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Encyclopedia > Intel 80286
286
Central processing unit

An Intel 80286 Microprocessor
Produced: From 1982 to 1986
Common Manufacturers:
CPU Speeds: 6 MHz to 25 MHz
Process:
(MOSFET channel length)
1.5 µm
Instruction Set: x86
Socket: PLCC 68-pin socket
AMD 80286 at 12 MHz.
AMD 80286 at 12 MHz.

The Intel's 286[1], introduced on February 1, 1982, (originally named 80286, and also called iAPX 286 in the programmer's manual) was an x86 16-bit microprocessor with 134,000 transistors. After the 6 and 8 MHz initial releases, it was subsequently scaled up to 12.5 MHz. (AMD and Harris later pushed the architecture to speeds as high as 20 MHz and 25 MHz, respectively.) It was widely used in IBM PC compatible computers during the mid 1980s to early 1990s. Die of an Intel 80486DX2 microprocessor (actual size: 12×6. ... Image File history File links http://www. ... Intel Corporation (NASDAQ: INTC, SEHK: 4335), founded in 1968 as Integrated Electronics Corporation, is an American multinational corporation that is best known for designing and manufacturing microprocessors and specialized integrated circuits. ... Advanced Micro Devices, Inc. ... Harris Corporation NYSE: HRS is an international communications equipment company that produces wireless equipment, electronic systems, and both terrestrial and spaceborne antennas for use in the government, defense, and commercial sectors. ... Siemens AG (ISIN: DE0007236101, FWB: SIE, NYSE: SI) is one of the worlds largest companies and Europes largest engineering firm. ... Die of an Intel 80486DX2 microprocessor (actual size: 12×6. ... A megahertz (MHz) is one million (106) hertz, a measure of frequency. ... A megahertz (MHz) is one million (106) hertz, a measure of frequency. ... The metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET, MOS-FET, or MOS FET) is by far the most common field-effect transistor in both digital and analog circuits. ... It has been suggested that some sections of this article be split into a new article entitled instruction set architecture. ... x86 or 80x86 is the generic name of a microprocessor architecture first developed and manufactured by Intel. ... PLCC stands for Plastic Leaded Chip Carrier. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Am80286-12. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Am80286-12. ... Intel Corporation (NASDAQ: INTC, SEHK: 4335), founded in 1968 as Integrated Electronics Corporation, is an American multinational corporation that is best known for designing and manufacturing microprocessors and specialized integrated circuits. ... is the 32nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday (link displays the 1982 Gregorian calendar). ... x86 or 80x86 is the generic name of a microprocessor architecture first developed and manufactured by Intel. ... In computer science, 16-bit is an adjective used to describe integers that are at most two bytes wide, or to describe CPU architectures based on registers, address buses, or data buses of that size. ... A microprocessor is a programmable digital electronic component that incorporates the functions of a central processing unit (CPU) on a single semiconducting integrated circuit (IC). ... A megahertz (MHz) is one million (106) hertz, a measure of frequency. ... Harris Corporation NYSE: HRS is an international communications equipment company that produces wireless equipment, electronic systems, and both terrestrial and spaceborne antennas for use in the government, defense, and commercial sectors. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The NASA Columbia Supercomputer. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For the band, see 1990s (band). ...


The 80286's performance was more than twice that of its predecessors (the Intel 8086 and Intel 8088) per clock cycle. In fact, the performance increase per clock cycle may be the largest among the generations of x86 processors. Calculation of the more complex addressing modes (such as base+index) had less clock penalty because it was performed by a special circuit in the 286; the 8086, its predecessor, had to perform effective address calculation in the general ALU, taking many cycles. Also, complex mathematical operations (such as MUL/DIV) took fewer clock cycles compared to the 8086. The 286 was able to address up to 16 MB of RAM, in contrast to 1 MB the 8086 could work with. While DOS could utilize this additional RAM via extended memory emulation, a few 286-based computers ever had more than 1 MB of RAM installed. The intels 8086 was the first one launched in 1978. ... An Intel 8088 microprocessor The Intel 8088 is an Intel microprocessor based on the 8086, with 16-bit registers and an 8-bit external data bus. ... In synchronous digital electronics, such as most computers, a clock signal is a signal used to coordinate the actions of two or more circuits. ... Addressing modes, a concept from computer science, are an aspect of the instruction set architecture in most central processing unit (CPU) designs. ... Addressing modes, a concept from computer science, are an aspect of the instruction set architecture in most central processing unit (CPU) designs. ... The arithmetic logic unit/arithmetic-logic unit (ALU) of a computers CPU is a part of the execution unit, a core component of all CPUs. ... A mebibyte (a contraction of mega binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, abbreviated MiB. 1 MiB = 220 bytes = 1,048,576 bytes = 1,024 kibibytes 1 MiB = 1024 (= 210) kibibytes (KiB), and 1024 MiB equal one gibibyte (GiB). ... Random access memory (usually known by its acronym, RAM) is a type of data storage used in computers. ... Instructions on how to use the directory command. ... Extended memory refers to memory above the first megabyte of address space in an IBM PC with an 80286 or later processor. ... This article is about emulation in computer science. ...


