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Encyclopedia > Intel 8086
Intel 8086
Central processing unit

Produced: From 1978 to 1990s
Manufacturer: Intel
Max CPU clock: 5 MHz to 10 MHz
Instruction set: x86-16
Package: 40 pin DIP

The 8086[1] is a 16-bit microprocessor chip designed by Intel and introduced on the market in 1978, which gave rise to the x86 architecture. Intel 8088, released in 1979, was essentially the same chip, but with an external 8-bit data bus (allowing the use of cheaper and fewer supporting logic chips[2]), and is notable as the processor used in the original IBM PC. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... CPU redirects here. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 263 pixelsFull resolution (1446 × 475 pixel, file size: 119 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Title : INTEL CPU : The first INTEL 16 bits CPU, the 8086. ... Intel Corporation (NASDAQ: INTC, SEHK: 4335), founded in 1968 as Integrated Electronics Corporation, is an American multinational corporation that is best known for designing and manufacturing microprocessors and specialized integrated circuits. ... CPU redirects here. ... This article is about the SI unit of frequency. ... This article is about the SI unit of frequency. ... An instruction set is (a list of) all instructions, and all their variations, that a processor can execute. ... IA-16 refers to Intel Architecture, 16-bit The 16-bit chips established the x86 lineage, and were mostly code compatible with the progenitors of the family, the IA-8 8-bit chips. ... ICs in DIP14-Package Several PDIPs and CERDIPS. The large CERDIP in the foreground is an 8080 processor. ... In computer science, 16-bit is an adjective used to describe integers that are at most two bytes wide, or to describe CPU architectures based on registers, address buses, or data buses of that size. ... A microprocessor incorporates most or all of the functions of a central processing unit (CPU) on a single integrated circuit (IC). ... Intel Corporation (NASDAQ: INTC, SEHK: 4335), founded in 1968 as Integrated Electronics Corporation, is an American multinational corporation that is best known for designing and manufacturing microprocessors and specialized integrated circuits. ... Year 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1978 Gregorian calendar). ... Intel Pentium 4 (Northwood version), one example out of a huge number of x86 implementations from Intel, AMD, and others. ... The Intel 8088 is an Intel microprocessor based on the 8086, with 16-bit registers and an 8-bit external data bus. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... PCI Express bus card slots (from top to bottom: x4, x16, x1 and x16), compared to a traditional 32-bit PCI bus card slot (bottom) In computer architecture, a bus is a subsystem that transfers data or power between computer components inside a computer or between computers, and a bus... IBM PC (IBM 5150) with keyboard and green screen monochrome monitor (IBM 5151), running MS-DOS 5. ...

Contents

History

Background

In 1972, Intel launched the 8008, the first 8-bit microprocessor[3]. It implemented an instruction set designed by Datapoint corporation with programmable CRT terminals in mind, that also proved to be fairly general purpose. The device needed several additional ICs to produce a functional computer, in part due to its small 18-pin "memory-package" which prevented a separate address bus (Intel was primarily a DRAM manufacturer at the time). Year 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Intel 8008 The Intel 8008 was an early microprocessor designed and manufactured by Intel, and introduced in April, 1972. ... An instruction set is (a list of) all instructions, and all their variations, that a processor can execute. ... Datapoint Corporation, originally known as Computer Terminal Corporation (CTC), was a computer company based in San Antonio, Texas. ... A computer terminal is an electronic or electromechanical hardware device that is used for entering data into, and displaying data from, a computer or a computing system. ... Integrated circuit of Atmel Diopsis 740 System on Chip showing memory blocks, logic and input/output pads around the periphery Microchips with a transparent window, showing the integrated circuit inside. ...


