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Encyclopedia > Insomnia
Insomnia
Classification and external resources
ICD-10 F51.0, G47.0
ICD-9 307.42, 307.41, 780.51, 780.52
eMedicine med/2698 
MeSH D007319

Insomnia is a sleeping disorder characterized by persistent difficulty falling asleep or staying asleep despite the opportunity. It is typically followed by functional impairment while awake. Insomniacs have been known to complain about being unable to close their eyes or "rest their mind" for more than a few minutes at a time. Both organic and non-organic insomnia constitute a sleep disorder.[1][2] The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (most commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify diseases and a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or disease. ... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 10th Revision (ICD-10) is a coding of diseases and signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or diseases, as classified by the World Health Organization (WHO). ... // F00-F99 - Mental and behavioural disorders (F00-F09) Organic, including symptomatic, mental disorders (F00) Dementia in Alzheimers disease (F01) Vascular dementia (F011) Multi-infarct dementia (F02) Dementia in other diseases classified elsewhere (F020) Dementia in Picks disease (F021) Dementia in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (F022) Dementia in Huntingtons... // G00-G99 - Diseases of the nervous system (G00-G09) Inflammatory diseases of the central nervous system (G00) Bacterial meningitis, not elsewhere classified (G01) Meningitis in bacterial diseases classified elsewhere (G02) Meningitis in other infectious and parasitic diseases classified elsewhere (G03) Meningitis due to other and unspecified causes (G04) Encephalitis, myelitis... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (most commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify diseases and a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or disease. ... The following is a list of codes for International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. ... eMedicine is an online clinical medical knowledge base that was founded in 1996. ... Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) is a huge controlled vocabulary (or metadata system) for the purpose of indexing journal articles and books in the life sciences. ... For other uses, see Sleep (disambiguation). ...


According to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services in year 2007, approximately 64 million Americans suffer from insomnia each year.[3] Insomnia tends to increase with age and affects about 40 percent of women and 30 percent of men.[4] The United States Department of Health and Human Services, often abbreviated HHS, is a Cabinet department of the United States government with the goal of protecting the health of all Americans and providing essential human services. ...

Contents

Types of Insomnia

Although there are several different degrees of insomnia, about three types of insomnia have been clearly identified: transient, acute, and chronic.

  1. Transient insomnia lasts from days to weeks. It can be caused by another disorder, by changes in the sleep environment, by the timing of sleep, or by stress. Its consequences - sleepiness and impaired psychomotor performance - are similar to those of sleep deprivation.[5] If this form of insomnia continues to occur from time to time, the insomnia is classified as intermittent.[citation needed]
  2. Acute insomnia is the inability to consistently sleep well for a period of between three weeks to six months.[6]
  3. Chronic insomnia lasts from months to years. It can be caused by another disorder, or it can be a primary disorder. Its effects can vary according to its causes. They might include sleepiness, muscular fatigue, and/or mental fatigue; but people with chronic insomnia often show increased alertness.[5]

Sleep deprivation is a general lack of the necessary amount of sleep. ... In medicine, an acute disease is a disease with either or both of: a rapid onset; a short course (as opposed to a chronic course). ...

Patterns of Insomnia

The pattern of insomnia often is related to the etiology.[1]

  1. Onset insomnia - difficulty falling asleep at the beginning of the night, often associated with anxiety disorders.
  2. Maintenance Insomnia - Insomnia characterized by difficulty returning to sleep after awakening in the middle of the night or waking too early in the morning. Also referred to as nocturnal awakenings. Encompasses middle and terminal insomnia.
  3. Middle insomnia - waking during the middle of the night, difficulty maintaining sleep. Often associated with pain syndromes or medical illness.
  4. Terminal (or late) insomnia - early morning waking. Characteristic of Clinical depression.

Anxiety disorder is a blanket term covering several different forms of abnormal, pathological anxiety, fears, phobias. ... On the Threshold of Eternity. ...

