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Encyclopedia > Insecticide

An insecticide is a pesticide used against insects in all developmental forms. They include ovicides and larvicides used against the eggs and larvae of insects. Insecticides are used in agriculture, medicine, industry and the household. The use of insecticides is believed to be one of the major factors behind the increase in agricultural productivity in the 20th century. Nearly all insecticides have the potential to significantly alter ecosystems; many are toxic to humans; and others are concentrated in the food chain. It is necessary to balance agricultural needs with environmental and health issues when using insecticides. Image File history File links Please see the file description page for further information. ... An ovicide is a type of insecticide. ... A cropduster spreading pesticide. ... Orders Subclass Apterygota Archaeognatha (bristletails) Thysanura (silverfish) Monura - extinct Subclass Pterygota Infraclass Paleoptera (may be paraphyletic) Ephemeroptera (mayflies) Palaeodictyoptera - extinct Megasecoptera - extinct Archodonata - extinct Diaphanopterodea - extinct Protodonata - extinct Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies) Infraclass Neoptera Superorder Exopterygota Caloneurodea - extinct Titanoptera - extinct Protorthoptera - extinct Grylloblattodea (ice-crawlers) Mantophasmatodea (gladiators) Plecoptera (stoneflies) Embioptera... An ovicide is a type of insecticide. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... In most birds and reptiles, an egg (Latin ovum) is the zygote, resulting from fertilization of the ovum. ... A larval insect A larva (Latin; plural larvae) is a juvenile form of animal with indirect development, undergoing metamorphosis (for example, insects or amphibians). ... Medicine is the science and art of maintaining andor restoring human health through the study, diagnosis, and treatment of patients. ... The household is the basic unit of analysis in many microeconomic and government models. ...

Contents

Classes of agricultural insecticides

The classification of insecticides is done in several different ways:

  • Systemic insecticides are incorporated by treated plants. Insects ingest the insecticide while feeding on the plants.
  • Contact insecticides are toxic to insects brought into direct contact. They most often applied through aerosol distribution.
  • Natural insecticides, such as nicotine and pyrethrum, are made by plants as defences against insects.
  • Inorganic insecticides are manufactured with metals and include arsenates copper- and fluorine compounds, which are now seldom used, and sulfur, which is commonly used.
  • Organic insecticides are synthetic chemicals which comprise the largest numbers of pesticides available for use today.
  • Mode of action -- how the pesticide kills or inactivates a pest -- is another way of classifying insecticides. Mode of action is important in predicting whether an insecticide will be toxic to unrelated species such as fish, birds and mammals.

Heavy metals, eg lead, mercury, arsenic and plant toxins such as nicotine have been used for many years. Various plants have been used as folk insectides for centuries, including tobacco and pyrethrum. Some farmers are reporting successfully using spray of crudely fermented alcohol as an effective insectide. Aerosol, is a term derived from the fact that matter floating in air is a suspension (a mixture in which solid or liquid or combined solid-liquid particles are suspended in a fluid). ... Pyrethrum refers to several Old World plants of the genus Chrysanthemum (e. ... The arsenate ion is AsO43-. An arsenate (compound) is some compound that contains this ion. ... General Name, Symbol, Number copper, Cu, 29 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11, 4, d Appearance metallic pinkish red Standard atomic weight 63. ... General Name, Symbol, Number fluorine, F, 9 Chemical series halogens Group, Period, Block 17, 2, p Appearance Yellowish brown gas Atomic mass 18. ... General Name, Symbol, Number sulfur, S, 16 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 16, 3, p Appearance lemon yellow Standard atomic weight 32. ... A heavy metal is any of a number of higher atomic weight elements, which has the properties of a metallic substance at room temperature. ... For Pb as an abbreviation, see PB. General Name, Symbol, Number lead, Pb, 82 Chemical series Post-transition metals or poor metals Group, Period, Block 14, 6, p Appearance bluish gray Standard atomic weight 207. ... General Name, Symbol, Number mercury, Hg, 80 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 12, 6, d Appearance silvery Standard atomic weight 200. ... General Name, Symbol, Number arsenic, As, 33 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 15, 4, p Appearance metallic gray Standard atomic weight 74. ... Nicotine is an alkaloid found in the nightshade family of plants (Solanaceae), predominantly in tobacco, and in lower quantities in tomato, potato, eggplant (aubergine), and green pepper. ... Shredded tobacco leaf for pipe smoking Tobacco can also be pressed into plugs and sliced into flakes Tobacco is an agricultural product processed from the fresh leaves of plants in genus Nicotiana. ... Pyrethrum refers to several Old World plants of the genus Chrysanthemum (e. ...


