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Encyclopedia > Insect
Insects
Fossil range: Devonian - Recent
Western honey bee (Order Hymenoptera)
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Subphylum: Hexapoda
Class: Insecta
Linnaeus, 1758
Orders

Subclass Apterygota Artists illustration of a Devonian scene. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1620x1280, 489 KB) Photo by John Severns. ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 Synonyms Apis mellifica Linnaeus, 1761 The Western honey bee or European honey bee (Apis mellifera) is a species of honey bee. ... Suborders Apocrita Symphyta Hymenoptera is one of the larger orders of insects, comprising the sawflies, wasps, bees, and ants. ... Scientific classification or biological classification is a method by which biologists group and categorize species of organisms. ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... Subphyla and Classes Subphylum Trilobitomorpha Trilobita - trilobites (extinct) Subphylum Chelicerata Arachnida - spiders,scorpions, etc. ... Classes & Orders Class Insecta (insects) Class Entognatha The subphylum Hexapoda (from the Greek for six legs) constitutes the largest (in terms of number of species) grouping of arthropods and includes the insects as well as three much smaller groups of wingless arthropods: Collembola, Protura, and Diplura. ... Carl Linnaeus, Latinized as Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as  , (May 23, 1707[1] – January 10, 1778), was a Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist[2] who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of nomenclature. ... Cover of the tenth edition of Linnaeuss Systema Naturae (1758). ... Orders Archaeognatha Thysanura Apterygota is a subclass of insects that are small agile insects, distinguised from other insects by their lack of wings now and in their evolutionary history. ...

Subclass Pterygota Families Machilidae Meinertellidae The Archaeognatha are known as the bristletails, so named because of their three-pronged tails. ... Families Lepidotrichidae Lepismatidae Maindroniidae Nicoletiidae The insects of the order may be called bristletails, from their three long caudal filaments. ... Orders     Palaeodictyoptera - extinct     Ephemeroptera (mayflies)     Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies)   Infraclass Neoptera     Blattodea (cockroaches)     Mantodea (mantids)     Isoptera (termites)     Zoraptera     Grylloblattodea (rock crawlers)     Dermaptera (earwigs)     Plecoptera (stoneflies)     Orthoptera (grasshoppers, crickets, katydids)     Phasmatodea (walking sticks, timemas)     Embioptera (webspinners)     Mantophasmatodea (gladiators)    Superorder Hemipterodea     Psocoptera (booklice, barklice)     Phthiraptera (lice)     Hemiptera (true bugs)     Thysanoptera (thrips)    Superorder...

Superorder Exopterygota
Superorder Endopterygota

For fossil groups and possible future splits, see below Orders Ephemeroptera (mayflies) Palaeodictyoptera - extinct Megasecoptera - extinct Archodonata - extinct Diaphanopterodea - extinct Protodonata - extinct Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies) The name Paleoptera has been traditionally applied to those primitive groups of winged insects (most of them extinct) that lacked the ability to fold the wings back over the abdomen as characterizes the... The mayflies are an order (Ephemeroptera) of insects that grow up in fresh water, and live very briefly as adults, as little as a few hours but more typically a day or two. ... Suborders Epiprocta (dragonflies), including infraorder Anisoptera (true dragonflies) Zygoptera (damselflies) Reference: ITIS 101593 as of 2002-07-26 Odonata is an order of insects, encompassing dragonflies (Anisoptera) and damselflies (Zygoptera). ... This article is about the insect. ... Families Amphipterygidae Calopterygidae - Demoiselles Chlorocyphidae - Jewels Coenagrionidae - Pond Damselflies Dicteriadidae - Barelegs Euphaeidae - Gossamerwings Hemiphlebidae - Reedlings Isosticidae - Narrow-wings Lestidae - Spreadwings Lestoididae Megapodagrionidae - Flatwings Perilestidae - Shortwings Platycnemidae - Brook Damselflies Platystictidae - Forest Damselflies Polythoridae - Bannerwings Protoneuridae - Pinflies Pseudostigmatidae - Forest Giants Synlestidae - Sylphs The Damselfly (Suborder Zygoptera) is an insect in the Order... Orders     Blattodea (cockroaches)     Mantodea (mantids)     Isoptera (termites)     Zoraptera     Grylloblattodea     Dermaptera (earwigs)     Plecoptera (stoneflies)     Orthoptera (grasshoppers, crickets, katydids)     Phasmatodea (walking sticks, timemas)     Embioptera (webspinners)     Mantophasmatodea (gladiators)    Superorder Hemipterodea     Psocoptera (booklice, barklice)     Phthiraptera (lice)     Hemiptera (true bugs)     Thysanoptera (thrips)    Superorder Endopterygota     Miomoptera - extinct     Megaloptera (alderflies, etc. ... Orders Ephemeroptera (mayflies) Odonata (dragonflies, damselflies) Grylloblattodea Plecoptera (stoneflies) Zoraptera Isoptera (termites) Dermaptera (earwigs) Embioptera Dictyoptera (cockroaches, mantids) Orthoptera (grasshoppers, crickets, locusts, and katydids) Phasmatodea (stick insects) Psocoptera (booklice) Phthiraptera (lice) Mallophaga (Chewing lice) Anoplura (Sucking lice) Hemiptera (true bugs) Homoptera (cicadas, hoppers, aphids, scale insects) Thysanoptera (Thrips, Thunderflies or... Genera Grylloblatta Galloisiana Grylloblattodea is a small order of extremophile insects that live in the cold on top of mountains. ... Genera Mantophasma Raptophasma Mantophasmatodea is an order of carnivorous insects discovered in 2002, the first new insect order to be described since 1914. ... Suborders Antarctoperlaria Arctoperlaria Euholognatha Systellognatha Plecoptera are an order of insects, commonly known as stoneflies. ... Families There are 3 suborders and 13 families: Anisembiidae Oligotomidae Teratembiidae . ... Species Zorotypus barberi Zorotypus brasiliensis Zorotypus buxtoni Zorotypus caudelli Zorotypus ceylonicus Zorotypus congensis Zorotypus cramptoni Zorotypus delamarei Zorotypus guineensis Zorotypus gurneyi Zorotypus hamiltoni Zorotypus hubbardi Zorotypus huxleyi Zorotypus javanicus Zorotypus juninensis Zorotypus lawrencei Zorotypus leleupi Zorotypus longicercatus Zorotypus manni Zorotypus medoensis Zorotypus mexicanus Zorotypus neotropicus Zorotypus newi Zorotypus philippinensis Zorotypus... Families Suborder Archidermaptera    extinct Suborder Forficulina    Pygidicranidae    Diplatyidae    Anisolabididae    Labiduridae    Apachyidae    Spongiphoridae    Chelisochidae    Forficulidae Suborder Hemimerina    Hemimeridae Suborder Arixenina    Arixeniidae The earwigs are an order (Dermaptera) of insects characterized by large membraneous wings folded underneath short leathery forewings (thus the literal name of the order - skin wings). The abdomen extends... Suborders and families Suborder Ensifera - crickets Superfamily Gryllacroidea Gryllacrididae - camel crikets Rhaphidophoridae - cave crickets Schizodactylidae - dune crickets Stenopelmatidae - king crickets Superfamily Grylloidea Gryllidae - true crickets Gryllotalpidae - mole cricket Mogoplistidae Myrmecophilidae Superfamily Tettigonioidea Anostostomatidae - king crickets Bradyporidae - armoured crickets Haglidae Phaneropteridae Tettigoniidae - katydids, koringkrieks Suborder Caelifera - grasshoppers, locusts Superfamily Acridoidea Acrididae... Families Superfamily: Tridactyloidea Cylindrachaetidae Ripipterygidae Tridactylidae Superfamily: Tetrigoidea Tetrigidae Superfamily: Eumastacoidea Chorotypidae Episactidae Eumastacidae Euschmidtiidae Mastacideidae Morabidae Proscopiidae Thericleidae Superfamily: Pneumoroidea Pneumoridae Superfamily: Pyrgomorphoidea Pyrgomorphidae Superfamily: Acridoidea Acrididae Catantopidae Charilaidae Dericorythidae Lathiceridae Lentulidae Lithidiidae Ommexechidae Pamphagidae Pyrgacrididae Romaleidae Tristiridae Superfamily: Tanaoceroidea Tanaoceridae Superfamily: Trigonopterygoidea Trigonopterygidae Xyronotidae Grasshoppers are herbivorous insects... Suborders Agathemerodea Timematodea Verophasmatodea The Phasmatodea are an order of insects, whose members are variously known as stick insects (Europe), walking sticks (in the Unites States of America), ghost insects[] and leaf insects. ... Families Blaberidae Blattellidae Blattidae Cryptocercidae Polyphagidae Nocticolidae Blattodea are insects of the order (formerly Blattaria) that includes cockroaches. ... Families Mastotermitidae Kalotermitidae Termopsidae Hodotermitidae Rhinotermitidae Serritermitidae Termitidae Reference: Earthlife as of 2002-07-26 A termite (also known as a white ant) is any member of the order Isoptera, a group of social insects that eat wood and other cellulose-rich vegetable matter. ... Families Chaeteessidae Metallyticidae Mantoididae Amorphoscelidae Eremiaphilidae Hymenopodidae Mantidae Empusidae The order Mantodea (or Praying mantis) consists of between 1,800 and 2,000 species, of which a majority are in Mantidae. ... Suborders Trogiomorpha (5 families) Troctomorpha (8 families) Psocomorpha (22 families) Psocoptera are an order of insects that are commonly known as booklice or barklice. ... Families Suborder Terebrantia    Merothripidae    Uzelothripidae    Aeolothripidae    Adeheterothripidae    Heterothripidae    Thripidae    Fauriellidae Suborder Tubulifera    Phlaeothripidae Thrips (Thysanoptera) are tiny, slender insects with fringed wings (thus the scientific name, from the Greek thysanos (fringe) + pteron (wing)). Other common names include Thunderflies or Thunder bugs. ... ... Suborders Anoplura (sucking lice) Rhyncophthirina Ischnocera (avian lice) Amblycera (chewing lice) Lice (singular: louse) (order Phthiraptera) are an order of over 3000 species of wingless parasitic insects. ... Suborders Archaeorrhyncha Clypeorrhyncha Prosorrhyncha Sternorrhyncha Hemiptera is a large, cosmopolitan order of insects, comprising some 67,500 known species in three suborders. ... Look up bug in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Orders Coleoptera (beetles) Diptera (flies and relatives) Hymenoptera (wasps and relatives) Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths) Mecoptera Megaloptera Miomoptera (extinct) Neuroptera Raphidioptera (snakeflies) Siphonaptera (fleas) Strepsiptera Trichoptera (caddisflies) The Endopterygota, also known as Holometabola, are insects of the subclass Pterygota which go through distinctive larval, pupal, and adult stages. ... Suborders Apocrita Symphyta Hymenoptera is one of the larger orders of insects, comprising the sawflies, wasps, bees, and ants. ... Subfamilies Aenictogitoninae Agroecomyrmecinae Amblyoponinae (incl. ... For other uses, see Western honey bee and Bee (disambiguation). ... Suborders Adephaga Archostemata Myxophaga Polyphaga See subgroups of the order Coleoptera Beetles are the most diverse group of insects. ... Families Mengenillidae Mengeidae Stylopidae Bohartillidae Corioxenidae Halictophagidae Callipharixenidae Elenchidae Myrmecolacidae Species in the nine families of this small (~600 species) order of insects are parasites in other insects; their hosts include bees, wasps, leafhoppers, silverfish, and cockroaches. ... Families See text Snakeflies (order Raphidioptera) are a group of insect, under subclass Pterygota. ... Families Sialidae - Alderflies Corydalidae - Dobsonflies & Fishflies Megaloptera, from the Greek words mega, meaning large, and ptera, meaning wing, is an order of insects containing alderflies, dobsonflies and fishflies. ... Alderfly is the name given to neuropterous insects of the family Sialidae, related to the ant-lions, with long filamentous antennae and four large wings, of which the anterior pair is rather longer than the posterior. ... Suborders Megaloptera Raphidioptera Planipennia The insect order Neuroptera, or net-winged insects, includes the fishflies, snakeflies, lacewings and antlions. ... Families Nannochoristidae Boreidae (snow fleas) Siphonaptera (fleas) Meropeidae (earwig flies) Eomeropidae Apteropanorpidae Choristidae Panorpodidae Bittacidae (hanging flies) Panorpidae (scorpion flies) Mecoptera are an order of insects with about 600 species worldwide. ... For the musician, a member of the Red Hot Chili Peppers, see Michael Balzary. ... For other uses, see Flea (disambiguation). ... Suborders Nematocera (includes Eudiptera) Brachycera Diptera (di - two, ptera - wings), or true flies, is the order of insects possessing only a single pair of wings on the mesothorax; the metathorax bears a pair of drumstick like structures called the halteres, the remnants of the hind wings. ... Suborders Nematocera (includes Eudiptera) Brachycera Wikispecies has information related to: Diptera True flies are insects of the Order Diptera (Greek: di = two, and pteron = wing), possessing a single pair of wings on the mesothorax and a pair of halteres, derived from the hind wings, on the metathorax. ... Suborders [1] Annulipalpia Spicipalpia Integripalpia Caddisflies (Order Trichoptera, from trich, hair, and ptera, wings) are small moth-like insects having two pairs of hairy membranous wings. ... Trichoptera, or caddis fly as they are more commonly known, can be divided into two groups, those which live in standing water (such as pond and lakes) and those which live in flowing water (rivers and streams). ... The order Lepidoptera is the second most speciose order in the class Insecta and includes the butterflies, moths and skippers. ... Superfamilies and families Superfamily Hedyloidea: Hedylidae Superfamily Hesperioidea: Hesperiidae Superfamily Papilionoidea: Papilionidae Pieridae Nymphalidae Lycaenidae Riodinidae A butterfly is an insect of the order Lepidoptora. ... A moth is an insect closely related to the butterfly. ...