Causes

Insomnia can be caused by:

A common misperception is that the amount of sleep a person requires decreases as he or she ages. The ability to sleep for long periods, rather than the need for sleep, appears to be lost as people get older. Some elderly insomniacs toss and turn in bed and occasionally fall off the bed at night, diminishing the amount of sleep they receive.[7] An assortment of psychoactive drugs A psychoactive drug or psychotropic substance is a chemical substance that acts primarily upon the central nervous system where it alters brain function, resulting in temporary changes in perception, mood, consciousness and behavior. ... Sustained-Release 15mg Dexedrine Spansules. ... A medication is a drug or substance taken to reduce symptoms or cure an illness or medical condition. ... This article is about the plants used in cooking and medicine. ... For other uses, see Caffeine (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Cocaine (disambiguation). ... Ephedrine (EPH) is a sympathomimetic amine similar in structure to the synthetic derivatives amphetamine and methamphetamine. ... Amphetamine or Amfetamine(Alpha-Methyl-PHenEThylAMINE), also known as beta-phenyl-isopropylamine and benzedrine, is a prescription stimulant commonly used to treat Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults and children. ... Vitamin R redirects here. ... ecstasy and religious ecstasy MDMA, most commonly known today by the street name ecstasy, is a synthetic entactogen of the phenethylamine family whose primary effect is to stimulate the brain to rapidly secrete large amounts of serotonin, causing a general sense of openness, empathy, energy, euphoria, and well-being. ... This article is about the psychostimulant, d-methamphetamine. ... Modafinil is a eugeroic drug generally prescribed to treat narcolepsy, made by the pharmaceutical company Cephalon Inc. ... For other uses, see Hormone (disambiguation). ... Not to be confused with Mensuration. ... The word menopause literally means the permanent physiological, or natural, cessation of menstrual cycles, from the Greek roots meno (month) and pausis (a pause, a cessation). ... For other uses, see Fear (disambiguation). ... Stress (roughly the opposite of relaxation) is a medical term for a wide range of strong external stimuli, both physiological and psychological, which can cause a physiological response called the general adaptation syndrome, first described in 1936 by Hans Selye in the journal Nature. ... This article is about state anxiety. ... Mental disorder or mental illness are terms used to refer psychological pattern that occurs in an individual and is usually associated with distress or disability that is not expected as part of normal development or culture. ... On the Threshold of Eternity. ... For other uses, see Bipolar. ... General anxiety disorder or generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is an anxiety disorder that is characterized by excessive and uncontrollable worry about everyday things. ... Circadian rhythm sleep disorders are a family of sleep disorders affecting the timing of sleep. ... Second shift redirects here. ... Jet lag (or jet-lag) is a physical condition caused by crossing multiple time zones during flight. ... Neurology is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the nervous system. ... For other uses, see Brain (disambiguation). ... Skin lesions caused by Chickenpox A lesion is any abnormal tissue found on or in an organism, usually damaged by disease or trauma. ... The medical history of a patient (sometimes called anamnesis [1][2] ) is information gained by a physician by asking specific questions, either of the patient or of other people who know the person and can give suitable information (in this case, it is sometimes called heteroanamnesis). ... Traumatic brain injury (TBI), traumatic injuries to the brain, also called intracranial injury, or simply head injury, occurs when a sudden trauma causes brain damage. ... This article is about the medical term. ... Hyperthyroidism (or overactive thyroid gland) is the clinical syndrome caused by an excess of circulating free thyroxine (T4) or free triiodothyronine (T3), or both. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... Sleep hygiene is the practice of following simple guidelines in an attempt to ensure more restful, effective sleep which can promote daytime alertness and help treat or avoid certain kinds of sleep disorders. ... A parasomnia is any sleep disorder such as sleepwalking, sleepeating, sleep sex, teeth grinding, night terrors, rhythmic movement disorder, REM behaviour disorder, restless leg syndrome, and somniloquy (or sleep talking), characterized by partial arousals during sleep or during transitions between wakefulness and sleep. ... // Introduction Rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder, or RBD, was first described by Schenck et al. ... For the bird, see Prion (bird). ... Fatal familial insomnia (FFI) is a very rare autosomal dominant inherited disease of the brain. ...