Chlorine based agents. With the rise of the modern chemical industry it was possible to form organochlorides; the organochlorides used in chemical warfare tend to be more potent electrophiles than those used as insecticides. For instance mustard gas (sulfur mustard, HD) is a potent alklating agent which uses neighbouring group participation of the sulfur to make the alkyl chloride a stronger electrophile. An organochlorine insecticide such as DDT or lindane does not directly kill the insect. It is likely that the chlorine is used to tune the lipophilicity of the compound, and to alter the shape and electrostatic effects involved in the interactions of the insecticide and the biomolecules in the target organism. For instance DDT works by opening the sodium channels in the nerve cells of the insect. General Name, Symbol, Number chlorine, Cl, 17 Chemical series halogens Group, Period, Block 17, 3, p Appearance yellowish green Standard atomic weight 35. ... An organochloride, organochlorine or chlorocarbon, is an organic compound containing at least one covalently bonded chlorine atom. ... In chemistry, an electrophile (literally electron-lover) is a reagent attracted to electrons that participates in a chemical reaction by accepting an electron pair in order to bond to a nucleophile. ... Airborne exposure limit 0. ... The sulfur mustards, of which mustard gas is a member, are a class of related cytotoxic, vesicant chemical warfare agents with the ability to form large blisters on exposed skin. ... Neighbouring group participation or NGP in organic chemistry has been defined by IUPAC as the interaction of a reaction centre with a lone pair of electrons in an atom or the electrons present in a sigma bond or pi bond . ... Alkyl halide ... DDT or Dichloro-Diphenyl-Trichloroethane is the first modern pesticide and is one of the best known synthetic pesticides. ... Lindane is an insecticide, also known as gamma-Hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) and benzene hexachloride (BHC). ... Orders Subclass Apterygota Archaeognatha (bristletails) Thysanura (silverfish) Monura - extinct Subclass Pterygota Infraclass Paleoptera (may be paraphyletic) Ephemeroptera (mayflies) Palaeodictyoptera - extinct Megasecoptera - extinct Archodonata - extinct Diaphanopterodea - extinct Protodonata - extinct Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies) Infraclass Neoptera Superorder Exopterygota Caloneurodea - extinct Titanoptera - extinct Protorthoptera - extinct Grylloblattodea (ice-crawlers) Mantophasmatodea (gladiators) Plecoptera (stoneflies) Embioptera... ... General Name, Symbol, Number sodium, Na, 11 Chemical series alkali metals Group, Period, Block 1, 3, s Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 22. ...


The next large class was the organophosphates, both the insecticides and the chemical warfare agents (such as sarin, tabun, soman and VX) work in the same way. All these compounds bind to the neurotransmitter acetylcholinesterase and other cholinesterases. This results in disruption of nervous impulses, killing the insect or interfering with its ability to carry on normal functions. Carbamate insecticides have similar toxic mechanisms but have a much shorter duration of action and are somewhat less toxic on that basis. An organophosphate (sometimes abbreviated OP) is the general name for esters of phosphoric acid and is one of the organophosphorus compounds. ... Sarin, also known by its NATO designation of GB (O-Isopropyl methylphosphonofluoridate) is an extremely toxic substance whose sole application is as a nerve agent. ... Tabun or GA (Ethyl N,N-dimethylphosphoramidocyanidate) is an extremely toxic substance that is one of the worlds most dangerous military weapons. ... Boiling point 198 °C (388 °F) Freezing/melting point −42 °C (−44 °F) Vapor pressure 0. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Carbamates are a group of organic compounds sharing a common functional group with the general structure -NH(CO)O-. More precisely the carbamate group is considered an amide group with an alkoxy or hydroxy functional group next to the carbonyl group. ...


To mimic the insecticidal activity of the natural compound pyrethrum another class of pesticides, pyrethroid pesticides, have been developed. These are nonpersistent and much less acutely toxic than organophosphates and carbamates. Pyrethrum refers to several Old World plants of the genus Chrysanthemum (e. ... A pyrethroid is a synthetic chemical that kills most insects. ...