Insects (Class Insecta) are a major group of arthropods and the most diverse group of animals on the Earth, with over a million described species—more than all other animal groups combined.[1] Insects may be found in nearly all environments on the planet, although only a small number of species occur in the oceans where crustaceans tend to predominate instead. There are approximately 5,000 dragonfly species, 2,000 praying mantis, 20,000 grasshopper, 170,000 butterfly and moth, 120,000 fly, 82,000 true bug, 360,000 beetle, and 110,000 bee, wasp and ant species described to date. Estimates of the total number of current species, including those not yet known to science, range from two million to fifty million, with newer studies favouring a lower figure of about six to ten million.[1][2][3] Adult modern insects range in size from a 0.139 mm (0.00547 in) fairyfly (Dicopomorpha echmepterygis) to a 55.5 cm (21.9 in) long stick insect (Phobaeticus serratipes).[4] The heaviest documented insect was a Giant Weta of 70 g, 2½ oz), but other possible candidates include the Goliath beetles Goliathus goliatus, Goliathus regius and Cerambycid beetles such as Titanus giganteus, though no one is certain which is truly the heaviest.[4] A class is the rank in the scientific classification of organisms in biology below Phylum and above Order. ... Subphyla and Classes Subphylum Trilobitomorpha Trilobita - trilobites (extinct) Subphylum Chelicerata Arachnida - spiders,scorpions, etc. ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... The hierarchy of scientific classification. ... Animated map exhibiting the worlds oceanic waters. ... For the Dutch band, see Crustacean (band). ... Suborders Epiprocta (dragonflies), including infraorder Anisoptera (true dragonflies) Zygoptera (damselflies) Reference: ITIS 101593 as of 2002-07-26 Odonata is an order of insects, encompassing dragonflies (Anisoptera) and damselflies (Zygoptera). ... Families Chaeteessidae Metallyticidae Mantoididae Amorphoscelidae Eremiaphilidae Hymenopodidae Mantidae Empusidae The order Mantodea (or Praying mantis) consists of between 1,800 and 2,000 species, of which a majority are in Mantidae. ... Suborders and families Suborder Ensifera - crickets Superfamily Gryllacroidea Gryllacrididae - camel crikets Rhaphidophoridae - cave crickets Schizodactylidae - dune crickets Stenopelmatidae - king crickets Superfamily Grylloidea Gryllidae - true crickets Gryllotalpidae - mole cricket Mogoplistidae Myrmecophilidae Superfamily Tettigonioidea Anostostomatidae - king crickets Bradyporidae - armoured crickets Haglidae Phaneropteridae Tettigoniidae - katydids, koringkrieks Suborder Caelifera - grasshoppers, locusts Superfamily Acridoidea Acrididae... The order Lepidoptera is the second most speciose order in the class Insecta and includes the butterflies, moths and skippers. ... Suborders Nematocera (includes Eudiptera) Brachycera Diptera (di - two, ptera - wings), or true flies, is the order of insects possessing only a single pair of wings on the mesothorax; the metathorax bears a pair of drumstick like structures called the halteres, the remnants of the hind wings. ... Suborders Archaeorrhyncha Clypeorrhyncha Prosorrhyncha Sternorrhyncha Hemiptera is a large, cosmopolitan order of insects, comprising some 67,500 known species in three suborders. ... Suborders Adephaga Archostemata Myxophaga Polyphaga See subgroups of the order Coleoptera Beetles are the most diverse group of insects. ... Suborders Apocrita Symphyta Hymenoptera is one of the larger orders of insects, comprising the sawflies, wasps, bees, and ants. ... A millimetre (American spelling: millimeter, symbol mm) is an SI unit of length that is equal to one thousandth of a metre. ... ‹ The template below (Unit of length) is being considered for deletion. ... Diversity 0-2 subfamilies c. ... Binomial name Dicopomorpha echmepterygis Mockford, 1997 Dicopomorpha echmepterygis is a wasp in the family Mymaridae. ... A centimetre (American spelling centimeter, symbol cm) is a unit of length that is equal to one hundredth of a metre, the current SI base unit of length. ... Ctenomorpha Chronus Ctenomorpha Chronus Medauroidea Extradentata Stick insects are members of the one of the two insect families Phasmatidae and Phylliidae. ... Binomial name Phobaeticus serratipes (Gray), 1835 The walking-stick species Phobaeticus serratipes (formerly known as Pharnacia serratipes) is the longest known insect, with one female specimen recorded as being 555 mm long - note, however, that this includes the legs fully extended in front and in back, and the actual length... This article is about the insect. ... BIC pen cap, about 1 gram. ... The ounce (abbreviation: oz) is the name of a unit of mass in a number of different systems, including various systems of mass that form part of English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... Species Goliathus albosignatus Goliathus cacicus Goliathus goliatus Goliathus orientalis Goliathus regius The Goliath beetles are among the largest insects on Earth, in terms of size and weight. ... Species Goliathus albosignatus Goliathus cacicus Goliathus goliatus Goliathus orientalis Goliathus regius Wikispecies has information related to: Goliathus The Goliath beetles are among the largest insects on Earth, if measured in terms of bulk and weight. ... Species Goliathus albosignatus Goliathus cacicus Goliathus goliatus Goliathus orientalis Goliathus regius Wikispecies has information related to: Goliathus The Goliath beetles are among the largest insects on Earth, if measured in terms of bulk and weight. ... Subfamilies Aseminae Cerambycinae Disteniinae Laminae Lepturinae Necydalinae Paradrinae Prioninae Spondylidinae etc. ... Binomial name Titanus giganteus (Linnaeus, 1771) Wikispecies has information related to: Titan beetle The Titan beetle (Titanus giganteus) is the largest known beetle in the Amazon rainforest and one of the largest insect species in the world. ...


The study of insects (from Latin insectus, meaning "cut into sections") is called entomology, from the Greek εντομος, also meaning "cut into sections".[5] For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... Not to be confused with Etymology, the study of the origin of words. ...

Contents

Morphology

Insect anatomy A- Head   B- Thorax   C- Abdomen 1. antenna 2. ocelli (lower) 3. ocelli (upper) 4. compound eye 5. brain (cerebral ganglia) 6. prothorax 7. dorsal blood vessel 8. tracheal tubes (trunk with spiracle) 9. mesothorax 10. metathorax 11. forewing 12. hindwing 13. mid-gut (stomach) 14. dorsal blood vessel ("aorta") 15. ovary 16. hind-gut (intestine, rectum & anus) 17. anus 18. vagina 19. nerve chord (abdominal ganglia) 20. Malpighian tubes 21. tarsal pads 22. claws 23. tarsus 24. tibia 25. femur 26. trochanter 27. fore-gut (crop, gizzard) 28. thoracic ganglion 29. coxa 30. salivary gland 31. subesophageal ganglion 32. mouthparts
Insect anatomy
A- Head   B- Thorax   C- Abdomen
1. antenna
2. ocelli (lower)
3. ocelli (upper)
4. compound eye
5. brain (cerebral ganglia)
6. prothorax
7. dorsal blood vessel
8. tracheal tubes (trunk with spiracle)
9. mesothorax
10. metathorax
11. forewing
12. hindwing
13. mid-gut (stomach)
14. dorsal blood vessel ("aorta")
15. ovary
16. hind-gut (intestine, rectum & anus)
17. anus
18. vagina
19. nerve chord (abdominal ganglia)
20. Malpighian tubes
21. tarsal pads
22. claws
23. tarsus
24. tibia
25. femur
26. trochanter
27. fore-gut (crop, gizzard)
28. thoracic ganglion
29. coxa
30. salivary gland
31. subesophageal ganglion
32. mouthparts

Insects possess segmented bodies supported by an exoskeleton, a hard outer covering made mostly of chitin. The segments of the body are organized into three regions, or tagmata; a head, a thorax, and an abdomen. The head supports a pair of sensory antennae, a pair of compound eyes, one to three simple eyes ("ocelli") and three sets of variously modified appendages that form the mouthparts. The thorax has six legs (one pair per segment) and two or four wings (if present in the species). The abdomen (made up of eleven segments some of which may be reduced or fused) has most of the digestive, respiratory, excretory and reproductive internal structures. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1920x1334, 659 KB) author / autor: Piotr Jaworski, PioM; other info / inne: 17 V 2005r. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1920x1334, 659 KB) author / autor: Piotr Jaworski, PioM; other info / inne: 17 V 2005r. ... Insects display a wide variety of antennal shapes. ... An ocellus (plural: ocelli) is a type of photoreceptor organ in animals. ... Compound eye of a dragonfly Compound eye of Antarctic krill as imaged by an electron microscope A compound eye is a visual organ found in certain arthropods such as insects and crustaceans. ... This is a dorsal root ganglion (DRG) from a chicken embryo (around stage of day 7) after incubation overnight in NGF growth medium stained with anti-neurofilament antibody. ... The prothorax is the foremost of the three segments in the thorax of an insect, and bears the first pair of legs. ... Many terrestrial arthropods have evolved a closed respiratory system composed of spiracles, tracheae, and tracheoles to transport metabolic gasses to and from tissue. ... Spiracles are small openings on the surface of animals that usually lead to respiratory systems. ... The mesothorax is the middle of the three segments in the thorax of an insect, and bears the second pair of legs. ... The metathorax is the posterior of the three segments in the thorax of an insect, and bears the third pair of legs. ... Wing structure of a dragonfly (family Gomphidae) Insect wings are outgrowths of the insect exoskeleton that enable insects to fly. ... Wing structure of a dragonfly (family Gomphidae) Insect wings are outgrowths of the insect exoskeleton that enable insects to fly. ... Hindgut (or epigaster) is the posterior (caudal) part of the alimentary canal. ... The Malphigian tubule system is a type of excretory system found in Phylum Arthropoda. ... An insect leg The arthropod leg is a form of jointed appendage of arthropods, usually used for walking. ... An insect leg The arthropod leg is a form of jointed appendage of arthropods, usually used for walking. ... An insect leg The arthropod leg is a form of jointed appendage of arthropods, usually used for walking. ... An insect leg The arthropod leg is a form of jointed appendage of arthropods, usually used for walking. ... An insect leg The arthropod leg is a form of jointed appendage of arthropods, usually used for walking. ... The subesophageal ganglion of insects is composed of three pairs of fused ganglia. ... An exoskeleton is an external anatomical feature that supports and protects an animals body, in contrast to the internal endoskeleton of, for example, a human. ... Structure of the chitin molecule, showing two of the N-Acetylglucosamine units that repeat to form long chains in beta-1,4 linkage. ... In invertebrate biology, a tagma (plural tagmata) is a specialized grouping of arthropodan segments, such as head, body, and tail. ... Diagram of a tsetse fly, showing the head, thorax and abdomen The thorax is a division of an animals body that lies between the head and the abdomen. ... The abdomen is a part of the body. ... Insects display a wide variety of antennal shapes. ... Compound eye of a dragonfly Compound eye of Antarctic krill as imaged by an electron microscope A compound eye is a visual organ found in certain arthropods such as insects and crustaceans. ... Ocelli is one of the types of photoreceptor organs in animals. ... The mouthparts of arthropods have evolved into a number of forms, each adapted to a different style of feeding. ... Look up six in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Wing structure of a dragonfly (family Gomphidae) Insect wings are outgrowths of the insect exoskeleton that enable insects to fly. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... // In animal physiology, respiration is the transport of oxygen from the ambient air to the tissue cells and the transport of carbon dioxide in the opposite direction. ... Excretion is the process of eliminating waste products of metabolism and other materials that are of no use. ...