An overactive mind or physical pain may also be causes. Finding the underlying cause of insomnia is usually necessary to cure it. Insomnia can be common after the loss of a loved one, even years or decades after the death, if they have not gone through the grieving process. Overall, however, symptoms and the degree of severity affects different people differently, depending on their mental health, physical condition, and attitude or personality.


Diagnosis

Patients with delayed sleep phase syndrome are often mis-diagnosed with insomnia. If the patient has trouble getting to sleep, but has normal sleep architecture once asleep, a circadian rhythm disorder is a more likely cause. Delayed sleep-phase syndrome (DSPS) is a chronic disorder of sleep timing. ... A circadian rhythm is a roughly-24-hour cycle in the physiological processes of living beings, including plants, animals, fungi and cyanobacteria. ...


Insomnia Versus Poor Sleep Quality

Poor sleep quality can occur as a result of sleep apnea or clinical depression. Poor sleep quality is caused by the individual not reaching stage 4 or delta sleep which has restorative properties. There are, however, people who are unable to achieve stage 4 sleep due to brain damage who still lead perfectly normal lives. On the Threshold of Eternity. ...

  • Sleep apnea is a condition that occurs when a sleeping person's breathing is interrupted, thus interrupting the normal sleep cycle. With the obstructive form of the condition, some part of the sleeper's respiratory tract loses muscle tone and partially collapses. People with obstructive sleep apnea often do not remember awakening or having difficulty breathing, but they complain of excessive sleepiness during the day. Central sleep apnea interrupts the normal breathing stimulus of the central nervous system, and the individual must actually wake up to resume breathing. This form of apnea is often related to a cerebral vascular condition, congestive heart failure, and premature aging.

Major depression leads to alterations in the function of the hypothalamus and pituitary causing excessive release of cortisol which can lead to poor sleep quality. Sleep apnea is a sleep disorder characterized by pauses in breathing during sleep. ... A diagram showing the CNS: 1. ... The hypothalamus links the nervous system to the endocrine system via the pituitary gland (hypophysis). ... Located at the base of the skull, the pituitary gland is protected by a bony structure called the sella turcica. ... Cortisol is a corticosteroid hormone produced by the Zona fasciculata of the adrenal cortex (in the adrenal gland). ...


Nocturnal polyuria or excessive nighttime urination can be very disturbing to sleep.[8] Nocturnal polyuria can be nephrogenic (related to kidney disease) or it may be due to prostate enlargement or hormonal influences.[citation needed] Deficiencies in vasopressin, which is either caused by a pituitary problem or by insensitivity of the kidney to the effects of vasopressin, can lead to nocturnal polyuria.[citation needed] Excessive thirst or the use of diuretics can also cause these symptoms.[citation needed] Polyuria is the passage of a large volume of urine in a given period. ...


Treatment for Insomnia

In many cases, insomnia is caused by another disease or psychological problem. In this case, medical or psychological help may be useful.


Medications

Many insomniacs rely on sleeping tablets and other sedatives to get rest. All sedative drugs have the potential of causing psychological dependence where the individual cannot psychologically accept that they can sleep without drugs. Certain classes of sedatives such as benzodiazepines and newer nonbenzodiazepine drugs can also cause physical dependence which manifests in withdrawal symptoms if the drug is not carefully titrated down. A sedative is a drug that depresses the central nervous system (CNS), which causes calmness, relaxation, reduction of anxiety, sleepiness, slowed breathing, slurred speech, staggering gait, poor judgment, and slow, uncertain reflexes. ... A sedative is a substance that depresses the central nervous system (CNS), resulting in calmness, relaxation, reduction of anxiety, sleepiness, and slowed breathing, as well as slurred speech, staggering gait, poor judgment, and slow, uncertain reflexes. ... Alprazolam 2 mg tablets The benzodiazepines (pronounced , often abbreviated to benzos) are a class of sedative hypnotic psychoactive drugs with varying hypnotic, sedative, anxiolytic, anticonvulsant, muscle relaxant and amnesic properties, which are mediated by slowing down the central nervous system. ... The nonbenzodiazepines are comparatively new drugs whose actions are very similar to those of the benzodiazepines, but are structurally unrelated to the benzodiazepines and are believed to have fewer side effects. ...