Two years later, in 1974, Intel launched the 8080[4], employing the new 40-pin DIL packages originally developed for calculator ICs to enable a separate address bus. It had an extended instruction set source (not binary) compatible with the 8008 and also included some 16-bit instructions to make programming easier. The 8080 device, often described as the first truly useful microprocessor, was nonetheless soon replaced by the 8085 which could cope with a single 5V power supply instead of the three voltages of earlier chips.[5] Other well known 8-bit microprocessors that emerged during these years were Motorola 6800 (1974), Microchip PIC16X (1975), MOS Technology 6502 (1975), Zilog Z80 (1976), and Motorola 6809 (1977), as well as others. Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ... The Intel 8080 was an early microprocessor designed and manufactured by Intel. ... ICs in DIP14-Package Several PDIPs and CERDIPS. The large CERDIP in the foreground is an 8080 processor. ... For other uses, see Calculator (disambiguation). ... In computing, a device (usually a computer processor) that can run the same source code intended to be compiled and run on another device is said to be source-compatible. ... In computer software, an application binary interface (ABI) describes the low-level interface between an application program and the operating system, between an application and its libraries, or between component parts of the application. ... The Intel 8085 is an 8-bit microprocessor made by Intel in the mid-1970s. ... Motorola 6800 Microprocessor The 6800 is a microprocessor produced by Motorola and released shortly after the Intel 8080 in 1975. ... PIC microcontrollers in DIP and QFN packages PIC is a family of Harvard architecture microcontrollers made by Microchip Technology, derived from the PIC1650 originally developed by General Instruments Microelectronics Division. ... The MOS Technology 6502 is an 8-bit microprocessor that was designed by Chuck Peddle for MOS Technology in 1975. ... One of the first Z80 microprocessors manufactured; the date stamp is from June 1976. ... 1 MHz Motorola 6809E processor, manufactured in 1983. ...


The first x86 design

The 8086 was originally intended as a temporary substitute for the ambitious iAPX 432 project in an attempt to draw attention from the less-delayed 16 and 32-bit processors of other manufacturers (such as Motorola, Zilog, and National Semiconductor) and at the same time to top the successful Z80 (designed by former Intel employees). Both the architecture and the physical chip were therefore developed quickly (in a little more than two years[6]), using the same basic microarchitecture elements and physical implementation techniques as employed for the one year earlier 8085, which it would also function as a continuation of. Although not directly source compatible, it was designed so that assembly language for the 8085, 8080, or 8008 could be automatically converted into equivalent (sub-optimal) 8086 source code, usually with little or no hand-editing, i.e. the programming model and instruction set was (loosely) based on the 8085. However, the 8086 design was expanded to support full 16-bit processing instead of the fairly basic 16-bit capabilities of the 8080/8085. The Intel iAPX 432 was Intels first 32-bit microprocessor design, introduced in 1981 as a set of three integrated circuits. ... Motorola Inc. ... Zilog, often seen as ZiLOG, is a manufacturer of 8-bit, 16-bit, 24-bit, and 32-bit CPUs, and is most famous for its Intel 8080-compatible Z80 series. ... Categories: Electronics companies of the United States | Companies based in California | Corporation stubs ... The Zilog Z80 is an 8-bit microprocessor designed and manufactured by Zilog from 1976 onwards. ... In computer engineering, microarchitecture (sometime abbreviated to µarch or uarch) is a description of the electrical circuitry of a computer, central processing unit, or digital signal processor that is sufficient for completely describing the operation of the hardware. ... The Intel 8085 was an 8-bit microprocessor made by Intel in the mid-1970s. ... In computing, a device (usually a computer processor) that can run the same source code intended to be compiled and run on another device is said to be source-compatible. ... An assembly language is a low-level language for programming computers. ...


8086 was implemented[7] using a mix of random logic and microcode and was designed using depletion load nMOS circuitry using around 20,000 active transistors (29,000 counting all ROM and PLAs sites). It was soon moved to Intels new refined nMOS manufacturing process called HMOS (later to HMOS-II and III) originally developed for manufacturing of fast static RAMs.[8] The chip measured 33mm² and minimum feature size was 3.2μm. A microprogram is a program consisting of microcode that controls the different parts of a computers central processing unit (CPU). ... Photo of transistor types (tape measure marked in centimeters) Transistor in the SMD form factor The transistor is a solid state semiconductor device used for amplification and switching. ... Rom is also the name of a toy and comic book character Rom (Spaceknight). ... A programmable logic array (PLA) is a programmable device used to implement combinational logic circuits. ... HMOS, high-performance n-channel MOS, uses n-type metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs) to implement logic gates and other digital circuits. ... Static Random Access Memory (SRAM) is a type of semiconductor memory. ...


