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Encyclopedia > Insect repellent
Mosquito on a bottle of herbal mosquito repellent.
Mosquito on a bottle of herbal mosquito repellent.

An insect repellent is a substance applied to skin, clothing, or other surfaces which discourages insects (and arthropods in general) from landing or climbing on that surface. There are also insect repellent products available based on sound production, particularly ultrasound (inaudibly high frequency sounds). These electronic devices have been shown to have no effect as a pest repellent by studies done by the EPA and many universities.[1] Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Orders Subclass Apterygota Archaeognatha (bristletails) Thysanura (silverfish) Subclass Pterygota Infraclass Paleoptera (Probably paraphyletic) Ephemeroptera (mayflies) Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies) Infraclass Neoptera Superorder Exopterygota Grylloblattodea (ice-crawlers) Mantophasmatodea (gladiators) Plecoptera (stoneflies) Embioptera (webspinners) Zoraptera (angel insects) Dermaptera (earwigs) Orthoptera (grasshoppers, etc) Phasmatodea (stick insects) Blattodea (cockroaches) Isoptera (termites) Mantodea (mantids) Psocoptera... Subphyla and Classes Subphylum Trilobitomorpha Trilobita - trilobites (extinct) Subphylum Chelicerata Arachnida - spiders,scorpions, etc. ... For other uses, see Ultrasound (disambiguation). ...


Insect repellents help prevent and control the outbreak of insect-borne diseases such as malaria, Lyme disease, Dengue fever, bubonic plague, and West Nile fever. Pest animals commonly serving as vectors for disease include the insects flea, fly, and mosquito; and the arachnid tick. In epidemiology, a vector is an organism that does not cause disease itself but which spreads infection by conveying pathogens from one host to another. ... Malaria is a vector-borne infectious disease caused by protozoan parasites. ... Lyme disease, or borreliosis, is an emerging infectious disease caused by spirochete bacteria from the genus Borrelia. ... Dengue Fever redirects here. ... The bubonic plague or bubonic fever is the best-known variant of the deadly infectious disease caused by the enterobacteria Yersinia pestis (Pasteurella pestis). ... West Nile fever (West Nile encephalitis) a febrile illness caused by West Nile virus, that is transmitted from birds to the common Culex mosquito and then to people. ... In epidemiology, a vector is an organism that does not cause disease itself but which spreads infection by conveying pathogens from one host to another. ... For other uses, see Flea (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fly (disambiguation) and Flies (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Mosquito (disambiguation). ... Families Ixodidae - Hard ticks Argasidae - Soft ticks Nuttalliellidae - ????? ticks Wikispecies has information related to: Ixodoidea Tick is the common name for the small arachnids that, along with other mites, constitute the order Acarina. ...


Common insect repellents include:

Usually insect repellents work instead by masking human scent, or by using a scent which insects naturally avoid.[citation needed] Permethrin is different in that it is actually a contact insecticide. N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide, abbreviated DEET, is an insect repellent chemical. ... An essential oil is a concentrated, hydrophobic liquid containing volatile aromatic compounds from plants. ... Binomial name (Hook. ... Icaridin, also known as picaridine, KBR 3023, Bayrepel, and hydroxyethyl butyl piperidine carboxylate is an insect repellent owned and manufactured by Lanxess AG. It has a broad efficacy against different insects and is almost colorless and odorless. ... Citronella oil is one of the important essential oils obtained from different species of Cymbopogon. ... Permethrin is a common synthetic chemical, widely used as an insecticide and acaricide and as an insect repellent. ... Binomial name Glycine max Merr. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Permethrin is a common synthetic chemical, widely used as an insecticide and acaricide and as an insect repellent. ... It has been suggested that ovicide be merged into this article or section. ...

Contents

Repellent effectiveness

Synthetic repellents tend to be more effective than 'natural' repellents.[3][4][2] However, some plant-based repellents are comparable to, or somewhat better than synthetics - depending on the formula.[5] [3][6] Essential oil repellents tend to being short-lived in their effectiveness due to their volatile nature. Generally, synthetic means pertaining to synthesis, i. ... An essential oil is a concentrated, hydrophobic liquid containing volatile aromatic compounds from plants. ... Look up volatile in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


A test of various insect repellents by an independent consumer organization found that repellents containing DEET or picaridin are more effective than repellents with ‘natural’ active ingredients. All the synthetics gave almost 100% repellency for the first 2 hours, where the natural repellent products were most effective for the first 30-60 minutes, and required reapplication to be effective over several hours.[7]