Nervous system

Their nervous system can be divided into a brain and a ventral nerve cord. The head capsule (made up of six fused segments) has six pairs of ganglia. The first three pairs are fused into the brain, while the three following pairs are fused into a structure called the subesophageal ganglion. The nervous system of an animal coordinates the activity of the muscles, monitors the organs, constructs and also stops input from the senses, and initiates actions. ... The ventral nerve cords make up the nervous system of arthropods. ... This is a dorsal root ganglion (DRG) from a chicken embryo (around stage of day 7) after incubation overnight in NGF growth medium stained with anti-neurofilament antibody. ... The subesophageal ganglion of insects is composed of three pairs of fused ganglia. ...


The thoracic segments have one ganglion on each side, which are connected into a pair, one pair per segment. This arrangement is also seen in the abdomen but only in the first eight segments. Many species of insects have reduced numbers of ganglia due to fusion or reduction. Some cockroaches have just six ganglia in the abdomen, whereas the wasp Vespa crabro has only two in the thorax and three in the abdomen. And some, like the house fly Musca domestica, have all the body ganglia fused into a single large thoracic ganglion. Binomial name Vespa crabro L., 1761 For main article see hornet. ... Binomial name Musca domestica The housefly (Musca domestica Linnaeus) is the most common fly occurring in homes and indeed one of the most widely distributed animals and the most familiar of all flies; it is a pest that can facilitate serious diseases. ...


Respiration and circulation

Insect respiration is accomplished without lungs, but instead insects possess a system of internal tubes and sacs through which gases either diffuse or are actively pumped, delivering oxygen directly to body tissues (see Invertebrate trachea). Since oxygen is delivered directly, the circulatory system is not used to carry oxygen, and is therefore greatly reduced; it has no closed vessels (i.e., no veins or arteries), consisting of little more than a single, perforated dorsal tube which pulses peristaltically, and in doing so helps circulate the hemolymph inside the body cavity. Human respiratory system The lungs flank the heart and great vessels in the chest cavity. ... Many terrestrial arthropods have evolved a closed respiratory system composed of spiracles, tracheae, and tracheoles to transport metabolic gasses to and from tissue. ... In the circulatory system, a vein is a blood vessel that carries blood toward the heart. ... Section of an artery For other uses, see Artery (disambiguation). ... In much of the digestive tract, muscles contract in sequence to produce a peristaltic wave which forces food (called bolus while in the esophagus and chyme below the esophagus) along the alimentary canal. ... Hemolymph (or haemolymph) is the blood analogue used by all arthropods and most mollusks that have an open circulatory system. ...


Exoskeleton

Most higher insects have two pairs of wings located on the second and third thoracic segments. Insects are the only invertebrates to have developed flight, and this has played an important part in their success. The winged insects, and their wingless relatives, make up the subclass Pterygota. Insect flight is not very well understood, relying heavily on turbulent aerodynamic effects. The primitive insect groups use muscles that act directly on the wing structure. The more advanced groups making up the Neoptera have foldable wings and their muscles act on the thorax wall and power the wings indirectly. These muscles are able to contract multiple times for each single nerve impulse, allowing the wings to beat faster than would ordinarily be possible (see insect flight). Wing structure of a dragonfly (family Gomphidae) Insect wings are outgrowths of the insect exoskeleton that enable insects to fly. ... Invertebrate is an English word that describes any animal without a spinal column. ... The Dragonfly Insect flight, In the past several million years, flying insects have evolved with amazing flight characteristics and abilities. ... Orders     Palaeodictyoptera - extinct     Ephemeroptera (mayflies)     Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies)   Infraclass Neoptera     Blattodea (cockroaches)     Mantodea (mantids)     Isoptera (termites)     Zoraptera     Grylloblattodea (rock crawlers)     Dermaptera (earwigs)     Plecoptera (stoneflies)     Orthoptera (grasshoppers, crickets, katydids)     Phasmatodea (walking sticks, timemas)     Embioptera (webspinners)     Mantophasmatodea (gladiators)    Superorder Hemipterodea     Psocoptera (booklice, barklice)     Phthiraptera (lice)     Hemiptera (true bugs)     Thysanoptera (thrips)    Superorder... The Dragonfly Insect flight, In the past several million years, flying insects have evolved with amazing flight characteristics and abilities. ... Orders     Blattodea (cockroaches)     Mantodea (mantids)     Isoptera (termites)     Zoraptera     Grylloblattodea     Dermaptera (earwigs)     Plecoptera (stoneflies)     Orthoptera (grasshoppers, crickets, katydids)     Phasmatodea (walking sticks, timemas)     Embioptera (webspinners)     Mantophasmatodea (gladiators)    Superorder Hemipterodea     Psocoptera (booklice, barklice)     Phthiraptera (lice)     Hemiptera (true bugs)     Thysanoptera (thrips)    Superorder Endopterygota     Miomoptera - extinct     Megaloptera (alderflies, etc. ... The Dragonfly Insect flight, In the past several million years, flying insects have evolved with amazing flight characteristics and abilities. ...


Their outer skeleton, the cuticle, is made up of two layers; the epicuticle which is a thin and waxy water resistant outer layer and contains no chitin, and another layer under it called the procuticle. This is chitinous and much thicker than the epicuticle and has two layers. The outer being the exocuticle while the inner is the endocuticle. The tough and flexible endocuticle is built from numerous layers of fibrous chitin and proteins, criss-crossing each others in a sandwich pattern, while the exocuticle is rigid and sclerotized. The exocuticle is greatly reduced in many soft-bodied insects, especially the larval stages (e.g., caterpillars). The epicuticle is the outermost portion of the exoskeleton of an insect (and various other arthropods); its exact composition and structure may differ somewhat among different taxa, but certain aspects can be generalized: It is secreted by the epidermis, and is deposited on top of the procuticle via pores that... The procuticle is the major portion of the exoskeleton of an insect (and various other arthropods); its exact composition and structure may differ somewhat among different taxa, but certain aspects can be generalized: When first secreted by the epidermis, it is soft, pliable, and pale, as much of the chemical... Sclerites are hardened body parts. ... A larval insect A larva (Latin; plural larvae) is a juvenile form of animal with indirect development, undergoing metamorphosis (for example, insects or amphibians). ... This article is about a form of an insect. ...


Development

Hoverflies mating in flight
Hoverflies mating in flight

Most insects hatch from eggs, but others are ovoviviparous or viviparous, and all undergo a series of moults as they develop and grow in size. This manner of growth is necessitated by the inelastic exoskeleton. Moulting is a process by which the individual escapes the confines of the exoskeleton in order to increase in size, then grows a new and larger outer covering. In some insects, the young are called nymphs and are similar in form to the adult except that the wings are not developed until the adult stage. This is called incomplete metamorphosis and insects showing this are termed hemimetabolous. Holometabolous insects show complete metamorphosis, which distinguishes the Endopterygota and includes many of the most successful insect groups. In these species, an egg hatches to produce a larva, which is generally worm-like in form, and can be divided into five different forms; eruciform (caterpillar-like), scarabaeiform (grublike), campodeiform (elongated, flattened, and active), elateriform (wireworm-like) and vermiform (maggot-like). The larva grows and eventually becomes a pupa, a stage sealed within a cocoon in some species. There are three types of pupae; obtect (the pupa is compact with the legs and other appendages enclosed), exarate (where the pupa has the legs and other appendages free and extended) and coarctate (where the pupa develops inside the larval skin). In the pupal stage, the insect undergoes considerable change in form to emerge as an adult, or imago. Butterflies are an example of an insect that undergoes complete metamorphosis. Some insects have even evolved hypermetamorphosis. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1600x1067, 262 KB) Hoverflies mating in midair. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1600x1067, 262 KB) Hoverflies mating in midair. ... In most birds and reptiles, an egg (Latin ovum) is the zygote, resulting from fertilization of the ovum. ... Ovoviviparous animals develop within eggs that remain within the mothers body up until they hatch or are about to hatch. ... A viviparous animal is an animal employing vivipary, a method of reproduction in which the embryo develops inside the body of the mother from which it gains nourishment, and not from an egg. ... Ecdysis is the molting of the cuticula in arthropods and related groups (Ecdysozoa). ... A Pieris rapae larva An older Pieris rapae larva A Pieris rapae pupa A Pieris rapae adult Metamorphosis is a process in biology by which an individual physically develops after birth or hatching, and involves significant change in form as well as growth and differentiation. ... Hemimetabolism, also called incomplete metamorphism, is a term used to describe insects with a specific type of life cycle, including three distinct stages: the embryo, nymph, and the adult stage, or the imago. ... Holometabolism, also called complete metamorphism, is a term applied to insect groups to describe the specific kind of insect development which includes four life stages - as an embryo, a larva, a pupa and an imago. ... Orders Coleoptera (beetles) Diptera (flies and relatives) Hymenoptera (wasps and relatives) Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths) Mecoptera Megaloptera Miomoptera (extinct) Neuroptera Raphidioptera (snakeflies) Siphonaptera (fleas) Strepsiptera Trichoptera (caddisflies) The Endopterygota, also known as Holometabola, are insects of the subclass Pterygota which go through distinctive larval, pupal, and adult stages. ... A larval insect A larva (Latin; plural larvae) is a juvenile form of animal with indirect development, undergoing metamorphosis (for example, insects or amphibians). ... Cockchafer (Melolontha melolontha) pupa Chrysalis redirects here: for other meanings see Chrysalis (disambiguation). ... Cockchafer (Melolontha melolontha) pupa Chrysalis redirects here: for other meanings see Chrysalis (disambiguation). ... The imago is the last stage of development of an insect, after the last ecdysis of an incomplete metamorphosis, or after emergence from pupation where the metamorphosis is complete. ... Hypermetamorphosis is the form of metamorphosis done by certain beetles, notably Meloidae and Rhipiphoridae, and the Strepsiptera. ...