Recent efforts to reduce broad spectrum toxins added to the environment have brought biological insecticides back into vogue. An example is the development and increase in use of Bacillus thuringiensis, a bacterial disease of Lepidopterans and some other insects. It is used as a larvicide against a wide variety of caterpillars. Because it has little effect on other organisms, it is considered more environmentally friendly than synthetic pesticides. The toxin from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt toxin) has been incorporated directly into plants through the use of genetic engineering. Binomial name Berliner 1915 Bacillus thuringiensis is a Gram-positive, soil dwelling bacterium of the genus Bacillus. ... The order Lepidoptera is the second most speciose order in the class Insecta and includes the butterflies, moths and skippers. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... For other uses, see Caterpillar (album) and The Caterpillar. ... “Life on Earth” redirects here. ... --59. ... Binomial name Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner 1915 Bacillus thuringiensis is a Gram-positive, soil dwelling bacterium of the genus Bacillus. ... An iconic image of genetic engineering; this autoluminograph from 1986 of a glowing transgenic tobacco plant bearing the luciferase gene, illustrating the possibilities of genetic engineering. ...


Environmental effects

One of the bigger drivers in the development of new insecticides has been the desire to replace toxic and irksome insecticides. DDT was introduced as a safer alternative to the lead and arsenic compounds. It is the case that when used under the correct conditions that almost any chemical substance is 'safe', but when used under the wrong conditions most insecticides can be a threat to health and/or the environment. Toxic redirects here, but this is also the name of a song by Britney Spears; see Toxic (song) Look up toxic and toxicity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... DDT or Dichloro-Diphenyl-Trichloroethane is the first modern pesticide and is one of the best known synthetic pesticides. ... For Pb as an abbreviation, see PB. General Name, Symbol, Number lead, Pb, 82 Chemical series Post-transition metals or poor metals Group, Period, Block 14, 6, p Appearance bluish gray Standard atomic weight 207. ... General Name, Symbol, Number arsenic, As, 33 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 15, 4, p Appearance metallic gray Standard atomic weight 74. ...


Some insecticides have been banned due to the fact that they are persistent toxins which have adverse effects on animals and/or humans. A classic example which is often quoted is that DDT is an example of a widely used (and maybe misused) pesticide. One of the better known impacts of DDT is to reduce the thickness of the egg shells on predatory birds. The shells sometimes become too thin to be viable, causing reductions in bird populations. This occurs with DDT and a number of related compounds due to the process of bioaccumulation, wherein the chemical, due to its stability and fat solubility, accumulates in organisms fat. Also, DDT may biomagnify which causes progressively higher concentrations in the body fat of animals farther up the food chain. The near-worldwide ban on agricultural use of DDT and related chemicals has allowed some of these birds--such as the peregrine falcon--to recover in recent years. A number of the organochlorine pesticides have been banned from most uses worldwide and globally they are controlled via the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants. These include: aldrin, chlordane, DDT, dieldrin, endrin, heptachlor, mirex and toxaphene. DDT or Dichloro-Diphenyl-Trichloroethane is the first modern pesticide and is one of the best known synthetic pesticides. ... If the input of a toxic substance to an organism is greater than the rate at which the substance is lost, the organism is said to be bioaccumulating that substance. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Binomial name Tunstall, 1771 Global range (shaded green, dark dots on islands) The Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus), occasionally known in North America as the Duck Hawk, is a medium-sized falcon about the size of a large crow: 380–530 millimetres (15–21 in) long. ... Stockholm Convention is an international agreement on persistent organic pollutants (POPs). ... Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are organic compounds that are resistant to environmental degradation through chemical, biological, and photolytic processes. ... Aldrin is an organochlorine insecticide which is oxidized in the insect to form dieldrin, a neurotoxin. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... DDT or Dichloro-Diphenyl-Trichloroethane is the first modern pesticide and is one of the best known synthetic pesticides. ... Dieldrin is a chlorinated hydrocarbon originally produced by Bayer AG as an insecticide. ... Endrin Endrin is a cyclodiene insecticide used on cotton, maize, and rice. ... Heptachlor is an insecticide that usually comes in the form of a white or tan powder, the tan powder being of lower purity. ... Mirex is a bait insecticide used against a large number of insect pests, with the chemical formula C10Cl12. ... Toxaphene is an organic insecticide with the approximate empirical formula C10H10Cl8 and average molecular mass of 414. ...


