Pentium D logo as of 2006. ... E.G. is an Australian only release EP from New Zealand four piece Goodshirt. ... This page includes English translations of several Latin phrases and abbreviations such as . ... For the form of code consisting entirely of subroutine calls, see Threaded code. ...


Single or dual-threaded applications alone, including many games, do not benefit from the second pair of cores of a quad-core CPU over an equally clocked dual-core CPU. For example, the quad-core Extreme QX6700 (Kentsfield) did not process those applications faster than the older dual-core Extreme X6800 (Conroe XE core), because its FSB's speed was the same, and it was clocked slightly slower. Nevertheless, a simultaneous running of several processor-intensive single/dual-threaded applications on the quad-core CPU is generally much faster than on equally clocked dual-core CPU. The quad-core CPU is useful also to run both the client and server processes of a game without noticeable lag in either thread, as each instance (up to four) could be running on a different core. Furthermore, multi-threaded games (see Crysis and Gears of War) benefit from the quad-core CPUs[29], because — as Cervat Yerli of Crytek said — four cores will make for better frame rates and gameplay as audio, physics and AI as well as other things are all offloaded to separate cores. In computers, the front side bus (FSB) or system bus is the physical bi-directional data bus that carries all electronic signal information between the central processing unit (CPU) and the northbridge. ... In computing, multitasking is a method by which multiple tasks, also known as processes, share common processing resources such as a CPU. In the case of a computer with a single CPU, only one task is said to be running at any point in time, meaning that the CPU is... For the particle accelerator, see CRYSIS. Crysis is an upcoming science fiction first-person shooter computer game that is currently in development by German developer Crytek. ... Gears of War is a tactical third-person shooter video game developed by Epic Games (the creators of the Unreal series) using Unreal Engine 3. ...


Kentsfield XE

The first Kentsfield, named Core 2 Extreme QX6700 (product code 80562) and clocked at 2.67 GHz, was released on November 2, 2006 at US$999.[30][31][32][33][34] January 4, 2008 marks its discontinuation.[35] It was the first x86 quad-core processor ever, featured the Kentsfield XE core, and complemented the Core 2 Extreme X6800 dual-core processor based on the Conroe XE core. The CPUs with the Kentsfield XE core had the highest and unlocked multipliers like their Extreme predecessors. is the 306th day of the year (307th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 4th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) will be a leap year starting on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (common) era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... x86 or 80x86 is the generic name of a microprocessor architecture first developed and manufactured by Intel. ...


The Core 2 Extreme QX6800 clocked at 2.93 GHz — a new top Kentsfield XE — was released on April 8, 2007 at an exceptional US$1,199. It had a 130 W TDP thermal envelope, and was intended for high end OEM-only systems.[36] April 8 is the 98th day of the year (99th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... For other uses, see Watt (disambiguation). ... The Thermal Design Power (TDP) represents the maximum amount of power the thermal solution in a computer system is required to dissipate. ...


The Core 2 Extreme QX6850 clocked at 3.0 GHz was launched on July 22, 2007 at US$999 — a typical price for an Intel top CPU (branded Extreme). It featured a faster 1.33 GHz FSB. Simultaneously, the formerly available Extreme QX6700 was relaunched at a slightly lower price as the Core 2 Quad Q6700 clocked at 2.66 GHz became available, but consuming less power than the Extreme QX6700. Also, the price for the 2.4 GHz Quad Q6600 was dropped to a US$266. is the 203rd day of the year (204th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Intel Corporation (NASDAQ: INTC, SEHK: 4335), founded in 1968 as Integrated Electronics Corporation, is an American multinational corporation that is best known for designing and manufacturing microprocessors and specialized integrated circuits. ... In computers, the front side bus (FSB) or system bus is the physical bi-directional data bus that carries all electronic signal information between the central processing unit (CPU) and the northbridge. ...


Future processors

Image File history File links Gnome_globe_current_event. ... Image File history File links Nuvola_apps_kcmprocessor. ... The Core 2 brand refers to Intels x86 64-bit microprocessors (with the eighth-generation microarchitecture, named Core architecture) targeted at the consumer and business markets (except the servers) above Pentium Dual-Core. ...