Some insects (parastic wasps) show polyembryony where a single fertilized egg can divide into many and in some cases thousands of separate embryos. Other developmental and reproductive variations include haplodiploidy, polymorphism, paedomorphosis (metathetely and prothetely), sexual dimorphism, parthenogenesis and more rarely hermaphroditism. A haplodiploid species is one in which one of the sexes has haploid cells (cells containing one copy of each chromosome) and the other has diploid cells (cells containing two copies of each chromosome). ... In biology, polymorphism can be defined as the occurrence in the same habitat of two or more forms of a trait in such frequencies that the rarer cannot be maintained by recurrent mutation alone. ... Paedomorphosis is a biological term describing the retention of ancestral infantile or juvenile traits in an adult organism. ... Female (left) and male Common Pheasant, illustrating the dramatic difference in both color and size, between the sexes Sexual dimorphism is the systematic difference in form between individuals of different sex in the same species. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Asexual reproduction. ... An intersexual is a person (or individual of any unisexual species) who is born with genitalia and/or secondary sexual characteristics of indeterminate sex, or which combine features of both sexes. ...


Behaviour

Platymeris biguttata ("Twin-spotted assassin bug") with prey
Platymeris biguttata ("Twin-spotted assassin bug") with prey

Many insects possess very sensitive and/or specialized organs of perception. Some insects such as bees can perceive ultraviolet wavelengths, or detect polarized light, while the antennae of male moths can detect the pheromones of female moths over distances of many kilometres. There is a pronounced tendency for there to be a trade-off between visual acuity and chemical or tactile acuity, such that most insects with well-developed eyes have reduced or simple antennae, and vice-versa. There are a variety of different mechanisms by which insects perceive sound, and it is by no means universal; the general pattern, however, is that if an insect can produce sound, then it can also hear sound, though the range of frequencies they can hear is often quite narrow (and may in fact be limited to only the frequency that they themselves produce). Some nocturnal moths can perceive the ultrasonic emissions of bats, a mechanism which helps them avoid predation. Certain predatory and parasitic insects can detect the characteristic sounds made by their prey/hosts. Bloodsucking insects have special sensory structures that can detect infrared emissions, and use them to home in on their hosts. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (3888 × 2592 pixel, file size: 7. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (3888 × 2592 pixel, file size: 7. ... Senses are the physiological methods of perception. ... “UV” redirects here. ... This article treats polarization in electrodynamics. ... Insects display a wide variety of antennal shapes. ... Fanning honeybee exposes Nasonov gland (white-at tip of abdomen) releasing pheromone to entice swarm into an empty hive A pheromone is a chemical that triggers an innate behavioural response in another member of the same species. ... Ultrasound is sound with a frequency greater than the upper limit of human hearing, approximately 20 kilohertz. ... “Chiroptera” redirects here. ... Image of two girls in mid-infrared (thermal) light (false-color) Infrared (IR) radiation is electromagnetic radiation of a wavelength longer than that of visible light, but shorter than that of radio waves. ...

Sensillae: sensory structures on insects
Sensillae: sensory structures on insects

Most insects lead short lives as adults, and rarely interact with one another except to mate, or compete for mates. A small number exhibit some form of parental care, where they will at least guard their eggs, and sometimes continue guarding their offspring until adulthood, and possibly even actively feeding them. Another simple form of parental care is to construct a nest (a burrow or an actual construction, either of which may be simple or complex), store provisions in it, and lay an egg upon those provisions. The adult does not contact the growing offspring, but it nonetheless does provide food. This sort of care is typical of bees and various types of wasps. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 603 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (677 × 673 pixel, file size: 51 KB, MIME type: image/png) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Insect ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 603 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (677 × 673 pixel, file size: 51 KB, MIME type: image/png) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Insect ... “Parental care” redirects here. ...


A few such insects also have a well-developed number sense, among the solitary wasps that provision with a single species of prey. The mother wasp lays her eggs in individual cells and provides each egg with a number of live caterpillars on which the young feed when hatched. Some species of wasp always provide five, others twelve, and others as high as twenty-four caterpillars per cell. The number of caterpillars is different among species, but it is always the same for each sex of larvae. The male solitary wasp in the genus Eumenes is smaller than the female, so the mother of one species supplies him with only five caterpillars; the larger female receives ten caterpillars in her cell. She can in other words distinguish between both the numbers five and ten in the caterpillars she is providing and which cell contains a male or a female. Species many (>100 species + subspecies) Eumenes is the type genus of the subfamily Eumeninae (potter wasps) of Vespidae. ...


Social behaviour

A termite mound made by the cathedral termite
A termite mound made by the cathedral termite

Social insects, such as the termites, ants and many bees and wasps, are the most familiar species of eusocial animal. They live together in large well-organized colonies that may be so tightly integrated and genetically similar that the colonies of some species are sometimes considered superorganisms. It is sometimes argued that the various species of honey bee are the only invertebrates (and indeed one of the few non-human groups) to have evolved a system of abstract symbolic communication (i.e., where a behaviour is used to represent and convey specific information about something in the environment), called the "dance language" - the angle at which a bee dances represents a direction relative to the sun, and the length of the dance represents the distance to be flown. ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1704x2272, 703 KB) Summary Photo taken and supplied by Brian Voon Yee Yap. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1704x2272, 703 KB) Summary Photo taken and supplied by Brian Voon Yee Yap. ... Eusociality is the phenomenon of reproductive specialisation found in some species of animal, whereby a specialised caste carries out reproduction in a colony of non-reproductive animals. ... Families Mastotermitidae Kalotermitidae Termopsidae Hodotermitidae Rhinotermitidae Serritermitidae Termitidae Wikispecies has information related to: Isoptera Termites, known as white ants, are a group of social insects usually classified at the taxonomic rank of order Isoptera. ... Subfamilies Aenictogitoninae Agroecomyrmecinae Amblyoponinae (incl. ... For other uses, see Western honey bee and Bee (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Wasp (disambiguation). ... Meat Eater ant colony swarming Fire ants Eusociality is the phenomenon of reproductive specialization found in some animals. ... A group of organisms, such as an insect colony, that functions as a social unit. ... The honeybee is a colonial insect that is often maintained, fed, and transported by farmers. ... Honey bees learn and communicate in order to find food sources and for other means. ...


Only those insects which live in nests or colonies demonstrate any true capacity for fine-scale spatial orientation or "homing" - this can be quite sophisticated, however, and allow an insect to return unerringly to a single hole a few millimetres in diameter among a mass of thousands of apparently identical holes all clustered together, after a trip of up to several kilometres' distance, and (in cases where an insect hibernates) as long as a year after last viewing the area (a phenomenon known as philopatry). A few insects migrate, but this is a larger-scale form of navigation, and often involves only large, general regions (e.g., the overwintering areas of the Monarch butterfly). This article refers to the process of hibernation in biology. ... In animal behaviour philopatry is the tendency of a migrating animal to return to a specific location in order to breed or feed. ... Insect migration is the seasonal movement of insects, particularly those by species of dragonflies, beetles, butterflies and moths. ... Table of geography, hydrography, and navigation, from the 1728 Cyclopaedia. ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) The Monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus) is a well-known North American butterfly. ...


Light production and vision

A few insects, notably the beetles of the family Lampyridae have evolved light generating organs. They are also able to control this light generation to produce flashes and some species use the light to attract mates. Genera Curtos Cyphonocerus Drilaster Ellychnia Hotaria Lampyris Lucidina Luciola - (Japanese fireflies) Photinus - (common eastern firefly) Photuris Pristolycus Pyractomena Pyrocoelia Stenocladius Fireflies (family Lampyridae), also known as lightning bugs, are nocturnal, luminous beetles. ...


Most insects except some species of cave dwelling crickets are able to perceive light and dark. Many species have acute vision capable of detecting minute movements. The eyes include simple eyes or ocelli as well as compound eyes of varying sizes. Many species are able to detect light in the infrared, ultraviolet as well as the visible light wavelengths. Colour vision has been demonstrated in many species. An ocellus (plural: ocelli) is a type of photoreceptor organ in animals. ... Compound eye of a dragonfly Compound eye of Antarctic krill as imaged by an electron microscope A compound eye is a visual organ found in certain arthropods such as insects and crustaceans. ...


Sound production and hearing

Insects were the earliest organisms to produce sounds and to sense them. Soundmaking in insects is achieved mostly by mechanical action of appendages. In the grasshoppers and crickets this is achieved by stridulation. The cicadas have the loudest sounds among the insects and have special modifications to their body and musculature to produce and amplify sounds. Some species such as the African cicada, Brevisana brevis have been measured at 106.7 decibels at a distance of 50 cm (20 in).[4] Some insects, such as the hawk moth, can hear ultrasound and take evasive action when they sense detection by bats. Some moths produce clicks and these were earlier thought to have a role in jamming the bat echolocation, but it was subsequently found that these are produced mostly by unpalatable moths to warn the bats, just as warning colouration is used visually.[6] These calls are also made by other moths involved in mimicry.[7] Families Acrididae Charilaidae Dericorythidae Eumastacidae Euschmidtiidae Lathiceridae Lentulidae Lithidiidae Ommexechidae Pamphagidae Pneumoridae Pyrgacrididae Pyrgomorphidae Romaleidae Tanaoceridae Tetrigidae Thericleidae Tridactylidae Tristiridae The Caelifera are a family of herbivorous insects of the order Orthoptera, commonly called grasshoppers in English. ... Stridulation is the act of producing sound by rubbing together certain body parts. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The decibel (dB) is a logarithmic unit of measurement that expresses the magnitude of a physical quantity (usually power) relative to a specified or implied reference level. ... Genera Macroglossinae Smerinthinae Sphinginae etc. ... The bright colours of this Yellow-winged Darter dragonfly serve as a warning to predators of its noxious taste. ... Plate from Henry Walter Bates (1862) illustrating Batesian mimicry between Dismorphia species (top row, third row) and various Ithomiini (Nymphalidae) (second row, bottom row). ...


Very low sounds are also produced in various species of Lepidoptera, Coleoptera and Hymenoptera, mostly through the use of wing movement or friction at the joints of appendages. The order Lepidoptera is the second most speciose order in the class Insecta and includes the butterflies, moths and skippers. ... For other uses, see Beetle (disambiguation). ... Suborders Apocrita Symphyta Hymenoptera is one of the larger orders of insects, comprising the sawflies, wasps, bees, and ants. ...


Most soundmaking insects also have tympanal organs that can perceive airborne sounds. Most insects are also able to sense vibrations transmitted by the substrate. Communication with substrate-borne vibrational signals is widespread among insects because of the size constraints in producing air-borne sounds.[8] Insects cannot effectively produce low-frequency sounds, and high-frequency sounds tend to disperse more in a dense environment (such as foliage), so insects living in such environments communicate primarily using substrate-borne vibrations.[9] The mechanisms of production of vibrational signals are just as diverse as those for producing sound in insects. Look up vibration in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... “Foliage” redirects here. ...


The Madagascar hissing cockroach has the ability to press air through the spiracles to make a hissing noise, and the Death's-head Hawkmoth makes a squeaking noise by forcing air out of their pharynx. Binomial name (Schaum, 1853) Hissing roaches kept as pets. ... Species Acherontia atropos Acherontia styx Acherontia lachesis Variations in the Deaths head pattern The name Deaths-head Hawkmoth usually refers to one of the three species (, and ) of moth in the Acherontia genus. ... The pharynx (plural: pharynges) is the part of the neck and throat situated immediately posterior to the mouth and nasal cavity, and cranial, or superior, to the esophagus, larynx, and trachea. ...


Chemical communication

In addition to the use of sound for communication, a wide range of insects have evolved chemical means for communication. These chemicals, termed semiochemicals, are often derived from plant metabolites include those meant to attract, repel and provide other kinds of information. While some chemicals are targeted at individuals of the same species, others are used for communication across species. The use of scents is especially well known to have developed in social insects. A semiochemical is a generic term used for a chemical substance or mixture that carries a message. ...