In comparing the options, a systematic review found that benzodiazepines and nonbenzodiazepines have similar efficacy which was insignificantly more than for antidepressants.[9] Benzodiazepines had an insignificant tendency for more adverse drug reactions.[9] Systematic reviews are named as the highest level of medical evidence, by evidence based medicine professionals. ... Alprazolam 2 mg tablets The benzodiazepines (pronounced , often abbreviated to benzos) are a class of sedative hypnotic psychoactive drugs with varying hypnotic, sedative, anxiolytic, anticonvulsant, muscle relaxant and amnesic properties, which are mediated by slowing down the central nervous system. ... The nonbenzodiazepines are comparatively new drugs whose actions are very similar to those of the benzodiazepines, but are structurally unrelated to the benzodiazepines and are believed to have fewer side effects. ... In statistics, a result is significant if it is unlikely to have occurred by chance, given that a presumed null hypothesis is true. ... Prozac, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) Serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, Venlafaxine An antidepressant is a psychiatric medication or other substance (nutrient or herb) used for alleviating depression or dysthymia (milder depression). ... In statistics, a result is significant if it is unlikely to have occurred by chance, given that a presumed null hypothesis is true. ... An adverse drug reaction (abbreviated ADR) or adverse drug event (abbreviated ADE) is an expression that describes the unwanted, negative consequences associated with the use of given medications. ...


Benzodiazepines

Main article: Benzodiazepine

The most commonly used class of hypnotics prescribed for insomnia are the benzodiazepines. Benzodiazepines bind unselectively to the GABAA receptor.[9] This includes drugs such as temazepam, flunitrazepam, triazolam, flurazepam, nitrazepam and midazolam. These medications can develop tolerance and dependence, especially after consistent usage over long periods of time. Alprazolam 2 mg tablets The benzodiazepines (pronounced , often abbreviated to benzos) are a class of sedative hypnotic psychoactive drugs with varying hypnotic, sedative, anxiolytic, anticonvulsant, muscle relaxant and amnesic properties, which are mediated by slowing down the central nervous system. ... Alprazolam 2 mg tablets The benzodiazepines (pronounced , often abbreviated to benzos) are a class of sedative hypnotic psychoactive drugs with varying hypnotic, sedative, anxiolytic, anticonvulsant, muscle relaxant and amnesic properties, which are mediated by slowing down the central nervous system. ... Alprazolam 2 mg tablets The benzodiazepines (pronounced , often abbreviated to benzos) are a class of sedative hypnotic psychoactive drugs with varying hypnotic, sedative, anxiolytic, anticonvulsant, muscle relaxant and amnesic properties, which are mediated by slowing down the central nervous system. ... The GABAA receptor is one of two ligand-gated ion channels responsible for mediating the effects of Gamma-Amino Butyric Acid (GABA), the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain. ... Temazepam (marketed under brand names Restoril®, Normison®, Planum®, Tenox® and Temaze®) is a benzodiazepine derivative with powerful hypnotic properties. ... Flunitrazepam (IPA: ; is marketed by Roche under the trade name Rohypnol. ... Triazolam (Halcion®, Novodorm®, Songar®) belongs to benzodiazepine group of drugs. ... Flurazepam (marketed under the brand names Dalmane and Dalmadorm) is a drug which is a benzodiazepine derivative. ... Nitrazepam (marketed under the trade names Mogadon®, Nitredon®, Nilandron®) is a powerful hypnotic drug, which is a benzodiazepine derivative. ... Midazolam (marketed under brand names Versed®, Hypnovel®, Dormicum® and Dormonid®, pronounced ) is a drug which is a benzodiazepine derivative. ...