Penryn

The successor to the Merom core currently used for the Core 2 Duo T5000/T7000 series mobile processors, code-named Penryn, will debut on the 45 nanometer process which will also be used for the Conroe sequel, Wolfdale (see below). Many details about Penryn appeared at the April 2007 Intel Developer Forum. Its successor is expected to be Nehalem. The 45 nanometer (45 nm) process is the next milestone (to be commercially viable in mid 2007 to early 2008) in CMOS fabrication. ... Intel Developer Forum (IDF), is a twice yearly gathering of technologists to discuss Intel products and products based around Intel products. ... Nehalem is a codename for both, a processor microarchitecture and a processor. ...


Important advances[37] include the addition of new instructions (including SSE4, also known as Penryn New Instructions) and new fabrication materials (most significantly a hafnium-based dielectric). SSE4, also known by its Intel code name Tejas New Instructions (TNI), is the fourth iteration of the SSE instruction set. ... General Name, Symbol, Number hafnium, Hf, 72 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 4, 6, d Appearance grey steel Standard atomic weight 178. ...


Penryn is intended to be paired with a new chipset, Bearlake,[38] which will include an increase in bus speed (connection to the northbridge, etc.) for certain models to 1333 MT/s and will include support for DDR3 SDRAM; Intel believes[39] that DDR3 is particularly useful in the power- and heat-constrained environments within mobile equipment.


Penryn will also be released in a quad-core version for desktop replacement notebooks.


The newest Intel Core 2 Extreme processor that boasts this new core is going to be the Core 2 Extreme QX9650. This chip has a clock speed of 3.0 GHz and a FSB of 1333 MHz. This new processor features the new SSE4 instructions, though there are currently no programs that utilize this instruction at this time. The SSE4 can greatly speed up tasks such as some key operations in video encoding in applications that use SSE4. The expected date of release of the new processors is November 12, 2007. is the 316th day of the year (317th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ...


Wolfdale and Yorkfield

Wolfdale will be the desktop version of Penryn, with two cores sharing 6 MB of L2 cache. Yorkfield will feature a dual-die design with two unified level-two (L2) caches. It is also expected to feature 1333 MHz FSB and be compatible with the Bearlake.[40] chipset. These processors are expected to become available in late 2007 and early 2008, and the platform will support DDR3 and have a 1333 MHz FSB. There are also leaked reports of a launch date of 12 November 2007 for Yorkfield cores, while Wolfdale is set to be released sometime in January 2008.[41] At the Intel Developer Forum 2007, a Yorkfield processor was compared with a Kentsfield processor.[42][43] FSB may refer to: In technology: Front side bus, a data bus that carries information between the CPU and components Finite State Buffer, a computing term Other: The Fuqua School of Business, the business school of Duke University in Durham, North Carolina Federalnaya Sluzhba Bezopasnosti, Federal Security Service of the... is the 316th day of the year (317th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ...


Successors

The successor to Penryn, based on a new post-Core microarchitecture which features the return of hyperthreading, is Nehalem; it was discussed at the September 2007 IDF meeting, though the release date is not until the end of 2008. Hyper-Threading (HTT = Hyper Threading Technology) is Intels trademark for their implementation of the simultaneous multithreading technology on the Pentium 4 microarchitecture. ... Nehalem is a codename for both, a processor microarchitecture and a processor. ...


The 32 nm shrink of Nehalem is called Westmere; provided that Intel stays on target with its roadmap, Sandy Bridge will be released at 32 nm with a newer microarchitecture around 2010.[44] In 2011, Intel will launch its first processor based on a 22 nm process. Based on Intel's cycle alternating new architectures and die shrinks every two years, it is currently assumed that this will be a shrink of Sandy Bridge.[45] Sandy Bridge is the code name for a processor that is being developed by Intel and is the planned successor to Nehalem. ... The 22 nanometer (22 nm) node is the technology node following 32 nm node. ...


System requirements

Motherboard compatibility

Conroe, Conroe XE and Allendale all use Socket LGA775; however, not every motherboard is compatible with these processors. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A motherboard is the central or primary circuit board making up a complex electronic system, such as a modern computer. ...


Supporting chipsets are: Diagram of a motherboard chipset A chipset is a group of integrated circuits, or chips, that are designed to work together, and are usually marketed as a single product. ...