While less known than the 8088 chip, the legacy of the 8086 is enduring; references to it can still be found on most modern computers in the form of the Vendor entry for all Intel device IDs which is "8086". It also lent it's last two digits to Intel's later extended versions of the design, such as the 286 and the 386, all of which eventually became known as the x86 family. The Intel 80286 is an x86-family 16-bit microprocessor that was introduced by Intel on February 1, 1982. ... The Intel 80386 is a microprocessor which was used as the central processing unit (CPU) of many personal computers from 1986 until 1994 and later. ... x86 or 80x86 is the generic name of a microprocessor architecture first developed and manufactured by Intel. ...


Details

Buses and operation

All internal registers as well as internal and external data buses are 16 bits wide, firmly establishing the "16-bit microprocessor" identity of the 8086. A 20-bit external address bus gives a 1 MB (segmented) physical address space (220 = 1,048,576). 16-bit I/O addresses give 64 KB of separate I/O space. (216 = 65,536). The control pins carry the essential signals for all external operations. MB, Mb, mB or mb may mean: Mb (digraph) Megabit (1,000,000 bits) or mebibit (220 = 1,048,576 bits); the preferred symbols are Mb and Mibit, respectively¹ Megabyte (1,000,000 bytes) or mebibyte (220 = 1,048,576 bytes); the preferred symbols are MB and MiB, respectively¹ MB... The abbreviation KB or kb can refer to: kilobyte (kB or KB), equal to 1,000 bytes or 1024 bytes depending on context, or kibibyte (KiB), equal to 1,024 bytes. ...


The data bus was multiplexed with the address bus, this was only slightly diminishing performance however, as other factors, more important for this particular chip, shadow this design choice; transfers of 16 (or 8) bit quantities are done in a four-clock memory access cycle. 8086 instructions varied from 1 to 6 bytes. Therefore, fetch and execution were concurrent (as it remains in today's x86 designs): The bus interface unit feeds the instruction stream to the execution unit through a 6 byte prefetch queue (a form of loosely coupled pipelining), speeding up operations on register and immediates, while memory operations unfortunately became slower (4 years later, this performance problem was fixed with the 80186 and 80286). The performance gain over the 8080 and 8085 resulting from the full (instead of partial) 16-bit architecture, the operand versus operation orthogonalizations, and other enhancements, were still fairly significant, despite cases where the older chips may be faster (see below). In telecommunications, multiplexing (MUXing) is the combining of two or more information channels onto a common transmission medium using hardware called a multiplexer or (MUX). ... The Dining Philosophers, a classic problem involving concurrency and shared resources In computer science, concurrency is a property of systems in which several computational processes are executing at the same time, and potentially interacting with each other. ... An instruction pipeline is a technology used on modern microprocessors to enhance their performance. ... In computer architecture, a processor register is a small amount of very fast computer memory used to speed the execution of computer programs by providing quick access to frequently used values—typically, these values are involved in multiple expression evaluations occurring within a small region on the program. ... In mathematics, an operand is one of the inputs (arguments) of an operator. ... The 80186 is a microprocessor that was developed by Intel circa 1982. ... The Intel 80286 is an x86-family 16-bit microprocessor that was introduced by Intel on February 1, 1982. ... In computer science, 16-bit is an adjective used to describe integers that are at most two bytes wide, or to describe CPU architectures based on registers, address buses, or data buses of that size. ... In mathematics, an operand is one of the inputs (arguments) of an operator. ... In linear algebra, orthogonalization means the following: we start with vectors v1,...,vk in an inner product space, most commonly the Euclidean space Rn which are linearly independent and we want to find mutually orthogonal vectors u1,...,uk which generate the same subspace as the vectors v1,...,vk. ...


The maximum linear address space is limited to 64 KB, simply because internal registers are only 16 bits wide. Programming over 64 KB boundaries involves adjusting segment registers (see below) and is therefore fairly awkward (and remains so until the 80386). Some control pins have more than one function depending upon whether the device is operated in the "min" or "max" mode. The former is intended for small single processor systems whilst the latter is for medium or large systems using more than one processor. The processor had some new instructions (not present in the 8085) to better support stack based high level programming languages such as Pascal and C; some of the more useful ones were push immed, push mem-op, and ret size (several others would be added in the subsequent 80186, 80286, and 80386 designs). The Intel 80386 is a microprocessor which was used as the central processing unit (CPU) of many personal computers from 1986 until 1994 and later. ...