For protection against mosquitos, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control recommend DEET, icaridin, or oil of lemon eucalyptus for skin, and permethrin for clothing, gear, or bed nets.[8] Oil of lemon eucalyptus was found to be more effective than other plant-based treatments, and had similar effectiveness to low concentrations of DEET. [9] However, research found that neem oil is mosquito repellent for up to 12 hours.[10] Citronella oils mosquito repellency has also been verified by research,[11] including effectiveness in repelling Aedes aegypti, [12][13], but requires reapplication after 30-60 minutes. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta is recognized as the lead United States agency for protecting the public health and safety of people by providing credible information to enhance health decisions, and promoting health through strong partnerships with state health departments and other organizations. ... A bed covered by a mosquito net. ... joyce This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ...


Repellent safety

Regarding safety with insect repellent use on children and pregnant women: For other uses, see Safety (disambiguation). ... A male Caucasian toddler child A child (plural: children) is a young human. ... A pregnant woman Pregnancy is the process by which a mammalian female carries a live offspring from conception until it develops to the point where the offspring is capable of living outside the womb. ...

  • Children may be at greater risk for adverse reactions to repellents, in part, because their exposure may be greater.
  • Keep repellents out of the reach of children.
  • Do not allow children to apply repellents to themselves.
  • Use only small amounts of repellent on children.
  • Do not apply repellents to the hands of young children because this may result in accidental eye contact or ingestion.
  • Try to reduce the use of repellents by dressing children in long sleeves and long pants tucked into boots or socks whenever possible. Use netting over strollers, playpens, etc.
  • As with chemical exposures in general, pregnant women should take care to avoid exposures to repellents when practical, as the fetus may be vulnerable.

Regardless of which repellent product used, it is recommended that the label is read before use and directions carefully followed.[14] Usage instructions for repellents vary from country to country. Some insect repellents are not recommended for use on younger children.[9] For other uses, see Fetus (disambiguation). ... A label is any kind of tag attached with adhesive to something so as to identify the object or its contents. ... Directions - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ...


In the DEET Reregistration Eligibility Decision (RED) the EPA reported 14 to 46 cases of potential DEET associated seizures, including 4 deaths. The EPA states: " ..it does appear that some cases are likely related to DEET toxicity," but observed that with 30% of the US population using DEET, the likely seizure rate is only about one per 100 million users.[15] EPA redirects here. ... This article is about the medical condition. ... // Toxic and Intoxicated redirect here – toxic has other uses, which can be found at Toxicity (disambiguation); for the state of being intoxicated by alcohol see Drunkenness. ...


The Pesticide Information Project of Cooperative Extension Offices of Cornell University states that "Everglades National Park employees having extensive DEET exposure were more likely to have insomnia, mood disturbances and impaired cognitive function than were lesser exposed co-workers". [16] Cornell redirects here. ... Everglades National Park preserves the southern portion of the Everglades (all south of Tamiami Trail), but represents only 20 % of the original wetland area. ...


The U. S. Environmental Protection Agency states that citronella oil shows little or no toxicity and has been used as a topical insect repellent for 60 years. However, the EPA also states that citronella may irritate skin and cause dermatitis in certain individuals.[17] Canadian regulatory authorities concern with citronella based repellents is primarily based on data-gaps in toxicology, not on incidents.[18] [19] EPA redirects here. ... // Toxic and Intoxicated redirect here – toxic has other uses, which can be found at Toxicity (disambiguation); for the state of being intoxicated by alcohol see Drunkenness. ... Dermatitis is a blanket term literally meaning inflammation of the skin. It is usually used to refer to eczema, which is also known as Dermatitis eczema. ... Toxicology (from the Greek words toxicos and logos [1]) is the study of the adverse effects of chemicals on living organisms [2]. It is the study of symptoms, mechanisms, treatments and detection of poisoning, especially the poisoning of people. ...


Naturally-occurring insect repellent

There are many naturally-occurring pesticides which can be used as an insect repellent and these are:

It should be noted that all the natural pesticides to be used are better of either food or pharmaceutical grade. Other grade maybe used under the strict professional supervision. For other uses, see Basil (disambiguation). ... Binomial name L. Allium sativum L., commonly known as garlic, is a species in the onion family Alliaceae. ... Species Over 50: see text Lemon Grass Lemon grass or lemongrass is a perennial herb used in Asian (particularly Thai, Khmer and Vietnamese) and Caribbean cooking. ... Species About 25-30, including: Lavandula abrotanoides Lavandula angustifolia Lavandula canariensis Lavandula dentata Lavandula lanata Lavandula latifolia Lavandula multifida Lavandula pinnata Lavandula stoechas Lavandula viridis Lavandula x intermedia The Lavenders Lavandula are a genus of about 25-30 species of flowering plants in the mint family, Lamiaceae, native from the... Binomial name L. Marjoram (Origanum majorana, Lamiaceae) is a somewhat cold-sensitive perennial herb or undershrub with sweet pine and citrus flavours. ... Binomial name Mentha × piperita L. Peppermint (Mentha × piperita) is a (usually) sterile hybrid mint, a cross between watermint (Mentha aquatica) and spearmint (Mentha spicata). ... For other uses, see Rosemary (disambiguation). ... Look up sage in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Tea tree or Ti Tree is a popular name that has been applied to a number of different, unrelated plants: Camellia sinensis, from which tea is obtained. ...


See also

Mosquito control is the task of managing the population of mosquitoes to reduce their damage to human health, economies, and enjoyment of mosquito-ridden areas. ... A bed covered by a mosquito net. ... A crop duster applies low-insecticide bait that is targeted against Western corn rootworms Pest control refers to the regulation or management of another species defined as a pest, usually because it is believed to be detrimental to a persons health, the ecology or the economy Pest control is...

References

  1. ^ EurekaAlert (April 17 2007). Mosquito repellents that emit high-pitched sounds don't prevent bites. Press release.
  2. ^ a b Safety Tips on Using Personal Insect Repellents. Responsible Pesticide Use. Pest Management Regulatory Agency (Canada) (17 Sep 2004).
  3. ^ a b M. S. Fradin and J. F. Day (2002). "Comparative Efficacy of Insect Repellents against Mosquito Bites". N Engl J Med 347 (1): 13-18. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa011699. 
  4. ^ Collins, D.A.; Brady, J.N.; Curtis, C.F. (1993). "Assessment of the efficacy of Quwenling as a Mosquito repellent". Phytotherapy Research 7 (1): 17-20. 
  5. ^ Mishra AK, Singh N, Sharma VP, 1995 "Use of neem oil as a mosquito repellent in tribal villages of mandla district, madhya pradesh", Indian J Malariol, Sep;32(3):99-103 Pubmed
  6. ^ Collins, D.A.; Brady, J.N.; Curtis, C.F. (1993). "Assessment of the efficacy of Quwenling as a Mosquito repellent". Phytotherapy Research 7 (1): 17-20. 
  7. ^ "Test: Mosquito Repellents, The Verdict" Choice, The Australian Consumers Association
  8. ^ M. S. Fradin and J. F. Day (2002). "Comparative Efficacy of Insect Repellents against Mosquito Bites". N Engl J Med 347 (1): 13-18. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa011699. 
  9. ^ a b Insect Repellent Use and Safety. West Nile Virus. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (12 Jan 07).
  10. ^ Mishra AK, Singh N, Sharma VP, 1995 "Use of neem oil as a mosquito repellent in tribal villages of mandla district, madhya pradesh", Indian J Malariol, Sep;32(3):99-103 Pubmed
  11. ^ Jeong-Kyu KIM, Chang-Soo KANG, Jong-Kwon LEE, Young-Ran KIM, Hye-Yun HAN, Hwa Kyung YUN, Evaluation of Repellency Effect of Two Natural Aroma Mosquito Repellent Compounds, Citronella and Citronellal, Entomological Research 35 (2), 117–120, 2005
  12. ^ Ibrahim Jantan, and Zaridah Mohd. Zaki, Developemnt of environment-friendly insect repellents from the leaf oils of selected Malaysian plants, ASEAN Review of Biodiversity and Environmental Conservation (ARBEC), May 1998.
  13. ^ Trongtokit Y, Rongsriyan Y, Komalamisra N, Apiwathnasom L, Comparative repellency of 38 essential oils against mosquito bites, Phytother Res. 2005 Apr;19(4):303-9 [1]
  14. ^ "Health Advisory: Tick and Insect Repellents", Information factsheet, Department of Health, New York State
  15. ^ "Reregistration Eligibility Decision: DEET." U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Prevention, Pesticides, and Toxic Substances. September 1998. pp39-40
  16. ^ http://pmep.cce.cornell.edu/profiles/extoxnet/carbaryl-dicrotophos/deet-ext.html
  17. ^ U.S. EPA Citronella Factsheet. Retrieved on July 20, 2007.
  18. ^ (17 Sep 2004) Re-evaluation of Citronella Oil and Related Active Compounds for Use as Personal Insect Repellents. Pest Management Regulatory Agency (Canada). ISBN 0-662-38012-6. 
  19. ^ "So Then: Who’s Afraid of Citronella Oil? Update!" Cropwatch Newsletter Vol 2,Issue 1, No. 1
  20. ^ Taverne, Janice (2001). "Malaria on the Web and the mosquito-repellent properties of basil". Trends in Parasitology 17 (6): 299 - 300. doi:10.1016/S1471-4922(01)01978-X. 
  21. ^ Rahman, G. K. M. M.; N. Motoyama (1998). "Identification of the active components of garlic causing repellent effect against the rice weevil and the wheat flour beetle" (in English). Nihon Oyo Doubutsu Konchu Gakkai Taikai Koen Youshi 42: 211. Retrieved on 22 November 2007. 
  22. ^ Oyedele, A.O. et al. (2002). "Formulation of an effective mosquito-repellent topical product from Lemongrass oil". Phytomedicine 9 (3): 259 - 262. doi:10.1078/0944-7113-00120. 
  23. ^ Jaenson, Thomas G. T. et al. (2006). "Repellency of Oils of Lemon Eucalyptus, Geranium, and Lavender and the Mosquito Repellent MyggA Natural to Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae) in the Laboratory and Field". Journal of Medical Entomology 43 (4): 731 – 736. doi:[731:ROOOLE2.0.CO;2 10.1603/0022-2585(2006)43[731:ROOOLE]2.0.CO;2]. 
  24. ^ Cook, Samantha M. et al. (2007). "Responses of Phradis parasitoids to volatiles of lavender, Lavendula angustifolia —a possible repellent for their host, Meligethes aeneus". BioControl 52 (5): 591 - 598. Springer. doi:10.1007/s10526-006-9057-x. 
  25. ^ a b Momen, F. M. et al. (2001). "Repellent and Oviposition-Deterring Activity of Rosemary and Sweet Marjoram on the Spider Mites Tetranychus urticae and Eutetranychus orientalis (Acari: Tetranychidae)". Acta Phytopathologica et Entomologica Hungarica 36 (1 - 2): 155 - 164. Akadémiai Kiadó. doi:10.1556/APhyt.36.2001.1-2.18. 
  26. ^ Ansari, M. A. et al. (2000). "Larvicidal and mosquito repellent action of peppermint (Mentha piperita) oil". Bioresource Technology 71 (3): 267 - 271. doi:10.1016/S0960-8524(99)00079-6. 
  27. ^ Deka, M. K. et al.. "Antifeedant and Repellent Effects of Pongam (Pongamia Pinnata) and Wild Sage (Lantana Camara) on Tea Mosquito Bug (Helopeltis Theivora)". Indian Journal of Agricultural Science. Retrieved on 22 November 2007. 
  28. ^ U.S. Patent 5,738,863 