Locomotion

Flight

Main article: Insect flight

Insects are the only group of invertebrates to have developed flight. The evolution of insect wings has been a subject of debate. Some proponents suggest that the wings are para-notal in origin while others have suggested they are modified gills. In the Carboniferous age, some of the Meganeura dragonflies had as much as a 50 cm (20 in) wide wingspan. The appearance of gigantic insects has been found to be consistent with high atmospheric oxygen. The percentage of oxygen in the atmosphere found from ice core-samples was as high as 35% compared to the current 21%. The respiratory system of insects constrains their size, however the high oxygen in the atmosphere allowed larger sizes.[10] The largest flying insects today are much smaller and include several moth species such as the Atlas moth and the White Witch (Thysania agrippina). The Dragonfly Insect flight, In the past several million years, flying insects have evolved with amazing flight characteristics and abilities. ... Binomial name Attacus atlas (Linnaeus, 1758) The Atlas moth (Attacus atlas) is a large saturniid moth found in the tropical and subtropical forests of Southeast Asia, common across the Malay archipelago to Indonesia. ... Binomial name Thysania agrippina (Cramer, 1776) The White Witch moth (Thysania agrippina), also called the Birdwing Moth, Ghost moth, Great Grey Witch or Great Owlet Moth, is a large moth in the Noctuidae family. ...


Insect flight has been a topic of great interest in aerodynamics due partly to the inability of steady-state theories to explain the lift generated by the tiny wings of insects. This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


In addition to powered flight, many of the smaller insects are also dispersed by winds. These include the aphids which are often transported long distances by low-level jet streams.[11] Families There are 10 families: Adelgidae Anoeciidae Aphididae Drepanosiphidae Homomasagymibutae Greenideidae Hormaphididae Lachnidae Mindaridae Pemphigidae Phloeomyzidae Phylloxeridae Thelaxidae Aphids, also known as greenfly, blackfly or plant lice, are minute plant-feeding insects in the superfamily Aphidoidea in the homopterous division of the order Hemiptera. ...


Walking

Many adult insects use six legs for walking and have adopted a tripedal gait. The tripedal gait allows for rapid walking whilst always having a stable stance and has been studied extensively in cockroaches. The legs are used in alternate triangles touching the ground. For the first step the middle right leg and the front and rear left legs are in contact with the ground and move the insect forward, whilst the front and rear right leg and the middle left leg are lifted and moved forward to a new position. When they touch the ground to form a new stable triangle the other legs can be lifted and brought forward in turn and so on. It has been suggested that Blattellidae be merged into this article or section. ...


The purest form of the tripedal gait is seen in insects moving at speed and is illustrated in the gif animation of a 7-spot ladybird (Coccinellidae, Coccinella septempunctata). However, this type of locomotion is not rigid and insects can adapt a variety of gaits; for example, when moving slowly, turning, or avoiding obstacles, four or more feet may be touching the ground. Insects can also adapt their gait to cope with the loss of one or more limbs. Subfamilies Chilocorinae Coccidulinae Coccinellinae Epilachninae Scymininae Sticholotidinae etc. ... Binomial name Coccinella septempunctata (Linnaeus, 1758) Coccinella septempunctata, the seven-spot ladybird (or, in North America, seven-spotted ladybug or seven-spotted lady beetle), is the commonest ladybird in Europe. ...


Cockroaches are amongst the fastest insect runners and at full speed actually adopt a bipedal run to reach a high velocity in proportion to their body size. As Cockroaches move extremely rapidly, they need recording at several hundred frames per second to reveal their gait. More sedate locomotion is also studied by scientists in stick insects Phasmatodea. It has been suggested that Blattellidae be merged into this article or section. ... It has been suggested that Blattellidae be merged into this article or section. ... Suborders Agathemerodea Timematodea Verophasmatodea The Phasmatodea are an order of insects, whose members are variously known as stick insects (Europe), walking sticks (in the Unites States of America), ghost insects[] and leaf insects. ...


A few insects have evolved to walk on the surface of the water, especially the bugs of the family, Gerridae, also known as water striders. A few species in the genus Halobates even live on the surface of open oceans, a habitat that has few insect species. Genera Aquarius Gerris Halobates Limnogonus Limnoporus Metrobates Neogerris Rheumatobates Trepobates The water strider, also known as the Magic bug, pond skater, skater, skimmer, water scooter, water skater, water skeeter, water skimmer, water skipper, or water spider, is any of a number of predatory insects in the family Gerridae (Leach, 1815...


Insect walking is of particular interest as an alternative form of locomotion to the use of wheels for robots (Robot locomotion). Robot locomotion is the study of how to design robot appendages and control mechanisms to allow robots to move fluidly and efficiently. ...


Swimming

The backswimmer Notonecta glauca underwater, showing the paddle like hindleg adaptation
The backswimmer Notonecta glauca underwater, showing the paddle like hindleg adaptation

A large number of insects live either parts or the whole of their lives underwater. In many orders the immature stages are spent in water while the adults are either aerial or terrestrial in habit. A few species spend a part of their adult life either under or over water. Many of these species have adaptations to help in locomotion under water. The water beetles and water bugs have legs adapted into paddle like structures. Some Odonate larvae, such as dragonfly naiads, propel themselves rapidly by expelling water forcibly out of the rectal chamber. Image File history File linksMetadata Notonecta_glauca01. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Notonecta_glauca01. ... Notonectidae or backswimmers is a family of insects of the Hemiptera order. ... Suborders Epiprocta (dragonflies), including infraorder Anisoptera (true dragonflies) Zygoptera (damselflies) Reference: ITIS 101593 as of 2002-07-26 Odonata is an order of insects, encompassing dragonflies (Anisoptera) and damselflies (Zygoptera). ...


Evolution

Evolution has produced astonishing variety in insects. Pictured are some of the possible shapes of antennae.
Evolution has produced astonishing variety in insects. Pictured are some of the possible shapes of antennae.
Main article: Insect evolution

The relationships of insects to other animal groups remain unclear. Although more traditionally grouped with millipedes and centipedes, evidence has emerged favoring closer evolutionary ties with the crustaceans. In the Pancrustacea theory insects, together with Remipedia and Malacostraca, make up a natural clade. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 400 × 600 pixels Full resolution (600 × 900 pixel, file size: 439 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Insect Metadata This file contains... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 400 × 600 pixels Full resolution (600 × 900 pixel, file size: 439 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Insect Metadata This file contains... Insects display a wide variety of antennal shapes. ... Evolution has produced astonishing variety in insects. ... This article is about evolution in biology. ... Subphyla Crustacea Hexapoda Pancrustacea is a proposed taxon, comprising all crustaceans and hexapods [1]. This grouping is contrary to the Atelocerata hypothesis, in which Myriapoda and Hexapoda are sister taxa, and Crustacea are only more distantly related. ... Orders Enantiopoda (extinct) Nectiopoda Remipedia is a class of blind crustaceans found in deep caves connected to salt water, in Australia and the Caribbean Sea. ... // Subclasses Eumalacostraca Hoplocarida Phyllocarida See text for orders. ... A clade is a term belonging to the discipline of cladistics. ...


The oldest definitive insect fossil is the Devonian Rhyniognatha hirsti, estimated at 396-407 million years old.[12] This species already possessed dicondylic mandibles, a feature associated with winged insects, suggesting that wings may already have evolved at this time. Thus, the first insects probably appeared earlier, in the Silurian period.[12] Artists illustration of a Devonian scene. ... The Silurian is a major division of the geologic timescale that extends from the end of the Ordovician period, about 443. ...


The origins of insect flight remain obscure, since the earliest winged insects currently known appear to have been capable fliers. Some extinct insects had an additional pair of winglets attaching to the first segment of the thorax, for a total of three pairs. So far, there is nothing that suggests that the insects were a particularly successful group of animals before they got their wings. The Dragonfly Insect flight, In the past several million years, flying insects have evolved with amazing flight characteristics and abilities. ...


Late Carboniferous and Early Permian insect orders include both several current very long-lived groups and a number of Paleozoic forms. During this era, some giant dragonfly-like forms reached wingspans of 55 to 70 cm, (22-28 in) making them far larger than any living insect. Also their nymphs must have had a very impressive size. This gigantism may have been due to higher atmospheric oxygen levels that allowed increased respiratory efficiency relative to today. The lack of flying vertebrates could have been another factor. The Pennsylvanian is an epoch of the Carboniferous period lasting from roughly 325 Ma to 299 Ma (million years ago). ... Cisuralian is the first of the three epochs of the Permian. ...


Most extant orders of insects developed during the Permian era that began around 270 million years ago. Many of the early groups became extinct during the Permian-Triassic extinction event, the largest mass extinction in the history of the Earth, around 252 million years ago. The Permian is a geologic period that extends from about 299. ... The Permian-Triassic (P-T or PT) extinction event, sometimes informally called the Great Dying, was an extinction event that occurred approximately 251 million years ago (mya), forming the boundary between the Permian and Triassic geologic periods. ...


The remarkably successful Hymenopterans appeared in the Cretaceous but achieved their diversity more recently, in the Cenozoic. A number of highly-successful insect groups evolved in conjunction with flowering plants, a powerful illustration of co-evolution. // The Cretaceous Period is one of the major divisions of the geologic timescale, reaching from the end of the Jurassic Period (i. ... The Cenozoic Era (IPA pronunciation: ); sometimes Caenozoic Era or Cainozoic Era (in the United Kingdom), meaning new life (Greek (kainos), new, and (zoe), life), is the most recent of the three classic geological eras. ... Classes Magnoliopsida - Dicots Liliopsida - Monocots The flowering plants (also angiosperms or Magnoliophyta) are one of the major groups of modern plants, comprising those that produce seeds in specialized reproductive organs called flowers, where the ovulary or carpel is enclosed. ... Bumblebees and the flowers they pollinate have co-evolved so that both have become dependent on each other for survival. ...


Many modern insect genera developed during the Cenozoic; insects from this period on are often found preserved in amber, often in perfect condition. Such specimens are easily compared with modern species. The study of fossilized insects is called paleoentomology. The Cenozoic Era (IPA pronunciation: ); sometimes Caenozoic Era or Cainozoic Era (in the United Kingdom), meaning new life (Greek (kainos), new, and (zoe), life), is the most recent of the three classic geological eras. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...


Coevolution

See also: Coevolution

Insects were among the earliest terrestrial herbivores and they acted as major selection agents on plants. Plants evolved chemical defenses against this herbivory and the insects in turn evolved mechanisms to deal with plant toxins. Many insects make use of these toxins to protect themselves from their predators. And such insects advertise their toxicity using warning colours. This successful evolutionary pattern has also been utilized by mimics. Over time, this has led to complex groups of co-evolved species. Conversely, some interactions between plants and insects are beneficial (see pollination), and coevolution has led to the development of very specific mutualisms in such systems. Bumblebees and the flowers they pollinate co-evolve so that the flower is dependent on the bee and the bee is dependent on the flower for survival In Biology, Co-evolution is the mutual evolutionary influence between two species that become dependent on each other. ... Plants have evolved an enormous array of mechanical and chemical defenses against the animals that eat them. ... A mimic is any species that has evolved to appear similar to another successful species in order to dupe predators into avoiding the mimic, or dupe prey into approaching the mimic. ... Bumblebees and the flowers they pollinate co-evolve so that the flower is dependent on the bee and the bee is dependent on the flower for survival In Biology, Co-evolution is the mutual evolutionary influence between two species that become dependent on each other. ... A flower-fly pollinating a Common Daisy (Bellis perennis) Pollination is an important step in the reproduction of seed plants: the transfer of pollen grains (male gametes) to the plant carpel, the structure that contains the ovule (female gamete). ... In biology, mutualism is an interaction between two or more species, where both species derive benefit. ...