Registers and instructions

The 8086 has eight (more or less general) 16-bit registers including the stack pointer, but excluding the instruction pointer, flag register and segment registers. Four of them could also be accessed as eight 8-bit registers (see picture). In computer architecture, a processor register is a small amount of very fast computer memory used to speed the execution of computer programs by providing quick access to frequently used values—typically, these values are involved in multiple expression evaluations occurring within a small region on the program. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Due to a compact encoding inspired by 8085 and other 8-bit processors, most instructions were one-address or two-address operations which means that the result were stored in one of the operands. At most one of the operands could be in memory, but this memory operand could also be the destination, while the other operand, the source, could be either register or immediate. A single memory location could also often be used as both source and destination which, among other factors, further contributed to a rather small executable code footprint, comparable to most eight bit machines.


Although the degree of orthogonality between registers and operations were greater than in 8085, it was still low, and registers were also sometimes used implicitly by instructions. While perfectly sensible for the assembly programmer, this complicated register allocation for compilers compared to more regular contemporary 16- and 32-bit processors (such as VAX or 68000); on the other hand, compared to contemporary 8-bit processors (such as 8085 or 6502), it was significantly easier to generate code for the 8086 design. In mathematics, orthogonal is synonymous with perpendicular when used as a simple adjective that is not part of any longer phrase with a standard definition. ...


As mentioned above 8086 also featured 64 KB of 8-bit (or alternatively 32 K-word or 16-bit) I/O space. A 64 KB (one segment) stack growing towards lower addresses is supported by hardware; 2-byte words are pushed to the stack and the stack top (bottom) is pointed out by SS:SP. There are 256 interrupts, which can be invoked by both hardware and software. The interrupts can cascade, using the stack to store the return address. This article is about the computer interface. ... Simple representation of a stack In computer science, a stack is a temporary abstract data type and data structure based on the principle of Last In First Out (LIFO). ... For other uses, see Hardware (disambiguation). ... In computing, an interrupt is an asynchronous signal from hardware or software indicating the need for attention. ... In both conventional and electronic messaging, a return address is an explicit inclusion of the address of the person sending the message. ...


Segmentation

There were also four segment registers that could be set from index registers. The segment registers allowed the CPU to access one mebibyte + 64 KiB - 16 bytes of memory in an odd way. Rather than just supplying missing bytes, as in most segmented processors, the 8086 shifted the segment register left 4 bits and added it to the offset address, thus: CPU redirects here. ... MiB redirects here. ... According to the International Electrotechnical Commission a kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage. ...

physical address = segment×16 + offset

The physical memory address was therefore 20 bits wide (while both segment and offset were 16 bits). As a result of this scheme, segments overlapped, making it possible to have up to 4096 different pointers addressing the same location. While acceptable, and even useful, for assembly language programming (where control of the segments was complete) it caused confusion and was considered poor design by most people, forcing entirely new concepts (near and far keywords) into languages such as Pascal and C; data and/or code could be managed within near 16-bit segments, or a large data structure (or many and/or large procedures) could be accessed by far pointers (32-bit segment:offset pairs) reaching the full physical address space. An assembly language is a low-level language for programming computers. ... The pascal (symbol: Pa) is the SI unit of pressure. ... C is a general-purpose, block structured, procedural, imperative computer programming language developed in 1972 by Dennis Ritchie at the Bell Telephone Laboratories for use with the Unix operating system. ...


Although this scheme made expanding the address space to more than 220 bytes more difficult, it was nevertheless soon expanded by a new MMU-controlled addressing scheme in the 80286's protected mode. Later, and on top of this, 80386 expanded the whole general purpose registers set (and hence, the offsets) to 32 bits, thereby enabling a linear addressing range of 232 bytes (with a total range of 236). However, those chips were, for a long period of time, often used in real mode, remaining compatible with older OSes. This 68451 MMU could be used with the Motorola 68010 MMU, short for memory management unit or sometimes called paged memory management unit as PMMU, is a class of computer hardware components responsible for handling memory accesses requested by the CPU. Among the functions of such devices are the translation... AMD 80286 at 12 MHz. ... Protected mode is an operational mode of x86-compatible CPUs of the 80286 series or later. ... 386 DX redirects here. ... Real mode (also called real address mode in Intels manuals) is an operating mode of 80286 and later x86-compatible CPUs. ...