See also: List of Intel chipsets

Although a motherboard may have the required chipset to support Conroe, some motherboards based on the above mentioned chipsets do not support Conroe. This is because all Conroe-based processors require a new power delivery feature set specified in Voltage Regulator-Down (VRD) 11.0. This requirement is a result of Conroe's significantly lower power consumption, compared to the Pentium 4/D CPUs it is replacing. A motherboard that has both a supporting chipset and VRD 11 supports Conroe processors, but even then some boards will need an updated BIOS to recognize Conroe's FID (Frequency ID) and VID (Voltage ID). Intel redirects here. ... NVIDIA Corporation (NASDAQ: NVDA) (pronounced IPA: ) is a U.S. corporation specializing in the manufacture of graphics processors (graphics processing units, GPUs) technologies for workstations, desktop computers, and handhelds. ... The nForce4 is a computer chipset released by NVIDIA in October, 2004. ... The nForce 500 computer chipset series, successor to the nForce4, was revealed by NVIDIA on 2006-03-07. ... The nForce 600 chipset was released in the first half of November 2006, coinciding with the GeForce 8 series launch on November 8, 2006. ... VIA Technologies logo VIA Technologies is a Taiwanese manufacturer of integrated circuits, mainly motherboard chipsets, CPUs, and memory, and is part of the Formosa Plastics Group. ... Silicon Integrated Systems (SiS) is a company that manufactures, among other things, motherboards. ... “ATI” redirects here. ... Ati Radeon 200 Logo The Xpress 200 is a computer chipset released by ATi. ... This is a list of computer motherboard chipsets made by Intel. ... For other uses, see Bios. ...


Synchronous memory modules

Unlike the previous Pentium 4 and Pentium D design, the Core 2 technology sees a greater benefit from memory running synchronously with the Front Side Bus (FSB). This means that for the Conroe CPUs with FSB of 1066 MT/s, the ideal memory speed for DDR2 is PC2-4200 or PC2-8500 (twice the speed of PC2-4200). In some configurations, using PC2-5300 can actually decrease performance. Only when going to PC2-6400 is there a significant performance increase. While expensive DDR2 memory models with tighter timings do improve performance, the difference in real world games and applications is negligible.[46] The Pentium 4[1] brand refers to Intels mainstream desktop and mobile single-core CPUs (introduced on November 20, 2000[2]) with the seventh-generation NetBurst architecture, which was the companys first all-new design since the Intel P6 of the Pentium Pro branded CPUs of 1995. ... Pentium D logo as of 2006. ... Synchronization is coordination with respect to time. ... In computers, the front side bus (FSB) or system bus is the physical bi-directional data bus that carries all electronic signal information between the central processing unit (CPU) and the northbridge. ... “DDR2” redirects here. ... “DDR2” redirects here. ... “DDR2” redirects here. ...


Optimally, the memory bandwidth afforded should match the bandwidth of the FSB closely. The AGTL+ PSB used by all NetBurst processors as well as current and medium-term (pre-QuickPath) Core 2 processors provide a 64-bit data path. Current chipsets provide for two DDR or two DDR2 channels. The Intel NetBurst Microarchitecture, called P68 inside Intel, was the successor to the P6 microarchitecture in the x86 family of CPUs made by Intel. ... The Intel QuickPath Interconnect or simply QuickPath [1][2] (formerly Common System Interface or CSI in short) is a point-to-point processor interconnect being developed by Intel, as a competitor to HyperTransport. ...

Matched processor and RAM ratings
Processor Model Front Side Bus Matched memory and maximum bandwidth
single channel / dual channel
DDR1 DDR2 DDR3
mobile: T5200, T5300, U7n00 533 MT/s PC-2100 (DDR-266)
2.133 GB/s / 4.267 GB/s
PC2-4200 (DDR2-533)
4.264 GB/s / 8.528 GB/s
PC2-8500 (DDR2-1066)
8.500 GB/s / 17.000 GB/s
PC3-8500 (DDR3-1066)
8.53 GB/s / 17.06 GB/s
desktop: E6n00, E6n20, X6n00, Q6n00 and QX6n00 1066 MT/s
mobile: T5n00, T5n50, T7n00, L7200, L7400 667 MT/s PC-2700 (DDR-333)
2.667 GB/s / 5.334 GB/s
PC2-5300 (DDR2-667)
5.336 GB/s / 10.672 GB/s
PC3-10600 (DDR3-1333)
10.67 GB/s / 21.34 GB/s
desktop: E6n40, E6n50, QX6n50 1333 MT/s
mobile: T5n70, Socket P T7n00, L7300, L7500, X7n00
desktop: E4n00, Pentium E21n0, Celeron 4n0
800 MT/s PC-1600 (DDR-200)
1.600 GB/s / 3.200 GB/s
PC-3200 (DDR-400)
3.200 GB/s / 6.400 GB/s
PC2-3200 (DDR2-400)
3.200 GB/s / 6.400 GB/s
PC2-6400 (DDR2-800)
6.400 GB/s / 12.800 GB/s
PC3-6400 (DDR3-800)
6.40 GB/s /12.80 GB/s
PC3-12800 (DDR3-1600)
12.80 GB/s / 25.6 GB/s