Systematics

Orthetrum caledonicum, the Blue Skimmer dragonfly
Orthetrum caledonicum, the Blue Skimmer dragonfly

This is a list of the orders and higher taxa of insects. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 516 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (1057 × 1227 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 516 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (1057 × 1227 pixel, file size: 1. ... Genera many genera about 5,000 species The flower flies or hoverflies are a family of flies (Diptera), scientifically termed Syrphidae. ... Species about 40, including: (=) (= ) Grape hyacinths are a genus (Muscari) of plants native to Eurasia that produce spikes of blue flowers resembling bunches of grapes. ... Download high resolution version (800x712, 130 KB)An Australian Blue Dragonfly Taken by fir0002 File links The following pages link to this file: Wikipedia:Featured pictures visible User talk:Fir0002 Wikipedia:Featured picture candidates/Blue Dragonfly Wikipedia:Featured pictures candidates/March-2005 Wikipedia:Picture of the day/Archive Wikipedia:Picture... Download high resolution version (800x712, 130 KB)An Australian Blue Dragonfly Taken by fir0002 File links The following pages link to this file: Wikipedia:Featured pictures visible User talk:Fir0002 Wikipedia:Featured picture candidates/Blue Dragonfly Wikipedia:Featured pictures candidates/March-2005 Wikipedia:Picture of the day/Archive Wikipedia:Picture... Binomial name Orthetrum caledonicum (Linnaeus, 1758) The Blue Skimmer, Orthetrum caledonicum, is a common Australian dragonfly. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (768x903, 1362 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (768x903, 1362 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Trinomial name Tenodera aridifolia sinensis Saussure, 1871 The Chinese mantis (Tenodera aridifolia sinensis) is a species of mantis. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixel Image in higher resolution (1600 × 1066 pixel, file size: 160 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) European Wasp on a white background. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixel Image in higher resolution (1600 × 1066 pixel, file size: 160 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) European Wasp on a white background. ... Yellowjacket or yellow-jacket is the common name in North America for wasps of the genera Vespula and Dolichovespula. ... In scientific classification used in biology, the order (Latin: ordo, plural ordines) is a rank between class and family (termed a taxon at that rank). ...


Within the subphylum Hexapoda, that consists of four groups in total, the springtails (Collembola) are often treated as insects; however some authors treat them as distinct from the insects in having a different evolutionary origin. This may also be the case for the rest of the members of the Entognatha; Protura and Diplura. In biology, a subphylum is a taxonomic rank intermediate between phylum and superclass. ... Classes & Orders Class Insecta (insects) Class Entognatha The subphylum Hexapoda (from the Greek for six legs) constitutes the largest (in terms of number of species) grouping of arthropods and includes the insects as well as three much smaller groups of wingless arthropods: Collembola, Protura, and Diplura. ... Families Suborder Arthropleona   Superfamily Entomobryoidea    Entomobryidae - slender springtails    Isotomidae - smooth springtails    Oncopoduridae    Paronellidae    Tomoceridae   Superfamily Poduroidea    Brachystomellidae    Hypogastruridae - elongate-bodied springtails    Neanuridae    Odontellidae    Onychiuridae - blind springtails    Poduridae - water springtails Suborder Symphypleona    Dicyrtomidae    Katiannidae    Sminthuridae - globular springtails    Sminthurididae    Bourletiellidae    Arrhopalitidae Springtails (Order Collembola) form the largest of the three orders of... Orders The Entognatha are a class of ametabolous arthropods, which, together with insects, make up the hexapods. ... Families [1] Acerentomata Hesperentomidae Protentomidae Acerentomidae Eosentomata Antelientomidae Eosentomidae Sinentomata Sinentomidae The Protura, or proturans, are an order of hexapods previously treated as insects, and sometimes treated as a class [2]. They are very small (<2 mm long) soil-dwelling animals and are unique among arthropods for showing anamorphic development... This article is about the hexapod order, for the plant genus see Diplura (Algae). ...


The true insects, those of the Class Insecta, are distinguished from all other arthropods in part by having ectognathous, or exposed, mouthparts and eleven abdominal segments. The true insects are therefore sometimes also referred to as the Ectognatha. Many insect groups are winged as adults. The exopterygote part of the Neoptera are sometimes divided into Orthopteroida (cerci present) and Hemipteroida (cerci absent), also called lower and higher Exopterygota; a full classification is given below. Wing structure of a dragonfly (family Gomphidae) Insect wings are outgrowths of the insect exoskeleton that enable insects to fly. ... Orders     Blattodea (cockroaches)     Mantodea (mantids)     Isoptera (termites)     Zoraptera     Grylloblattodea     Dermaptera (earwigs)     Plecoptera (stoneflies)     Orthoptera (grasshoppers, crickets, katydids)     Phasmatodea (walking sticks, timemas)     Embioptera (webspinners)     Mantophasmatodea (gladiators)    Superorder Hemipterodea     Psocoptera (booklice, barklice)     Phthiraptera (lice)     Hemiptera (true bugs)     Thysanoptera (thrips)    Superorder Endopterygota     Miomoptera - extinct     Megaloptera (alderflies, etc. ...


Subclass Apterygota Orders Archaeognatha Thysanura Apterygota is a subclass of insects that are small agile insects, distinguised from other insects by their lack of wings now and in their evolutionary history. ...

Subclass Pterygota Families Machilidae Meinertellidae The Archaeognatha are known as the bristletails, so named because of their three-pronged tails. ... Families Lepidotrichidae Lepismatidae Maindroniidae Nicoletiidae The insects of the order may be called bristletails, from their three long caudal filaments. ... Orders     Palaeodictyoptera - extinct     Ephemeroptera (mayflies)     Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies)   Infraclass Neoptera     Blattodea (cockroaches)     Mantodea (mantids)     Isoptera (termites)     Zoraptera     Grylloblattodea (rock crawlers)     Dermaptera (earwigs)     Plecoptera (stoneflies)     Orthoptera (grasshoppers, crickets, katydids)     Phasmatodea (walking sticks, timemas)     Embioptera (webspinners)     Mantophasmatodea (gladiators)    Superorder Hemipterodea     Psocoptera (booklice, barklice)     Phthiraptera (lice)     Hemiptera (true bugs)     Thysanoptera (thrips)    Superorder...

Superorder Exopterygota[verification needed]
Proposed superorder Dictyoptera
Proposed superorder Paraneoptera
Superorder Endopterygota
Proposed superorder Mecopteroidea/Antliophora
Proposed superorder Amphiesmenoptera
Incertae sedis