The 286 was designed to run multitasking applications, including communications (such as automated PBXs), real-time process control, and multi-user systems. PBX redirects here. ... Realtime redirects here. ... Process control is an engineering discipline that deals with architectures, mechanisms, and algorithms for controlling the output of a specific process. ... Multi-user is a term that defines an operating system that allows concurrent access by multiple users of a computer. ...


The later E-stepping level of the 80286 was a very clean CPU - free of the several significant errata that caused problems for programmers and operating system writers in the earlier B-step and C-step CPU's (common in the AT and AT clones).


An interesting feature of this processor is that it was the first x86 processor with protected mode. Protected mode enabled up to 16 MiB of memory to be addressed by the on-chip linear memory management unit (MMU) with 1 GiB logical address space. The MMU also provided some degree of prevention from (crashed or ill-behaved) applications writing outside their allocated memory zones. However, the 286 could not revert to the basic 8086-compatible "real mode" without resetting the processor (though some very clever programmers did figure out a way to re-enter real mode via a series of software instructions which would execute the reset while retaining active memory and control). Protected mode is an operational mode of x86-compatible CPUs of the 80286 series or later. ... This 68451 MMU could be used with the Motorola 68010 MMU, short for memory management unit or sometimes called paged memory management unit as PMMU, is a class of computer hardware components responsible for handling memory accesses requested by the CPU. Among the functions of such devices are the translation... Real mode (also called real address mode in Intels manuals) is an operating mode of 80286 and later x86-compatible CPUs. ...


In theory, real mode applications could be directly executed in 16-bit protected mode if certain rules were followed; however, as many DOS programs broke those rules protected mode was not widely used until the appearance of its successor, the 32-bit Intel 80386, which was designed to go back and forth between modes easily. See Protected mode#Real mode application compatibility for more info. 32-bit is a term applied to processors, and computer architectures which manipulate the address and data in 32-bit chunks. ... The Intel 80386 is a microprocessor which was used as the central processing unit (CPU) of many personal computers from 1986 until 1994 and later. ... Protected mode is an operational mode of x86-compatible CPUs of the 80286 series or later. ...


The 80286 provided the first glimpse into the world of the protection mechanisms then exclusive to the world of mainframes and minicomputers which would pave the way for the x86 and the IBM PC architecture to extend from the personal computer all the way to high-end servers, drive the market for other architectures all the way down to only the highest-end servers and mainframes, and blur the differences between microcomputers and mainframes, a fact which presumably gave the IBM PC/AT its name. IBM PC (IBM 5150) with keyboard and green screen monochrome monitor (IBM 5151), running MS-DOS 5. ...


Notes and references

  1. ^ Microprocessor Hall of Fame. Intel. Retrieved on 2007-08-11.

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 223rd day of the year (224th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Intel - definition of Intel - Labor Law Talk Dictionary (867 words)
Intel was founded in 1968 by Gordon E. Moore (a chemist and physicist) and Robert Noyce (a physicist).
Intel's dominance in the x86 microprocessor market led to numerous charges of antitrust violations over the years, including FTC investigations in both the late 1980s and in 1999, and civil actions such as the 1997 suit by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) and a patent suit by Intergraph.
Intel's market dominance (at one time it controlled over 85% of the market for 32-bit PC microprocessors), combined with Intel's own hardball legal tactics (such as its infamous 338 patent suit versus PC manufacturers) made it an attractive target for litigation, but few of the lawsuits ever amounted to anything.
Intel 80386 - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (786 words)
The Intel 80386 is a microprocessor which was used as the central processing unit (CPU) of many personal computers from 1986 until 1994 and later.
The predecessor of the 80386 was the Intel 80286, a 16-bit processor with a segment-based memory management and protection system.
Though Intel would shortly introduce the 80486 and eventually the Intel Pentium line of processors, the support in the 386 for the 32-bit flat memory model would be arguably the most important feature change until the release of EM64T in 2004.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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