In a similar way, early programs could ignore the segments, and just use plain 16-bit addressing, which allowed 8-bit software to be easily ported to the 8086. The authors of MS-DOS took advantage of this by providing an Application Programming Interface very similar to CP/M. This was important when the 8086 was new, because it allowed many existing CP/M applications to be quickly made available on the new platform, which greatly eased the transition. In computer science, 16-bit is an adjective used to describe integers that are at most two bytes wide, or to describe CPU architectures based on registers, address buses, or data buses of that size. ... 8-bit refers to the number of bits used in the data bus of a computer. ... Microsofts disk operating system, MS-DOS, was Microsofts implementation of DOS, which was the first popular operating system for the IBM PC, and until recently, was widely used on the PC compatible platform. ... API redirects here. ... CP/M is an operating system originally created for Intel 8080/85 based microcomputers by Gary Kildall of Digital Research, Inc. ... CP/M is an operating system originally created for Intel 8080/85 based microcomputers by Gary Kildall of Digital Research, Inc. ...


Performance

Execution times for typical instructions (in clock cycles):


Timings are best case, depending on prefetch status, instruction alignment, and other factors.

 MOV reg,reg: 2, reg,im: 4, reg,mem: 8+EA, mem,reg: 9+EA, mem,im: 10+EA cycles ALU reg,reg: 3, reg,im: 4, reg,mem: 9+EA, mem,reg: 16+EA, mem,im: 17+EA cycles 
 JMP reg: 11, JMP label: 15, Jcc label: 16 (cc = condition code) 
 MUL reg: 70..118 cycles IDIV reg: 101..165 cycles 

EA: time to compute effective address, ranging from 5 to 12 cycles.


As can be seen from these tables, operations on registers and immediates were fast (between 2 and 4 cycles), while memory-operand instructions and jumps were quite slow; jumps took more cycles than on the simple 8080 and 8085, and the 8088 (used in the IBM PC) was additionally hampered by its narrower bus. The reasons why most memory related instructions were so slow were threefold: The Intel 8080 was an early microprocessor designed and manufactured by Intel. ... The Intel 8085 is an 8-bit microprocessor made by Intel in the mid-1970s. ...

  • The execution and fetch units were loosely coupled; this is efficient for instruction prefetch, but less optimal for jumps and random data access.
  • Address generation calculations were largely performed by microcode routines.
  • The address and data buses were multiplexed in order to fit a standard 40-pin dual in-line package.

It should be noted, however, that the memory access performance was drastically enhanced with Intel's next generation chips; the 80186 and 80286 both had address calculation in hardware, saving many cycles; 80286 also had separate (non-multiplexed) address and data buses. In telecommunications, multiplexing (also muxing or MUXing) is the combining of two or more information channels onto a common transmission medium using hardware called a multiplexer or (MUX). ... ICs in DIP14-Package Several PDIPs and CERDIPS. The large CERDIP in the foreground is an 8080 processor. ... The 80186 is a microprocessor that was developed by Intel circa 1982. ... The Intel 80286 is an x86-family 16-bit microprocessor that was introduced by Intel on February 1, 1982. ... The Intel 80286 is an x86-family 16-bit microprocessor that was introduced by Intel on February 1, 1982. ...


Floating point

The 8086/8088 could be connected to a mathematical coprocessor to add floating point capability. The Intel 8087 was the standard math coprocessor, operating on 80-bit numbers, but manufacturers like Weitek soon offered higher performance alternatives. A floating-point number is a digital representation for a number in a certain subset of the rational numbers, and is often used to approximate an arbitrary real number on a computer. ... Intel C8087 Math Coprocessor The 8087 was the first math coprocessor designed by Intel and it was built to be paired with the ass] microprocessors. ... Weitek Corporation was a former chip-design company that originally concentrated on floating point units for a number of commercial CPU designs. ...


