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Encyclopedia > Insertion sequence

Insertion sequences (also known as insertion elements, ISs, insertion sequence elements, or IS elements) are short DNA sequences that act as simple transposable elements; insertion sequences only code for transposition enzymes (transposases). The transposase coding region in an insertion sequence is usually flanked by inverted repeats. Insertion sequences are generally around 700 to 2500 bp in length. In general, a particular insertion sequence is named according to the form ISn, where n is a number (IS1, IS2, etc.). Although insertion sequences are usually discussed in the context of prokaryotic genomes, eukaryotic insertion sequences also exist. Space-filling model of a section of DNA molecule Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a nucleic acid that contains the genetic instructions specifying the biological development of all cellular forms of life (and most viruses). ... Transposons are sequences of DNA that can move around to different positions within the genome of a single cell, a process called Transposition. ... Transposase is an enzyme that binds to single-stranded DNA and can incorporate it into genomic DNA. Class I transposons encode a transposase which allows them to enable transposons to be cut from genomic DNA and be inserted at another location. ... An inverted repeat is a sequence of nucleotides that is the reversed complement of another sequence further downstream. ... In molecular biology, two nucleotides on opposite complementary DNA or RNA strands that are connected via hydrogen bonds are called a base pair (often abbreviated bp). ... In mathematics, a natural number is either a positive integer (1, 2, 3, 4, ...) or a non-negative integer (0, 1, 2, 3, 4, ...). The former definition is generally used in number theory, while the latter is preferred in set theory. ... Prokaryotes (from Old Greek pro- before + karyon nut, referring to the cell nucleus, + suffix -otos, pl. ... In biology the genome of an organism is the whole hereditary information of an organism that is encoded in the DNA (or, for some viruses, RNA). ... Kingdoms Animalia - Animals Fungi Plantae - Plants Protista A eukaryote (also spelled eucaryote) is an organism with complex cells, in which the genetic material is organized into membrane-bound nuclei. ...


In addition to occurring autonomously, insertion sequences may also occur as parts of composite transposons; in a composite transposon (also known as a "complex transposon" or sometimes simply referred to as a "transposon"), two insertion sequences flank one or more non-transposition genes. Transposons are sequences of DNA that can move around to different positions within the genome of a single cell, a process called Transposition. ...


References

  • Campbell, Neil A. and Reece, Jane B. (2002). Biology (6th ed.), pp. 345-346. San Francisco: Benjamin Cummings. ISBN 0-8053-6624-5.
  • Mahillon, Jacques and Chandler, Michael (1998). "Insertion sequences". Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews 62 (3), 725-774. Retrieved January 11, 2006.
  • Prescott, Lansing M.; Harley, John P.; and Klein, Donald A. (2002). Microbiology (5th ed.), pp. 298-299. New York: McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-07-232041-9.
  • Shuler, Michael L. and Kargi, Fikret (2002). Bioprocess Engineering: Basic Concepts (2nd ed.), pp. 220. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall PTR. ISBN 0-13-081908-5.

External link

  • IS Finder

  Results from FactBites:
 
Characterization of IS1515, a Functional Insertion Sequence in Streptococcus pneumoniae -- Muñoz et al. 180 ... (4145 words)
The sequence corresponding to the I41R strain is shown in italics, whereas that for the IS1515 element is represented in boldface italics.
Isolation, characterization, and nucleotide sequence of IS1202, an insertion sequence of Streptococcus pneumoniae.
Identification and characterization of IS1381, a new insertion sequence in Streptococcus pneumoniae.
Insertion sequences (1683 words)
Insertion sequences (IS) are defined as mobile genetic elements that are known to encode only functions involved in insertion events.
One of the first recognitions of this fact was the involvement of insertion sequences in the integration of F and R plasmids into the host chromosome.
As with other questions involving IS sequences, the essential truth is that there are no truths: some insertion sequences are very specific in their target specificity and others are extremely general.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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