On jobs requiring large amounts of memory access, the quad-core Core 2 processors can benefit significantly[47] from using a PC2-8500 memory, which runs exactly twice as fast as the FSB; this is not an officially supported configuration, but a number of motherboards offer it. Megatransfer is a term used in computer technology, referring to a number of data transfers (or operations). ... “DDR2” redirects here. ...


The Core 2 processor does not require the use of DDR2. While the Intel 975X and P965 chipsets require this memory, some motherboards and chipsets support both the Core 2 and DDR memory. When using DDR memory, performance may be reduced because of the lower available memory bandwidth. Diagram of a motherboard chipset A chipset is a group of integrated circuits, or chips, that are designed to work together, and are usually marketed as a single product. ...


Chip bugs

The Core 2 Memory management unit (MMU) in X6800, E6000 and E4000 processors does not operate as previously specified or implemented in previous generations of x86 hardware. This may cause problems, many of them serious security and stability issues, with existing operating system software. Intel's documentation states that their programming manuals will be updated "in the coming months" with information on recommended methods of managing the Translation Lookaside Buffer (TLB) for Core 2 to avoid issues, and admits that, "in rare instances, improper TLB invalidation may result in unpredictable system behavior, such as hangs or incorrect data."[48] This 68451 MMU could be used with the Motorola 68010 MMU, short for memory management unit or sometimes called paged memory management unit as PMMU, is a class of computer hardware components responsible for handling memory accesses requested by the CPU. Among the functions of such devices are the translation... Look up Implementation in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... x86 or 80x86 is the generic name of a microprocessor architecture first developed and manufactured by Intel. ... An operating system (OS) is the software that manages the sharing of the resources of a computer and provides programmers with an interface used to access those resources. ... A Translation Lookaside Buffer (TLB) is a cache in a CPU that is used to improve the speed of virtual address translation. ...


Among the issues noted:

  • Write-protect or non-execute bit for a page table entry is ignored.
  • Floating point instruction non-coherencies.
  • Allowed memory corruptions outside of the range of permitted writing for a process by running common instruction sequences.

Intel errata Ax39, Ax43, Ax65, Ax79, Ax90, Ax99 are said to be particularly serious. 39, 43, 79, which can cause unpredictable behavior or system hang, have been fixed in recent steppings. The NX bit, which stands for No eXecute, is a technology used in CPUs to segregate areas of memory for use by either storage of processor instructions (or code) or for storage of data, a feature normally only found in Harvard architecture processors. ... Look up erratum, corrigendum in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Among those who have noted the errata to be particularly serious are OpenBSD's Theo de Raadt[1] and DragonFly BSD's Matthew Dillon[2]. Taking a contrasting view was Linus Torvalds, calling the issue "totally insignificant", adding, "The biggest problem is that Intel should just have documented the TLB behavior better."[3] OpenBSD is a Unix-like computer operating system descended from Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD), a Unix derivative developed at the University of California, Berkeley. ... Theo de Raadt, (IPA pronunciation: ), born May 19, 1968 in Pretoria, South Africa, is a software engineer who lives in Calgary, Alberta, Canada. ... DragonFly BSD is a free Unix-like operating system created as a fork of FreeBSD 4. ... Matt Dillon is a computer scientist, born July 1, 1966 in the Bay Area and living in Berkeley, California. ... Linus Benedict Torvalds  ; born December 28, 1969 in Helsinki, Finland, is a Finnish software engineer best known for initiating the development of the Linux kernel. ...