Chip versions

The clock frequency was originally limited to 5 MHz (IBM PC used 4.77 MHz, 4/3 the standard NTSC color burst frequency), but the last versions in HMOS were specified for 10 MHz. HMOS-III and CMOS versions were manufactured for a long time (at least a while into the 1990s) for embedded systems, although its successor, the 80186/80188, has been more popular for embedded use. Colorburst is a signal used to keep the chrominance subcarrier synchronized in a color television signal. ... HMOS, high-performance n-channel MOS, uses n-type metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs) to implement logic gates and other digital circuits. ... For other uses, see CMOS (disambiguation). ... A router, an example of an embedded system. ... The 80186 is a microprocessor that was developed by Intel circa 1982. ... The Intel 80188 is a version of the Intel 80186 microprocessor with an 8 bit external data bus, instead of 16 bit. ...


Derivatives and clones

OKI M80C86A QFP-56
OKI M80C86A QFP-56

Compatible and, in many cases, enhanced versions were manufactured by Fujitsu, Harris/Intersil, OKI, Siemens AG, Texas Instruments, NEC, and AMD. For example, the NEC V20 and NEC V30 pair were hardware compatible with the 8088 and 8086, respectively, but incorporated the instruction set of the 80186 along with some (but not all) of the 80186 speed enhancements, providing an drop-in capability to upgrade both instruction set and processing speed without manufacturers having to modify their designs. Such relatively simple and low power 8086-compatible processors in CMOS are still used in embedded systems. Oki Electric Industry Co. ... A QFP or Quad Flat Package is an integrated circuit device with component leads extending from each of the four sides. ... For the district in Saga, Japan, see Fujitsu, Saga. ... An Cliseam from the Abhainn Mharaig, just off the main road to Lewis. ... Intersil Corporation NASDAQ: ISIL produces integrated circuits and semiconductors. ... Oki Electric Industry Co. ... Siemens redirects here. ... Texas Instruments (NYSE: TXN), better known in the electronics industry (and popularly) as TI, is an American company based in Dallas, Texas, USA, renowned for developing and commercializing semiconductor and computer technology. ... For other uses, see NEC (disambiguation). ... Advanced Micro Devices, Inc. ... The NEC V20 was a processor made by NEC that featured approximately 29,000 transistors. ...


The electronics industry of the Soviet Union was able to replicate the 8086 through both industrial espionage and reverse engineering. The resulting chip, K1810BM86, was pin-compatible with the original Intel 8086 and had the same instruction set. This IC was the core of Soviet-made PC-compatible ES1840 and ES1841 desktops. However, in hardware these computers had significant differences from their authentic prototypes (respectively PC and PC/XT): the K1810BM86 was a copy from Intel 8086, not Intel 8088, and the data/address bus circuitry was designed independently of original Intel products.


Notable bugs

8086/8088 CPUs produced prior to 1982 had a severe interrupt bug. IBM provided an upgrade free of charge to affected PCs. Processors remaining with original 1979 markings are quite rare; they have become collectors' items.


Microcomputers using the 8086

  • One of the most influential microcomputers of all, the IBM PC, used the Intel 8088, a version of the 8086 with an eight-bit data bus (as mentioned above).
  • The first commercial microcomputer built on the basis of the 8086 was the Mycron 2000.
  • The IBM Displaywriter[citation needed] word processing machine and the Wang Professional Computer, manufactured by Wang Laboratories, also used the 8086. Also, this chip could be found in the AT&T 6300 PC (built by Olivetti).
  • The first Compaq Deskpro used an 8086 running at 7.14 MHz, but was capable of running add-in cards designed for the 4.77 MHz IBM PC XT.
  • The FLT86 is a well established training system for the 8086 CPU still being manufactured by Flite Electronics International Limited in Southampton, England
  • The IBM PS/2 models 25 and 30 were built with an 8MHz 8086