Non-benzodiazepines

Main article: Nonbenzodiazepine

Nonbenzodiazepine prescription drugs, including the nonbenzodiazepines zolpidem and zopiclone, are more selective for the GABAA receptor[9] and may have a cleaner side effect profile than the older benzodiazepines; however, there are controversies over whether these non-benzodiazepine drugs are superior to benzodiazepines. These drugs appear to cause both psychological dependence and physical dependence, and can also cause the same memory and cognitive disturbances as the benzodiazepines along with morning sedation. The nonbenzodiazepines are comparatively new drugs whose actions are very similar to those of the benzodiazepines, but are structurally unrelated to the benzodiazepines and are believed to have fewer side effects. ... The nonbenzodiazepines are comparatively new drugs whose actions are very similar to those of the benzodiazepines, but are structurally unrelated to the benzodiazepines and are believed to have fewer side effects. ... The nonbenzodiazepines are comparatively new drugs whose actions are very similar to those of the benzodiazepines, but are structurally unrelated to the benzodiazepines and are believed to have fewer side effects. ... Zolpidem is a prescription short-acting nonbenzodiazepine hypnotic that potentiates gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), an inhibitory neurotransmitter, by binding to gamma-aminobutyric acid receptors. ... Zopiclone (trade names: Imovaneâ„¢ and Zimovaneâ„¢) is a novel hypnotic agent used in the treatment of insomnia. ... The GABAA receptor is one of two ligand-gated ion channels responsible for mediating the effects of Gamma-Amino Butyric Acid (GABA), the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain. ... This article is about the concept of addiction. ... Physical dependence refers to a state resulting from habitual use of a drug, where negative physical withdrawal symptoms result from abrupt discontinuation. ...


Antidepressants

Main article: Antidepressants

Some antidepressants such as mirtazapine, trazodone and doxepin have a sedative effect, and are prescribed off label to treat insomnia. The major drawback of these drugs is that they have antihistaminergic, anticholinergic and antiadrenergic properties which can lead to many side effects. Some also alter sleep architecture. In many cases Antidepressants has side effects on teens and childrens of suicidal thoughts and suicidal behaviour An antidepressant is a medication used primarily in the treatment of clinical depression. ... Prozac, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) Serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, Venlafaxine An antidepressant is a psychiatric medication or other substance (nutrient or herb) used for alleviating depression or dysthymia (milder depression). ... Mirtazapine is an antidepressant introduced by Organon International in 1996 used for the treatment of mild to severe depression. ... Trazodone (trade names Desyrel, Molipaxin, Trittico, Thombran, Trialodine) is a psychoactive compound with sedative, anxiolytic, and antidepressant properties. ... Doxepin is a tricyclic antidepressant, known under many brand-names such as Aponal®, the original preparation by Boehringer-Ingelheim, now part of the Roche group; Adapine®, Sinquan® and Sinequan® (Pfizer Inc. ... The term off-label refers to the use of a drug for a medical condition other than for which it was officially approved and marketed. ... An antihistamine is a drug which serves to reduce or eliminate effects mediated by histamine, an endogenous chemical mediator released during allergic reactions, through action at the histamine receptor. ... An anticholinergic agent is a member of a class of pharmaceutical compounds which serve to reduce the effects mediated by acetylcholine in the central nervous system and peripheral nervous system. ... An adrenergic is a drug, or other substance, which has effects similar to, or the same as, epinephrine (adrenaline). ...


Melatonin

Melatonin has proved effective for some insomniacs in regulating the sleep/waking cycle, but lacks definitive data regarding efficacy in the treatment of insomnia. Melatonin agonists, including Ramelteon (Rozerem), seem to lack the potential for abuse and dependence. This class of drugs has a relatively mild side effect profile and lower likelihood of causing morning sedation. Natural substances such as 5-htp and l-tryptophan have been said to fortify the serotonin -> melatonin pathway and aid people with various sleep disorders including insomnia[10]. Melatonin, 5-methoxy-N-acetyltryptamine, is a hormone found in all living creatures from algae[1] to humans, at levels that vary in a diurnal cycle. ... Ramelteon, marketed as Rozerem by Takeda Pharmaceuticals North America, is the first in a new class of sleep agents that selectively binds to the MT1 and MT2 receptors in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), versus binding to GABA-A receptors, such as with drugs like Ambien CR, Lunesta, and Sonata. ... For the professional wrestling stable, see Ravens Nest#Serotonin. ...