While the overuse of DDT lead to a reduction in its use, opponents of traditional environmentalism often cite it as an example of environmentalism going too far and interfering with malaria eradication, going so far as to estimate the cost of human lives resulting from the DDT ban; for instance the novelist Michael Crichton states in his bestselling book, State of Fear: For the psychology topic, see Environmental psychology. ... Malaria is a vector-borne infectious disease caused by protozoan parasites. ... Michael Crichton, pronounced [1], (born October 23, 1942) is an American author, film producer, film director, and television producer. ... State of Fear is a 2004 novel by Michael Crichton published by HarperCollins on December 7, 2004. ...

"Since the ban, two million people a year have died unnecessarily from malaria, mostly children. The ban has caused more than fifty million needless deaths. Banning DDT killed more people than Hitler."

This accusation, while sensational, is erroneous, as no ban exists on the use of DDT for eradication of malaria or any other mosquito borne disease.[1] Groups fighting malaria have praised the ban on agricultural use of DDT, since it reduces the rate with which mosquitoes become resistant to DDT, which is the main reason it is not used more often to fight malaria: Diversity 41 genera Genera See text. ...

"The outcome of the treaty is arguably better than the statu­­s quo going into the negotiations over two years ago. For the firs­t time­, there is now an insecticide which is restricted to vector co­ntrol onl­y, meaning that the selection of resistant mosquitoes wi­ll be slower th­an before." [2].

In fact, according to Agricultural production and malaria resurgence in Central America and India, Chapin, Georgeanne & Robert Wasserstrom, Nature, Vol. 293, 1981, page 183), the lives actually saved due to banning agricultural use of DDT can be estimated:

"Correlating the use of DDT in El Salvador with renewed malaria transmission, it can be estimated that at current rates each kilo of insecticide added to the environment will generate 105 new cases of malaria."

Alternative insecticides have had to be used as an alternative to DDT because the population of insects have become resistant to DDT. Most of the newer insecticides are more specific in their actions and are designed to break down into non-toxic components within a few days of application. Nonetheless, misuse of insecticides remains an environmental and economic issue. For example, in Bangladesh most of the insecticide applications by rice farmers are apparently unnecessary [3].


Application methods for household insecticides

Integrated pest management or IPM in the home begins with restricting the availability to insects of three vital commodities: shelter, water and food. If insects become a problem despite such measures then it is wise to control them using the safest possible methods, targeting the approach that is used to the pest that is present in the household environment[1]. IPM bollworm trap Cotton field Manning, South Carolina In agriculture, Integrated Pest Management (IPM) is a pest control strategy that uses an array of complementary methods: natural predators and parasites, pest-resistant varieties (see GMO), cultural practices, biological controls, various physical techniques, and pesticides as a last resort. ...


Insect repellent referred to as "bug spray", comes in a plastic bottle or aerosol can. Applied to clothing, arms, legs, and other extremities, the use of these products will tend to ward off nearby insects. This is not an insecticide. Mosquito on a bottle of herbal mosquito repellent. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Aerosol spray can Aerosol spray is a type of canister that sprays an aerosol when its button is pressed or held down. ...