IBM PC (IBM 5150) with keyboard and green screen monochrome monitor (IBM 5151), running MS-DOS 5. ... The Intel 8088 is an Intel microprocessor based on the 8086, with 16-bit registers and an 8-bit external data bus. ... In computer architecture, a bus is a subsystem that transfers data or power between computer components inside a computer or between computers. ... Mycron was a pioneer manufacturer of microcomputers, located in Oslo, Norway. ... The IBM Displaywriter System was a dedicated microcomputer-based word processing machine that IBMs Office Products Division introduced in 1980 (see IBM Displaywriter). ... Wang logo circa 1976. ... Olivetti Lettera 22, 1950 Ing. ... The Compaq Deskpro was a line of personal computers manufactured by Compaq. ... The IBM PC/XT (also written PC-XT or PC XT), commonly referred to as the XT, was IBMs successor to the original IBM PC. It was released on March 8, 1983, and was one of the first computers to come standard with a hard drive. ... This page discusses the English city of Southampton. ...

Notes and references

  1. ^ Microprocessor Hall of Fame. Intel. Retrieved on 2007-08-11.
  2. ^ It also permitted cheap 8080-family chips to be used (such as the 8254 CTC, 8255 PIO, and 8259 PIC which were used in the IBM PC design). In addition, it made PCB layout simpler and boards cheaper, as well as demanding fewer (1 or 4-bit wide) DRAM chips.
  3. ^ using enhancement load pMOS logic
  4. ^ using enhancement load nMOS logic
  5. ^ made possible with depletion load nMOS logic (the 8085 was later made using HMOS processing, just like the 8086)
  6. ^ Two years from idea to product was considered fast for a complex design (almost no CAD-tools were used)
  7. ^ 8086 used less microcode than many competitors designs, such as the MC68000 and others
  8. ^ Fast static RAMs (as fast as bipolar) in MOS technology was an important product for Intel during this period.

Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 223rd day of the year (224th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Intel 8255 (or i8255) Programmable Peripheral Interface chip is a peripheral chip originally developed for the Intel 8085 microprocessor, and as such is a member of a large array of such chips, know as the MCS-85 Family. ... See MOSFET ... NMOS logic uses n-type metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs) to implement logic gates and other digital circuits. ...

See also

The IBM Personal Computer XT, often shortened to the PC XT or simply XT, was IBMs successor to the original IBM PC. It was released as IBM product number 5160 on March 8, 1983, and was one of the first computers to come standard with a hard drive. ... Intel Pentium 4 (Northwood version), one example out of a huge number of x86 implementations from Intel, AMD, and others. ...