Pricing

The pricing for various models of Core 2, in lots of 1000 to OEMs, at the time the processors were released, can be found in the list of Intel Core 2 microprocessors. It should be noted that these prices are what it costs system builders such as Dell and HP to stock Core 2 processors. There are no set MSRPs for Core 2 CPUs in the retail channel — prices at retailers are usually very close to the aforementioned prices, but are dependent on what the supplier is charging to stock these CPUs as well as supply and demand. Original equipment manufacturer, or OEM, is a term that refers to containment-based re-branding, namely where one company uses a component of another company within its product, or sells the product of another company under its own brand. ... The Core 2 brand refers to Intels x86 64-bit microprocessors (with the eighth-generation microarchitecture, named Core architecture) targeted at the consumer and business markets (except the servers) above Pentium Dual-Core. ... This article is about the corporation Dell, Inc. ... HP may refer to: Handley Page Aircraft Company Harry Potter, a series of fantasy novels by British writer J. K. Rowling Hello! Project (H!P), a Japanese pop recording project Hewlett-Packard, a computer and computer peripheral company High Point, North Carolina High potency, a term used in biology, pharmacology...


Nomenclature and abbreviations

With the release of the new Core 2 processor, the abbreviation C2 has come into common use, as well variants C2D (the present Core 2 Duo), and C2Q, C2E to refer to the Core 2 Quad and Core 2 Extreme processors respectively. C2QX stands for the Extreme-Editions of the Quad (QX6700 or QX6800).


See also

The Core 2 brand refers to Intels x86 64-bit microprocessors (with the eighth-generation microarchitecture, named Core architecture) targeted at the consumer and business markets (except the servers) above Pentium Dual-Core. ... The Core 2 brand refers to Intels x86 64-bit microprocessors (with the eighth-generation microarchitecture, named Core architecture) targeted at the consumer and business markets (except the servers) above Pentium Dual-Core. ... This article is about the Intel mobile processor family. ...

References

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  21. ^ "Intel Takes Popular Laptops to 'Extreme' with First-Ever Extreme Edition Mobile Processor; Adds New Desktop Chip", Intel News Release, July 16, 2007. Retrieved on 2007-08-30. 
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  28. ^ AMD's Quad FX platform: AMD decides to socket to 'em. The Tech Report. Retrieved on 2007-06-11.
  29. ^ Crysis - Confirmed Runs Best on Quad Core and 64 Bit OS. Tom's Hardware. Retrieved on 2007-08-28.
  30. ^ Intel's Core 2 Extreme QX6700: The Multi-core Era Begins. AnandTech. Retrieved on 2006-11-11.
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  32. ^ "Kentsfield" to Debut at 2.66 GHz. DailyTech. Retrieved on 2006-09-29.
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  34. ^ Intel "Kentsfield" Named Core 2 Quad. DailyTech. Retrieved on 2006-09-29.
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Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 248th day of the year (249th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 303rd day of the year (304th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 226th day of the year (227th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 218th day of the year (219th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 177th day of the year (178th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 166th day of the year (167th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 166th day of the year (167th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 180th day of the year (181st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 195th day of the year (196th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 290th day of the year (291st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 205th day of the year (206th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 198th day of the year (199th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 295th day of the year (296th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Tech Report is a web site dedicated to covering the latest trends in computer hardware, technology, and gaming. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 326th day of the year (327th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 202nd day of the year (203rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 202nd day of the year (203rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 198th day of the year (199th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 66th day of the year (67th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 198th day of the year (199th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 197th day of the year (198th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 242nd day of the year (243rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 248th day of the year (249th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... March 16 is the 75th day of the year (76th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 272nd day of the year (273rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 162nd day of the year (163rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 162nd day of the year (163rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 162nd day of the year (163rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 162nd day of the year (163rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 240th day of the year (241st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 315th day of the year (316th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 315th day of the year (316th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 272nd day of the year (273rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 316th day of the year (317th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 272nd day of the year (273rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 250th day of the year (251st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 162nd day of the year (163rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 240th day of the year (241st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 62nd day of the year (63rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 240th day of the year (241st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 276th day of the year (277th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 108th day of the year (109th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 62nd day of the year (63rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 62nd day of the year (63rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 62nd day of the year (63rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 142nd day of the year (143rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

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