Insecticide used for killing pests—most often insects, and arachnids—primarily comes in an aerosol can, and is sprayed into the air or a nest as a means of killing the animal. Fly sprays will kill house flies, blowflies, ants, cockroaches and other insects and also spiders. Other preparations are granules or liquids that are formulated with bait that is eaten by insects. For many household pests bait traps are available that contain the pesticide and either pheromone or food baits. Crack and crevice sprays are applied into and around openings in houses such as baseboards and plumbing. Pesticides to control termites are often injected into and around the foundations of homes. Larval form of some beetle is damaging specimen of Sceliphron destillatorius in entomogical collection. ... Orders Subclass Apterygota Archaeognatha (bristletails) Thysanura (silverfish) Monura - extinct Subclass Pterygota Infraclass Paleoptera (may be paraphyletic) Ephemeroptera (mayflies) Palaeodictyoptera - extinct Megasecoptera - extinct Archodonata - extinct Diaphanopterodea - extinct Protodonata - extinct Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies) Infraclass Neoptera Superorder Exopterygota Caloneurodea - extinct Titanoptera - extinct Protorthoptera - extinct Grylloblattodea (ice-crawlers) Mantophasmatodea (gladiators) Plecoptera (stoneflies) Embioptera... Extant orders Acarina Amblypygi Araneae Opiliones Palpigradi Pseudoscorpionida Ricinulei Schizomida Solifugae Uropygi Wikispecies has information related to: Arachnida Arachnids are a class (Arachnida) of joint-legged invertebrate animals in the subphylum Chelicerata. ... Binomial name Musca domestica The housefly (Musca domestica Linnaeus) is the most common fly occurring in homes and indeed one of the most widely distributed animals and the most familiar of all flies; it is a pest that can facilitate serious diseases. ... Subfamilies Calliphorinae Chrysomyiinae The Blowflies are members of the family Calliphoridae of flies (Diptera). ... Subfamilies Aenictogitoninae Agroecomyrmecinae Amblyoponinae (incl. ... It has been suggested that Blattellidae be merged into this article or section. ... Orders Subclass Apterygota Archaeognatha (bristletails) Thysanura (silverfish) Monura - extinct Subclass Pterygota Infraclass Paleoptera (may be paraphyletic) Ephemeroptera (mayflies) Palaeodictyoptera - extinct Megasecoptera - extinct Archodonata - extinct Diaphanopterodea - extinct Protodonata - extinct Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies) Infraclass Neoptera Superorder Exopterygota Caloneurodea - extinct Titanoptera - extinct Protorthoptera - extinct Grylloblattodea (ice-crawlers) Mantophasmatodea (gladiators) Plecoptera (stoneflies) Embioptera... Diversity 111 families, 40,000 species Suborders Mesothelae Mygalomorphae Araneomorphae  See table of families Wikispecies has information related to: Spiders Spiders are predatory invertebrate animals that have two body segments, eight legs, no chewing mouth parts and no wings. ... Families Mastotermitidae Kalotermitidae Termopsidae Hodotermitidae Rhinotermitidae Serritermitidae Termitidae Reference: Earthlife as of 2002-07-26 A termite (also known as a white ant) is any member of the order Isoptera, a group of social insects that eat wood and other cellulose-rich vegetable matter. ...


Active ingredients of many household insecticides include permethrin and tetramethrin, which act on the nervous system of insects and arachnids. Permethrin is a common synthetic chemical, widely used as an insecticide and acaricide and as an insect repellent. ... Chemical structure of tetramethrin. ...


Bug sprays should be used in well ventilated areas only, as the chemicals contained in the aerosol and most insecticides can be harmful or deadly to humans and companion animals. All insecticide products including solids, baits and bait traps should be applied such that they are out of reach of wildlife, companion animals and children.


Individual insecticides

Chlorinated

Main article: :Category:Organochloride insecticides

DDT or Dichloro-Diphenyl-Trichloroethane is the first modern pesticide and is one of the best known synthetic pesticides. ... Lindane is an insecticide, also known as gamma-Hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) and benzene hexachloride (BHC). ... Lindane is an insecticide, also known as gamma-Hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) and benzene hexachloride (BHC). ... Methoxychlor, also dimethoxy-DDT (DMDT) and methoxy-DDT is a synthetic organochlorine used as an insecticide. ... Pentachlorophenol (C6HCl5O) is a synthetic fungicide which is an organochloride. ... TDE can mean: Transition Diagram Editor Trusted Domain Enforcement This page concerning a three-letter acronym or abbreviation is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Aldrin is an organochlorine insecticide which is oxidized in the insect to form dieldrin, a neurotoxin. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Kepone ( also, known as Chlordecone) was a carcinogenic pesticide related to mirex. ... Dieldrin is a chlorinated hydrocarbon originally produced by Bayer AG as an insecticide. ... Endosulfan Endosulfan is a cyclodiene insecticide with the formula C9H6Cl6O3S, also used under the name thiodan and benzoepin. ... Endrin Endrin is a cyclodiene insecticide used on cotton, maize, and rice. ... Heptachlor is an insecticide that usually comes in the form of a white or tan powder, the tan powder being of lower purity. ... Mirex is a bait insecticide used against a large number of insect pests, with the chemical formula C10Cl12. ...