As seen above, insects are divided into two subclasses; Apterygota and Pterygota (flying insects), but this could relatively soon change. Apterygota is made up of two orders; Archaeognatha (bristletails) and Thysanura (silverfish). In the suggested classification, the Archaeognatha makes up the Monocondylia while Thysanura and Pterygota are grouped together as Dicondylia. It is even possible that the Thysanura itself are not monophyletic, making the family Lepidotrichidae a sister group to the Dicondylia (Pterygota + the rest of the Thysanura). Orders Ephemeroptera (mayflies) Palaeodictyoptera - extinct Megasecoptera - extinct Archodonata - extinct Diaphanopterodea - extinct Protodonata - extinct Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies) The name Paleoptera has been traditionally applied to those primitive groups of winged insects (most of them extinct) that lacked the ability to fold the wings back over the abdomen as characterizes the... The mayflies are an order (Ephemeroptera) of insects that grow up in fresh water, and live very briefly as adults, as little as a few hours but more typically a day or two. ... The Palaeodictyoptera are an extinct order of medium-sized to very large, primitive Palaeozoic paleopteous insects, characterised by beak-like mouthparts, similarity between fore- and hind wings, and an additional pair of winglets (large Paranotal lobes) in front of the first pair of wings. ... Megasecoptera Quoted from Palaeos (text is public domain): Source: http://www. ... The Diaphanopterodea or Paramegasecoptera are an extinct order of moderate to large-sized Palaeozoic insects. ... The Protodonata or Meganisoptera are an extinct order of very large to gigantic Palaeozoic ((Late Carboniferous to Late Permian) insects, similar in appearance to, and related to, dragonflies. ... Families Meganeuridae Paralogidae The Protodonata or Meganisoptera are an extinct order of very large to gigantic Palaeozoic (Late Carboniferous to Late Permian) insects, similar in appearance to, and related to, dragonflies. ... Suborders Epiprocta (dragonflies), including infraorder Anisoptera (true dragonflies) Zygoptera (damselflies) Reference: ITIS 101593 as of 2002-07-26 Odonata is an order of insects, encompassing dragonflies (Anisoptera) and damselflies (Zygoptera). ... This article is about the insect. ... Families Amphipterygidae Calopterygidae - Demoiselles Chlorocyphidae - Jewels Coenagrionidae - Pond Damselflies Dicteriadidae - Barelegs Euphaeidae - Gossamerwings Hemiphlebidae - Reedlings Isosticidae - Narrow-wings Lestidae - Spreadwings Lestoididae Megapodagrionidae - Flatwings Perilestidae - Shortwings Platycnemidae - Brook Damselflies Platystictidae - Forest Damselflies Polythoridae - Bannerwings Protoneuridae - Pinflies Pseudostigmatidae - Forest Giants Synlestidae - Sylphs The Damselfly (Suborder Zygoptera) is an insect in the Order... Orders     Blattodea (cockroaches)     Mantodea (mantids)     Isoptera (termites)     Zoraptera     Grylloblattodea     Dermaptera (earwigs)     Plecoptera (stoneflies)     Orthoptera (grasshoppers, crickets, katydids)     Phasmatodea (walking sticks, timemas)     Embioptera (webspinners)     Mantophasmatodea (gladiators)    Superorder Hemipterodea     Psocoptera (booklice, barklice)     Phthiraptera (lice)     Hemiptera (true bugs)     Thysanoptera (thrips)    Superorder Endopterygota     Miomoptera - extinct     Megaloptera (alderflies, etc. ... Orders Ephemeroptera (mayflies) Odonata (dragonflies, damselflies) Grylloblattodea Plecoptera (stoneflies) Zoraptera Isoptera (termites) Dermaptera (earwigs) Embioptera Dictyoptera (cockroaches, mantids) Orthoptera (grasshoppers, crickets, locusts, and katydids) Phasmatodea (stick insects) Psocoptera (booklice) Phthiraptera (lice) Mallophaga (Chewing lice) Anoplura (Sucking lice) Hemiptera (true bugs) Homoptera (cicadas, hoppers, aphids, scale insects) Thysanoptera (Thrips, Thunderflies or... The Protorthoptera are an extinct order of Palaeozoic insects, and represent a wastebasket taxon and paraphyletic assemblage of basal neoptera. ... Suborders Antarctoperlaria Arctoperlaria Euholognatha Systellognatha Plecoptera are an order of insects, commonly known as stoneflies. ... Families There are 3 suborders and 13 families: Anisembiidae Oligotomidae Teratembiidae . ... Species Zorotypus barberi Zorotypus brasiliensis Zorotypus buxtoni Zorotypus caudelli Zorotypus ceylonicus Zorotypus congensis Zorotypus cramptoni Zorotypus delamarei Zorotypus guineensis Zorotypus gurneyi Zorotypus hamiltoni Zorotypus hubbardi Zorotypus huxleyi Zorotypus javanicus Zorotypus juninensis Zorotypus lawrencei Zorotypus leleupi Zorotypus longicercatus Zorotypus manni Zorotypus medoensis Zorotypus mexicanus Zorotypus neotropicus Zorotypus newi Zorotypus philippinensis Zorotypus... Families Suborder Archidermaptera    extinct Suborder Forficulina    Pygidicranidae    Diplatyidae    Anisolabididae    Labiduridae    Apachyidae    Spongiphoridae    Chelisochidae    Forficulidae Suborder Hemimerina    Hemimeridae Suborder Arixenina    Arixeniidae The earwigs are an order (Dermaptera) of insects characterized by large membraneous wings folded underneath short leathery forewings (thus the literal name of the order - skin wings). The abdomen extends... Suborders and families Suborder Ensifera - crickets Superfamily Gryllacroidea Gryllacrididae - camel crikets Rhaphidophoridae - cave crickets Schizodactylidae - dune crickets Stenopelmatidae - king crickets Superfamily Grylloidea Gryllidae - true crickets Gryllotalpidae - mole cricket Mogoplistidae Myrmecophilidae Superfamily Tettigonioidea Anostostomatidae - king crickets Bradyporidae - armoured crickets Haglidae Phaneropteridae Tettigoniidae - katydids, koringkrieks Suborder Caelifera - grasshoppers, locusts Superfamily Acridoidea Acrididae... Families Superfamily: Tridactyloidea Cylindrachaetidae Ripipterygidae Tridactylidae Superfamily: Tetrigoidea Tetrigidae Superfamily: Eumastacoidea Chorotypidae Episactidae Eumastacidae Euschmidtiidae Mastacideidae Morabidae Proscopiidae Thericleidae Superfamily: Pneumoroidea Pneumoridae Superfamily: Pyrgomorphoidea Pyrgomorphidae Superfamily: Acridoidea Acrididae Catantopidae Charilaidae Dericorythidae Lathiceridae Lentulidae Lithidiidae Ommexechidae Pamphagidae Pyrgacrididae Romaleidae Tristiridae Superfamily: Tanaoceroidea Tanaoceridae Superfamily: Trigonopterygoidea Trigonopterygidae Xyronotidae Grasshoppers are herbivorous insects... Orders Blattaria (cockroaches) Mantodea (mantids) Dictyoptera includes two groups of insects, the Blattaria (cockroaches) and the Mantodea (mantids, or praying mantises). ... Suborders Agathemerodea Timematodea Verophasmatodea The Phasmatodea are an order of insects, whose members are variously known as stick insects (Europe), walking sticks (in the Unites States of America), ghost insects[] and leaf insects. ... Genera Grylloblatta Galloisiana Grylloblattodea is a small order of extremophile insects that live in the cold on top of mountains. ... Genera Mantophasma Raptophasma Mantophasmatodea is an order of carnivorous insects discovered in 2002, the first new insect order to be described since 1914. ... Families Blaberidae Blattellidae Blattidae Cryptocercidae Polyphagidae Nocticolidae Blattodea are insects of the order (formerly Blattaria) that includes cockroaches. ... Families Mastotermitidae Kalotermitidae Termopsidae Hodotermitidae Rhinotermitidae Serritermitidae Termitidae Reference: Earthlife as of 2002-07-26 A termite (also known as a white ant) is any member of the order Isoptera, a group of social insects that eat wood and other cellulose-rich vegetable matter. ... Families Chaeteessidae Metallyticidae Mantoididae Amorphoscelidae Eremiaphilidae Hymenopodidae Mantidae Empusidae The order Mantodea (or Praying mantis) consists of between 1,800 and 2,000 species, of which a majority are in Mantidae. ... Suborders Trogiomorpha (5 families) Troctomorpha (8 families) Psocomorpha (22 families) Psocoptera are an order of insects that are commonly known as booklice or barklice. ... Families Suborder Terebrantia    Merothripidae    Uzelothripidae    Aeolothripidae    Adeheterothripidae    Heterothripidae    Thripidae    Fauriellidae Suborder Tubulifera    Phlaeothripidae Thrips (Thysanoptera) are tiny, slender insects with fringed wings (thus the scientific name, from the Greek thysanos (fringe) + pteron (wing)). Other common names include Thunderflies or Thunder bugs. ... ... Suborders Anoplura (sucking lice) Rhyncophthirina Ischnocera (avian lice) Amblycera (chewing lice) Lice (singular: louse) (order Phthiraptera) are an order of over 3000 species of wingless parasitic insects. ... Suborders Archaeorrhyncha Clypeorrhyncha Prosorrhyncha Sternorrhyncha Hemiptera is a large, cosmopolitan order of insects, comprising some 67,500 known species in three suborders. ... Look up bug in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Orders Coleoptera (beetles) Diptera (flies and relatives) Hymenoptera (wasps and relatives) Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths) Mecoptera Megaloptera Miomoptera (extinct) Neuroptera Raphidioptera (snakeflies) Siphonaptera (fleas) Strepsiptera Trichoptera (caddisflies) The Endopterygota, also known as Holometabola, are insects of the subclass Pterygota which go through distinctive larval, pupal, and adult stages. ... Suborders Apocrita Symphyta Hymenoptera is one of the larger orders of insects, comprising the sawflies, wasps, bees, and ants. ... Subfamilies Aenictogitoninae Agroecomyrmecinae Amblyoponinae (incl. ... For other uses, see Western honey bee and Bee (disambiguation). ... Suborders Adephaga Archostemata Myxophaga Polyphaga See subgroups of the order Coleoptera Beetles are the most diverse group of insects. ... Families Mengenillidae Mengeidae Stylopidae Bohartillidae Corioxenidae Halictophagidae Callipharixenidae Elenchidae Myrmecolacidae Species in the nine families of this small (~600 species) order of insects are parasites in other insects; their hosts include bees, wasps, leafhoppers, silverfish, and cockroaches. ... Families See text Snakeflies (order Raphidioptera) are a group of insect, under subclass Pterygota. ... Families Sialidae - Alderflies Corydalidae - Dobsonflies & Fishflies Megaloptera, from the Greek words mega, meaning large, and ptera, meaning wing, is an order of insects containing alderflies, dobsonflies and fishflies. ... Alderfly is the name given to neuropterous insects of the family Sialidae, related to the ant-lions, with long filamentous antennae and four large wings, of which the anterior pair is rather longer than the posterior. ... Suborders Megaloptera Raphidioptera Planipennia The insect order Neuroptera, or net-winged insects, includes the fishflies, snakeflies, lacewings and antlions. ... Families Nannochoristidae Boreidae (snow fleas) Siphonaptera (fleas) Meropeidae (earwig flies) Eomeropidae Apteropanorpidae Choristidae Panorpodidae Bittacidae (hanging flies) Panorpidae (scorpion flies) Mecoptera are an order of insects with about 600 species worldwide. ... For the musician, a member of the Red Hot Chili Peppers, see Michael Balzary. ... For other uses, see Flea (disambiguation). ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Suborders Nematocera (includes Eudiptera) Brachycera Diptera (di - two, ptera - wings), or true flies, is the order of insects possessing only a single pair of wings on the mesothorax; the metathorax bears a pair of drumstick like structures called the halteres, the remnants of the hind wings. ... Suborders Nematocera (includes Eudiptera) Brachycera Wikispecies has information related to: Diptera True flies are insects of the Order Diptera (Greek: di = two, and pteron = wing), possessing a single pair of wings on the mesothorax and a pair of halteres, derived from the hind wings, on the metathorax. ... Families Permotanyderidae Permotipulidae Protodiptera is an extinct order of insects. ... Orders Trichoptera Lepidoptera Amphiesmenoptera an insect superorder, established by Willi Hennig in his revision of insect taxonomy for two sister orders: Lepidoptera and Trichoptera. ... Suborders [1] Annulipalpia Spicipalpia Integripalpia Caddisflies (Order Trichoptera, from trich, hair, and ptera, wings) are small moth-like insects having two pairs of hairy membranous wings. ... Trichoptera, or caddis fly as they are more commonly known, can be divided into two groups, those which live in standing water (such as pond and lakes) and those which live in flowing water (rivers and streams). ... The order Lepidoptera is the second most speciose order in the class Insecta and includes the butterflies, moths and skippers. ... Superfamilies and families Superfamily Hedyloidea: Hedylidae Superfamily Hesperioidea: Hesperiidae Superfamily Papilionoidea: Papilionidae Pieridae Nymphalidae Lycaenidae Riodinidae A butterfly is an insect of the order Lepidoptora. ... A moth is an insect closely related to the butterfly. ... Incertae sedis&#8212;of uncertain position (seat)&#8212;is a term used to define a taxonomic group where its broader relationships are unknown or undefined. ... Glosselytrodea is an extinct order of insects. ... http://palaeoentomolog. ... In phylogenetics, a group is monophyletic (Greek: of one stem) if all organisms in that group are known to have developed from a common ancestral form, and all descendants of that form are included in the group. ... This cladogram shows the relationship among various insect groups. ...

 



Hexapoda (Insecta, collembola, diplura, protura) Classes & Orders Class Insecta (insects) Class Entognatha The subphylum Hexapoda (from the Greek for six legs) constitutes the largest (in terms of number of species) grouping of arthropods and includes the insects as well as three much smaller groups of wingless arthropods: Collembola, Protura, and Diplura. ... Orders Subclass Apterygota Symphypleona - globular springtails Subclass Archaeognatha (jumping bristletails) Subclass Dicondylia Monura - extinct Thysanura (common bristletails) Subclass Pterygota Diaphanopteroidea - extinct Palaeodictyoptera - extinct Megasecoptera - extinct Archodonata - extinct Ephemeroptera (mayflies) Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies) Infraclass Neoptera Blattodea (cockroaches) Mantodea (mantids) Isoptera (termites) Zoraptera Grylloblattodea Dermaptera (earwigs) Plecoptera (stoneflies) Orthoptera (grasshoppers, crickets... Families Suborder Arthropleona   Superfamily Entomobryoidea    Entomobryidae - slender springtails    Isotomidae - smooth springtails    Oncopoduridae    Paronellidae    Tomoceridae   Superfamily Poduroidea    Brachystomellidae    Hypogastruridae - elongate-bodied springtails    Neanuridae    Odontellidae    Onychiuridae - blind springtails    Poduridae - water springtails Suborder Symphypleona    Dicyrtomidae    Katiannidae    Sminthuridae - globular springtails    Sminthurididae    Bourletiellidae    Arrhopalitidae Springtails (Order Collembola) form the largest of the three orders of... This article is about the hexapod order, for the plant genus see Diplura (Algae). ... Families [1] Acerentomata Hesperentomidae Protentomidae Acerentomidae Eosentomata Antelientomidae Eosentomidae Sinentomata Sinentomidae The Protura, or proturans, are an order of hexapods previously treated as insects, and sometimes treated as a class [2]. They are very small (<2 mm long) soil-dwelling animals and are unique among arthropods for showing anamorphic development...



Crustacea (crabs, shrimp, isopods) Classes Remipedia Cephalocarida Branchiopoda Ostracoda Maxillopoda Malacostraca The crustaceans (Crustacea) are a large group of arthropods (55,000 species), usually treated as a subphylum. ... Superfamilies Dromiacea Homolodromioidea Dromioidea Homoloidea Eubrachyura Raninoidea Cyclodorippoidea Dorippoidea Calappoidea Leucosioidea Majoidea Hymenosomatoidea Parthenopoidea Retroplumoidea Cancroidea Portunoidea Bythograeoidea Xanthoidea Bellioidea Potamoidea Pseudothelphusoidea Gecarcinucoidea Cryptochiroidea Pinnotheroidea * Ocypodoidea * Grapsoidea * An asterisk (*) marks the crabs included in the clade Thoracotremata. ... Superfamilies Alpheoidea Atyoidea Bresilioidea Campylonotoidea Crangonoidea Galatheacaridoidea Nematocarcinoidea Oplophoroidea Palaemonoidea Pandaloidea Pasiphaeoidea Procaridoidea Processoidea Psalidopodoidea Stylodactyloidea True shrimp are swimming, decapod crustaceans classified in the infraorder Caridea, found widely around the world in both fresh and salt water. ... SubOrders Anthuridea Asellota Calabozoida Epicaridea Flabellifera Microcerberidea Oniscidea Phreatoicidea Valvifera Isopods are one of the most diverse orders of Crustaceans, with many species living in all environments, and are common in shallow marine waters. ...