Structural formula of nepetalactone Nepetalactone is a lactone chemical compound first isolated in the plant catnip, Nepeta cataria (apparently named after the Italian town of Nepete). ... For information on Wikipedia press releases, see Wikipedia:Press releases. ... The New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM) is a peer-reviewed medical journal published by the Massachusetts Medical Society. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Phytotherapy Research is a monthly, international journal for the publication of original research papers, short communications, reviews and letters on medicinal plant research. ... Phytotherapy Research is a monthly, international journal for the publication of original research papers, short communications, reviews and letters on medicinal plant research. ... The New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM) is a peer-reviewed medical journal published by the Massachusetts Medical Society. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta, Georgia, is recognized as the leading United States agency for protecting the public health and safety of people. ... is the 201st day of the year (202nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Trends in Parasitology Trends in Parasitology (ISSN 0471-4922) is a monthly review journal that is one of fourteen Trends titles in the life sciences published by Elsevier. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... is the 326th day of the year (327th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... is the 326th day of the year (327th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Insect repellent - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (194 words)
An insect repellent is a substance applied to skin, clothing, or other surfaces which discourage insects (and arthropods in general) from landing or climbing on that surface.
Insect repellents help prevent and control the outbreak of insect-borne diseases such as malaria, Lyme disease, bubonic plague, and West Nile fever.
Insects commonly serving as vectors for disease include fleas, flies, mosquitos, and ticks.
MD Travel Health - Insect repellents - DEET, permethrin, and botanical products (610 words)
Insect repellents should be applied judiciously to exposed skin, though not to eyes, mouth, cuts, wounds, or irritated skin.
Insect repellents should be washed off with soap and water when no longer needed.
Though less effective, insect repellents containing certain botanical products may be an option when the duration of insect exposure is short or when the risk of contracting a serious infection from mosquito bites is small.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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