Antihistamines

The antihistamine diphenhydramine is widely used in nonprescription sleep aids, with a 50 mg recommended dose mandated by the FDA. In the United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, and other countries, a 50 to 100 mg recommended dose is permitted. While it is available over the counter, the effectiveness of these agents may decrease over time and the incidence of next-day sedation is higher than for most of the newer prescription drugs. Dependence does not seem to be an issue with this class of drugs. An H1 antihistamine is a histamine antagonist which serves to reduce or eliminate effects mediated by histamine, an endogenous chemical mediator released during allergic reactions, through action at the H1 receptor. ... Diphenhydramine hydrochloride (trade name Benadryl, as produced by J&J, or Dimedrol outside the U.S. & Canada. ...


Atypical Antipsychotics

Low doses of certain atypical antipsychotics such as quetiapine (Seroquel) are also prescribed for their sedative effect but the danger of neurological and cognitive side effects make these drugs a poor choice to treat insomnia. The atypical antipsychotics (also known as second generation antipsychotics) are a class of prescription medications used to treat psychiatric conditions. ... Quetiapine (IPA: , kwe-TYE-a-peen), marketed by AstraZeneca with the brand name Seroquel, belongs to a series of neuroleptics known as atypical antipsychotics, which have, over the last two decades, become increasingly popular alternatives to typical antipsychotics, such as haloperidol. ...


Other Substances

Some insomniacs use herbs such as valerian, chamomile, lavender, hops, and passion-flower. Valerian has undergone multiple studies and appears to be modestly effective.[11][12][13] Cannabis has also been suggested as a very effective treatment for insomnia. [14] For other uses, see Herb (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Valeriana officinalis L. Valerian (Valeriana officinalis, Valerianaceae) is a hardy perennial flowering plant, with heads of sweetly scented pink or white flowers. ... Chamomile flowers The name Chamomile or Camomile is ambiguous and can refer to several distinct species. ... Species About 25-30, including: Lavandula abrotanoides Lavandula angustifolia Lavandula canariensis Lavandula dentata Lavandula lanata Lavandula latifolia Lavandula multifida Lavandula pinnata Lavandula stoechas Lavandula viridis Lavandula x intermedia The Lavenders Lavandula are a genus of about 25-30 species of flowering plants in the mint family, Lamiaceae, native from the... Hop umbel (branched floral structure resembling nested-inverted umbrellas) in a Hallertau hop yard Hops are a flower used primarily as a flavouring and stability agent in beer, as well as in herbal medicine. ... Species About 500 species, including: Passiflora affinis Passiflora alata Passiflora amalocarpa Passiflora amethystina Passiflora aurantia Passiflora caerulea Passiflora capsularis Passiflora coccinea Passiflora edulis Passiflora foetida Passiflora guatemalensis Passiflora hahnii Passiflora helleri Passiflora holosericea Passiflora incarnata Passiflora karwinskii Passiflora kermesina Passiflora ligularis Passiflora lutea Passiflora maliformis Passiflora mixta Passiflora mucronata Passiflora... This article is about the plant genus Cannabis. ...


Though alcohol may have sedative properties, the REM sleep suppressing effects of the drug prevent restful, quality sleep.[citation needed] Also, middle-of-the-night awakenings due to polyuria or other effects from alcohol consumption are common, and hangovers can also lead to morning grogginess. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep is the normal stage of sleep characterized by rapid movements of the eyes. ... Polyuria is the passage of a large volume of urine in a given period. ...


Insomnia may be a symptom of magnesium deficiency, or lower magnesium levels. A healthy diet containing magnesium, can help to improve sleep in individuals without an adequate intake of magnesium.[15] Magnesium deficiency refers to an absolute lack of magnesium, the result of numerous conditions. ... General Name, symbol, number magnesium, Mg, 12 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, period, block 2, 3, s Appearance silvery white solid at room temp Standard atomic weight 24. ... General Name, symbol, number magnesium, Mg, 12 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, period, block 2, 3, s Appearance silvery white solid at room temp Standard atomic weight 24. ... General Name, symbol, number magnesium, Mg, 12 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, period, block 2, 3, s Appearance silvery white solid at room temp Standard atomic weight 24. ...