Organophosphorus

Azinphos-methyl, or AZM, is a general organophosphate pesticide used on nuts, vegetables, and fruits. ... Chlorpyrifos Chlorpyrifos is a toxic crystalline organophosphate insecticide (C9H11Cl3NO3PS) that inhibits acetylcholinesterase and is used to control insect pests. ... Diazinon Diazinon (O,O-diethyl 0-2-isopropyl-6-methyl(pyrimidine-4-yl) phosphorothioate), a colorless to dark brown liquid, is a nonsystemic organophosphate insecticide used to control cockroaches, silverfish, ants, and fleas in residential, non-food buildings. ... Dichlorvos (2,2-dichlorovinyl dimethyl phosphate) is an insecticide. ... Dimethoate is a widely used organophosphate insecticide used to kill insects on contact. ... Fenitrothion is an organic phosphate pesticide. ... Fenthion is an organothiophosphate insecticide, which is a subset of the organophosphates. ... Malathion is a organophosphate parasympathomimetic which binds irreversibly to cholinesterase. ... Methamidophos is an organophosphate insecticide[1] Chemical name (RS)-O,S-dimethyl phosphoramidothioate ^ http://www. ... Methidathion is an organophosphate insecticide[1] Chemical name S-2,3-dihydro-5-methoxy-2-oxo-1,3,4-thiadiazol-3-ylmethyl O,O-dimethyl phosphorodithioate Category: ... An omethoate (C5H12NO4PS) is a systemic organophosphorous insecticide and acaricide available as a soluble concentrate. ... // Properties and uses Parathion, or diethyl parathion, is a very potent insecticide and acaricide. ... Phosalone is a chemical, an organophosphate commonly used as an insecticide and acaricide. ... Phosmet is a non-systemic, organophosphate insecticide used on plants and animals. ... Trichlorfon is an organophosphate acetylcholinesterase inhibitor. ...

Carbamates

Aldicarb is a carbamate insecticide with structural formula: 2-methyl-2-(methylthio)propionaldehyde O-methylcarbamoyloxime. ... Carbofuran is the most toxic of the carbamate pesticides. ... Carbaryl is a chemical in the carbamate family used chiefly as an insecticide. ... 2-(1-methylpropyl)phenol methylcarbamate, CAS number 3766-81-2, is a carbamate insecticide. ...

Phenothiazine

Phenothiazines are the largest of the 5 main classes of antipsychotic drugs. ...

Pyrethroids

A pyrethroid is a synthetic chemical that kills most insects. ... Allethrin I (R = −CH3) Allethrin II (R = −COOCH3) The allethrins are a pair of related synthetic compounds used in insecticides. ... Bifenthrin or (2-methyl-1,1-biphenyl-3-y1)-methyl-3-(2-chloro-3,3,3-trifluoro-1-propenyl)-2,2-dimethyl cyclopropanecarboxylate (CAS number 82657-04-3) is a pyrethroid insecticide that affects the nervous system of insects. ... Deltamethrin is a pyrethroid ester insecticide. ... Permethrin is a common synthetic chemical, widely used as an insecticide and acaricide and as an insect repellent. ... Resmethrins skeletal formula Resmethrin is a pyrethroid insecticide with many uses, including control of the adult mosquito population. ... Sumithrins skeletal formula Sumithrin is an insecticide in the pyrethroid family. ... Chemical structure of tetramethrin. ... Tralomethrin is a colourless substance. ... Transfluthrins skeletal formula Transfluthrin is a fast-acting pyrethroid insecticide with low persistency. ...

Plant toxin derived

Derris is a climbing leguminous plant of Southeast Asia and the southwest Pacific islands, including New Guinea. ... Rotenone is a colorless-to-red, odorless solid. ... Pyrethrum refers to several Old World plants of the genus Chrysanthemum (e. ... Neem (Azadirachta indica, syn. ... Azadirachtin is a chemical compound belonging to the limonoids. ... Nicotine is an alkaloid found in the nightshade family of plants (Solanaceae), predominantly in tobacco, and in lower quantities in tomato, potato, eggplant (aubergine), and green pepper. ... Caffeine is a xanthine alkaloid compound that acts as a stimulant in humans. ...

See also

The endangered Smiths blue butterfly. ...

References

  1. ^ #
  1. http://www.ipm.ucdavis.edu/WATER/U/alternative.html.

External links

Pestworld.org - Official site of the National Pest Management Association

Look up insecticide in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
  • Classification of insecticides
  • *Streaming online video about efforts to reduce insecticide use in rice in Bangladesh. Windows Media Player [4], Real Player [5]
  • How Insecticides Work - Has a thorough explanation on how insecticides work.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Natural Insecticide (402 words)
Effectively kills and controls ants, boxelder bugs, carpet beetles, crickets, earwigs, flies, mites, silverfish, slugs, snails, ticks, scorpions, almost any insects with a waxy coating will succumb to dehydration when the sharp dagger like points scratch it.
Dia-Secticide: "Environmental User Friendly Insecticide For Today's Generation." Comes in a 9oz.
Easy to apply to cracks, crevices or use as a duster for plants, cats, dogs, poultry or other livestock.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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