External links

Intel redirects here. ... This generational and chronological list of Intel microprocessors attempts to present all of Intels processors from the pioneering 4-bit 4004 (1971) to the present high-end offerings, the 64-bit Itanium 2 (2002) and Intel Core 2 and Xeon 5100 and 7100 series processors (2006). ... The Intel 4004 is a 4-bit central processing unit (CPU) released by Intel Corporation in 1971. ... Intel D4040 Microprocessor The Intel 4040 microprocessor was the successor to the Intel 4004. ... Intel 8008 The Intel 8008 was an early microprocessor designed and manufactured by Intel and introduced in April, 1972. ... AMD clone NEC 8080AF (2nd-source). ... The Intel 8085 was an 8-bit microprocessor made by Intel in the mid-1970s. ... The Intel iAPX 432 was Intels first 32-bit microprocessor design, introduced in 1981 as a set of three integrated circuits. ... The Intel i860 (also 80860, and code named N10) was a RISC microprocessor from Intel, first released in 1989. ... Intels i960 (or 80960) was a RISC-based microprocessor design that became popular during the early 1990s as an embedded microcontroller, becoming a best-selling CPU in that field, along with the competing AMD 29000. ... The Intel 8088 is an Intel microprocessor based on the 8086, with 16-bit registers and an 8-bit external data bus. ... An Intel 80186 Microprocessor The 80186 architecture. ... The Intel 80188 is a version of the Intel 80186 microprocessor with an 8 bit external data bus, instead of 16 bit. ... AMD 80286 at 12 MHz. ... 386 DX redirects here. ... The Intel486[1] brand refers to Intels family of i486 (incl. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Pentium Pro is a sixth-generation x86 architecture microprocessor (P6 core) produced by Intel and was originally intended to replace the original Pentium in a full range of applications, but later, was reduced to a more narrow role as a server and high-end desktop chip. ... Intel Pentium II Logo The Pentium II is an x86 architecture microprocessor by Intel, introduced on May 7, 1997. ... Pentium III logo The Pentium III is an x86 (more precisely, an i686) architecture microprocessor by Intel, introduced on February 26, 1999. ... 2007 Itanium logo Itanium is the brand name for 64-bit Intel microprocessors that implement the Intel Itanium architecture (formerly called IA-64). ... Pentium D logo as of 2006. ... Introduced in March 2003, the Pentium M is an x86 architecture microprocessor designed and manufactured by Intel. ... Pentium D logo as of 2006. ... The Pentium 4[1] brand refers to Intels single-core mainstream desktop and laptop CPUs introduced on November 20, 2000[2] (August 8, 2008 is the date of last shipments of Pentium 4s[3]). They had the 7th-generation architecture - called NetBurst - which was the companys first all... This article is about the Intel mobile processor family. ... The new Pentium Dual-Core logo The Pentium Dual-Core brand refers to lower-end x86-architecture microprocessors from Intel. ... The Core 2 brand refers to a range of Intels consumer 64-bit dual-core and MCM quad-core CPUs with the x86-64 instruction set, and based on the Intel Core microarchitecture, which derived from the 32-bit dual-core Yonah laptop processor. ... The Celeron brand refers to a range of Intels x86 CPUs for budget/value personal computers. ... This article is about the Intel microprocessor. ... The XScale, a microprocessor core, is Marvells (formerly Intels) implementation of the 5th generation of the ARM architecture, and consists of several distinct families: IXP, IXC, IOP, PXA and CE (see more below). ... 2007 Itanium logo Itanium is the brand name for 64-bit Intel microprocessors that implement the Intel Itanium architecture (formerly called IA-64). ... The Socket 370 processor socket, a ZIF type PGA socket A CPU socket or CPU slot is a connector on a computers motherboard that accepts a CPU and forms an electrical interface with it. ... This is a list of computer motherboard chipsets made by Intel. ... This generational and chronological list of Intel microprocessors attempts to present all of Intels processors from the pioneering 4-bit 4004 (1971) to the present high-end offerings, the 64-bit Itanium 2 (2002) and Intel Core 2 and Xeon 5100 and 7100 series processors (2006). ... Since many years, Intel names IC development projects after geographical names of towns, rivers or mountains near their development locations. ... . ... . ... The Core 2 brand refers to Intels x86 64-bit microprocessors (with the eighth-generation microarchitecture, named Core architecture) targeted at the consumer and business markets (except the servers) above Pentium Dual-Core. ... . ... . ... . ... . ... . ... The Celeron is a family of microprocessors from Intel targeted at the low-end consumer market. ... The Core 2 brand refers to Intels x86 64-bit microprocessors (with the eighth-generation microarchitecture, named Core architecture) targeted at the consumer and business markets (except the servers) above Pentium Dual-Core. ... The Intel Pentium Dual-Core is a family of microprocessors from Intel targeted at the low-end consumer market. ... The Xeon microprocessors from Intel are CPUs targeted at the server and workstation markets. ... Intel Pentium 4 (Northwood version), one example out of a huge number of x86 implementations from Intel, AMD, and others. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Intel Museum - Microprocessor Hall of Fame (1181 words)
Intel's first microprocessor, the 4004, ran at 108 kilohertz (108,000 hertz), compared to the Intel® Pentium®; 4 processor's initial speed of 1.5 gigahertz (1.5 billion hertz).
Intel Xeon processor-based workstations are expected to achieve performance increases between 30 and 90 percent over systems featuring Intel® Pentium®; III Xeon®; processors depending on applications and configurations.
The Intel® Pentium®; M processor, the Intel® 855 chipset family, and the Intel® PRO/Wireless 2100 network connection are the three components of Intel® Centrino® processor technology.
Intel 8086 (593 words)
The 8086 (officially called iAPX 86) is a 16-bit microprocessor chip designed by Intel in 1978, which gave rise to the x86 architecture.
Shortly later the Intel 8088 was introduced with an external 8-bit bus, allowing the use of cheap chipsets.
Intel bubble memory was on the market for a while, but faded away as better and cheaper memory technologies arrived.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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