Other reports cite the use of an elixir of cider vinegar and honey but the evidence for this is only anecdotal. [16]


Cognitive behavior therapy

Recent research has shown that cognitive behavior therapy can be more effective than medication in controlling insomnia.[17] In this therapy, patients are taught improved sleep habits and relieved of counter-productive assumptions about sleep.[17] This article is about Becks Cognitive Therapy. ...


There now exist a range of high quality self-help tools to help people overcome insomnia. For example, cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) has been developed to treat insomnia.


Complementary and Alternative medicine

Some traditional and anecdotal remedies for insomnia include: drinking warm milk before bedtime, taking a warm bath, exercising vigorously for half an hour in the afternoon, eating a large lunch and then having only a light evening meal at least three hours before bed, avoiding mentally stimulating activities in the evening hours, going to bed at a reasonable hour and getting up early, and avoiding exposing the eyes to too much light, especially blue light, a few hours before bedtime.


Using aromatherapy, including jasmine oil, lavender oil, Mahabhringaraj and other relaxing essential oils, may also help induce a state of restfulness. Many believe that listening to slow paced music will help insomniacs fall asleep. [18] Aromatherapy is a form of alternative medicine that uses volatile liquid plant materials, known as essential oils (EOs), and other aromatic compounds from plants for the purpose of affecting a persons mood or health. ... Lavender oil is an essential oil obtained by distillation from the flower spikes of certain species of lavender. ... Mahabhringaraj is a kind of hair oil purported to induce sound sleep. ... An essential oil is any concentrated, hydrophobic liquid containing volatile aroma compounds from plants, which are called aromatic herbs or aromatic plants. ...


The more relaxed a person is, the greater the likelihood of getting a good night's sleep. Relaxation techniques such as meditation have been shown to help people sleep. Such techniques can lower stress levels from both the mind and body, which leads to a deeper, more restful sleep.[citation needed] Relaxation techniques are used by people who wish to relax, for a wide variety of reasons. ... For other senses of this word, see Meditation (disambiguation). ...


Traditional Chinese medicine has included treatment for insomnia. A typical approach may utilize acupuncture, dietary and lifestyle analysis, herbology and other techniques, with the goal of resolving the problem at a subtle level. Traditional Chinese medicine shop in Tsim Sha Tsui, Hong Kong. ... Acupuncture chart from Hua Shou (fl. ... Herbalism is a traditional medicinal or folk medicine practice based on the use of plants and plant extracts. ...


In the Buddhist tradition, people suffering from insomnia or nightmares may be advised to meditate on "loving-kindness", or metta. This practice of generating a feeling of love and goodwill is claimed to have a soothing and calming effect on the mind and body[19]. This is claimed to stem partly from the creation of relaxing positive thoughts and feelings, and partly from the pacification of negative ones. In the Mettā (Mettanisamsa) Sutta,[20] Siddhartha Gautama, the Buddha, tells the gathered monks that easeful sleep is one benefit of this form of meditation. Mettā (मेटा in Devanagari) is a Pali word meaning unconditional loving-kindness. ...


Hypnotherapy, self hypnosis and guided imagery can be effective in not only falling asleep and staying asleep; they can also help to develop good sleeping habits over time. Visualizing can be effective in taking the mind away from present day anxieties and towards a more relaxing place. Hypnotherapy is therapy that is undertaken with a subject in hypnosis. ...


See also

For other uses, see Sleep (disambiguation). ... Fatal familial insomnia (FFI) is a very rare autosomal dominant inherited disease of the brain. ... Sleep deprivation is a general lack of the necessary amount of sleep. ... Delayed sleep-phase syndrome (DSPS), also known as delayed sleep-phase disorder, is a chronic disorder of sleep timing. ... Actigraphy is a method of study of circadian rhythm and wake-sleep patterns. ...

References

Template:Reflsit


  Results from FactBites:
 
Insomnia - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1645 words)
Insomnia is characterized by an inability to sleep and/or to remain asleep for a reasonable period.
Insomnia is a common side-effect of some medications, and it can also be caused by stress, emotional upheaval, physical or mental illness, dietary allergy and poor sleep hygiene.
Insomnia is a major symptom of mania in people with bipolar disorder, and it can also be a sign of hyper-thyroidism, depression, or other ailments with stimulating effects.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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