Myriapoda

Pauropoda Classes [1] Chilopoda Diplopoda Pauropoda Symphyla Myriapoda is a subphylum of arthropods containing millipedes, centipedes and others. ... Families Afrauropodidae Brachypauropodidae Millotauropodidae Pauropodidae Wikispecies has information related to: Pauropoda Pauropods are small, pale, centipede-like arthropods. ...



Diplopoda (Millipedes) This page is about the creature known as the millipede. ...



Chilopoda (Centipedes) For the arcade game called Centipede see Centipede (video game). ...



Symphyla Families Scutigerellidae Scolopendrellidae Symphylans, also known as Garden Centipedes or Glasshouse Symphylans, are soil-dwelling arthropods of the Class Symphyla in the Subphylum Myriapoda. ...



Chelicerata

Arachnida (Spiders, scorpions and allies) Classes Arachnida- spiders, scorpions, etc. ... Orders Acarina Amblypygi Araneae Opiliones Palpigradi Pseudoscorpionida Ricinulei Schizomida Scorpiones Solifugae Uropygi The arachnids, Arachnida, are a class of invertebrate animals in the subphylum Chelicerata. ... Diversity 111 families, 40,000 species Suborders Mesothelae Mygalomorphae Araneomorphae  See table of families Wikispecies has information related to: Spiders Spiders are predatory invertebrate animals that have two body segments, eight legs, no chewing mouth parts and no wings. ... Superfamilies Pseudochactoidea Buthoidea Chaeriloidea Chactoidea Iuroidea Scorpionoidea See classification for families. ...



Eurypterida (Sea scorpions: Extinct) Orders many, all extinct The eurypterids were the largest known arthropods that ever lived. ...



Xiphosura (King crabs) Orders see text Merostomata is a class of marine arthropods which includes horseshoe crabs and eurypterids. ...



Pycnogonida (Sea spiders) Families may not be a complete list: Ammotheidae Austrodecidae Callipallenidae Colossendeidae Nymphonidae Phoxichilidiidae Pycnogonidae Rhynchothoracidae Endeididae Sea spiders, also called Pantopoda or pycnogonids, are marine arthropods of class Pycnogonida. ...




Trilobites (Extinct) Orders Agnostida Redlichiida Corynexochida Lichida Nektaspida? Phacopida Proetida Asaphida Harpetida Ptychopariida Trilobites are extinct arthropods in the class Trilobita. ...



A phylogenetic tree of the arthropods and related groups.[13] A phylogeny (or phylogenesis) is the origin and evolution of a set of organisms, usually of a species. ...

Also within the infraclass Neoptera we will probably see some re-organization in not too long. Today Neoptera is divided into the superorders Exopterygota and Endopterygota. But even if the Endopterygota are monophyletic, the Exopterygota seems to be paraphyletic, and can be separated into smaller groups; Paraneoptera, Dictyoptera, Orthopteroidea and to other groups (Grylloblattodea + Mantophasmatodea and Plecoptera + Zoraptera + Dermaptera). Phasmatodea and Embioptera has been suggested to form Eukinolabia, while Strepsiptera and Diptera are sometimes grouped together in Halteria. Paraneoptera has turned out to be more closeley related to Endopterygota than to the rest of the Exopterygota. It is not still clear how closely related the remaining Exopterygote groups are and whether they together belong in a larger unit. Only more research will give the answer. Paraphyletic - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ...


Relationship to other arthropods

Other terrestrial arthropods, such as centipedes, millipedes, scorpions and spiders, are sometimes confused with insects since their body plans can appear similar, sharing (as do all arthropods) a jointed exoskeleton. However upon closer examination their features differ significantly; most noticeably they do not have the six legs characteristic of adult insects. Orders and Families See text Centipedes (Class Chilopoda) are fast-moving venomous, predatory, terrestrial arthropods that have long bodies and many jointed legs. ... Subclasses, orders and families See text Millipedes (Class Diplopoda, previously also known as Chilognatha) are arthropods that have two pairs of legs per segment (except for the first segment behind the head which does not have any appendages at all, and the next few which only have one pair of... Superfamilies Pseudochactoidea Buthoidea Chaeriloidea Chactoidea Iuroidea Scorpionoidea See classification for families. ... Diversity 111 families, 40,000 species Suborders Mesothelae Mygalomorphae Araneomorphae  See table of families Wikispecies has information related to: Spiders Spiders are predatory invertebrate animals that have two body segments, eight legs, no chewing mouth parts and no wings. ...


The higher level phylogeny of the arthropods continues to be a matter of debate and research.


Roles in the environment and human society

Aedes aegypti, a parasite, and vector of dengue fever and yellow fever
Aedes aegypti, a parasite, and vector of dengue fever and yellow fever

Many insects are considered pests by humans. Insects commonly regarded as pests include those that are parasitic (mosquitoes, lice, bed bugs), transmit diseases (mosquitoes, flies), damage structures (termites), or destroy agricultural goods (locusts, weevils). Many entomologists are involved in various forms of pest control, often using insecticides, but more and more relying on methods of biocontrol. Download high resolution version (2391x1895, 752 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (2391x1895, 752 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... joyce This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... Dengue fever (IPA: ) and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) are acute febrile diseases, found in the tropics, with a geographical spread similar to malaria. ... Diversity 41 genera Genera See text. ... Suborders Anoplura (sucking lice) Rhyncophthirina Ischnocera (avian lice) Amblycera (chewing lice) Lice (singular: louse) (order Phthiraptera) are an order of over 3000 species of wingless parasitic insects. ... Genera Genus Cimex Lectularius Hemipterus (Rotundatus) Pilosellus Pipistrella Genus Leptocimex Boueti Genus Haematosiphon Inodora Genus Oeciacus Hirudinis Vicarius Bedbugs (or bed bugs) are small nocturnal insects of the family Cimicidae that feed on the blood of humans and other hosts. ... Diversity 41 genera Genera See text. ... Suborders Nematocera (includes Eudiptera) Brachycera Wikispecies has information related to: Diptera True flies are insects of the Order Diptera (Greek: di = two, and pteron = wing), possessing a single pair of wings on the mesothorax and a pair of halteres, derived from the hind wings, on the metathorax. ... Families Mastotermitidae Kalotermitidae Termopsidae Hodotermitidae Rhinotermitidae Serritermitidae Termitidae Wikispecies has information related to: Isoptera Termites, known as white ants, are a group of social insects usually classified at the taxonomic rank of order Isoptera. ... Desert locust Nymph of Locust Schistocera americana with distinct wing-rudiments Desert Locust Schistocerca gregaria Locust from the 1915 Locust Plague For other uses, see Locust (disambiguation). ... Families Anthribidae - fungus weevils Attelabidae - leaf rolling weevils Belidae - primitive weevils Brentidae - straight snout weevils Caridae Curculionidae - true weevils Nemonychidae - pine flower weevils Wikispecies has information related to: Curculionoidea A weevil is any beetle from the Curculionoidea superfamily. ... Entomology is the scientific study of insects. ... Larval form of some beetle is damaging specimen of Sceliphron destillatorius in entomogical collection. ... Insecticide application by crop spraying An insecticide is a pesticide whose purpose is to kill or to prevent the multiplication of insects. ... Predatory Polistes wasp looking for bollworms or other caterpillars on a cotton plant Biological control of pests and diseases is a method of controlling pests (including weeds and diseases) in agriculture that relies on natural predation, parasitism or other natural mechanism, rather than introduced chemicals. ...


Although pest insects attract the most attention, many insects are beneficial to the environment and to humans. Some pollinate flowering plants (for example wasps, bees, butterflies, ants). Pollination is a trade between plants that need to reproduce, and pollinators that receive rewards of nectar and pollen. A serious environmental problem today is the decline of populations of pollinator insects, and a number of species of insects are now cultured primarily for pollination management in order to have sufficient pollinators in the field, orchard or greenhouse at bloom time. This article is about modern humans. ... A flower-fly pollinating a Common Daisy (Bellis perennis) Pollination is an important step in the reproduction of seed plants: the transfer of pollen grains (male gametes) to the plant carpel, the structure that contains the ovule (female gamete). ... Classes Magnoliopsida - Dicots Liliopsida - Monocots The flowering plants or angiosperms are the most widespread group of land plants. ... For other uses, see Wasp (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Western honey bee and Bee (disambiguation). ... Superfamilies and families Superfamily Hedyloidea: Hedylidae Superfamily Hesperioidea: Hesperiidae Superfamily Papilionoidea: Papilionidae Pieridae Nymphalidae Lycaenidae Riodinidae A butterfly is an insect of the order Lepidoptora. ... Subfamilies Aenictogitoninae Agroecomyrmecinae Amblyoponinae (incl. ... Nectar of camellia Nectar, in botany, is a sugar-rich liquid produced by the flowers of plants in order to attract pollinating animals. ... SEM image of pollen grains from a variety of common plants: sunflower (Helianthus annuus), morning glory (Ipomoea purpurea), prairie hollyhock (Sidalcea malviflora), oriental lily (Lilium auratum), evening primrose (Oenothera fruticosa), and castor bean (Ricinus communis). ... Pollinator decline is based on observations made at the end of the twentieth century of the reduction in abundance of pollinators in many ecosystems worldwide. ... Pollination Management is the label for horticultural practices that accomplish or enhance pollination of a crop, to improve yield or quality, by understanding of the particular crops pollination needs, and by knowledgeable management of pollenizers, pollinators, and pollination conditions. ... A community apple orchard originally planted for productive use during the 1920s, in Westcliff on Sea (Essex, England) An orchard is an intentional planting of trees or shrubs maintained for food production. ... The Royal Greenhouses of Laeken. ... Look up bloom in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Insects also produce useful substances such as honey, wax, lacquer and silk. Honey bees have been cultured by humans for thousands of years for honey, although contracting for crop pollination is becoming more significant for beekeepers. The silkworm has greatly affected human history, as silk-driven trade established relationships between China and the rest of the world. Fly larvae (maggots) were formerly used to treat wounds to prevent or stop gangrene, as they would only consume dead flesh. This treatment is finding modern usage in some hospitals. Adult insects such as crickets, and insect larvae of various kinds are also commonly used as fishing bait. A jar of honey, shown with a wooden honey server and scones/biscuits. ... candle wax This page is about the substance. ... In a general sense, lacquer is a clear or coloured coating, that dries by solvent evaporation only and that produces a hard, durable finish that can be polished to a very high gloss, and gives the illusion of depth. ... Silk dresses Silk is a natural protein fiber, some forms of which can be woven into textiles. ... The honeybee is a colonial insect that is often maintained, fed, and transported by farmers. ... Beekeeping (or apiculture) is the maintenance of one or more hives of honeybees. ... Binomial name Bombyx mori Linnaeus, 1758 For other senses of this word, see silkworm (disambiguation). ... The Silk Road Silk Route redirects here. ... Suborders Nematocera (includes Eudiptera) Brachycera Wikispecies has information related to: Diptera True flies are insects of the Order Diptera (Greek: di = two, and pteron = wing), possessing a single pair of wings on the mesothorax and a pair of halteres, derived from the hind wings, on the metathorax. ... Look up maggot in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Maggot Therapy (also known as Maggot Debridement Therapy (MDT), larval therapy, larva therapy, or larvae therapy), is a type of biotherapy involving the intentional introduction by a health care practitioner of live, disinfected maggots (fly larvae) into the non-healing skin and soft tissue wound(s) of a human or... Gangrene is necrosis and subsequent decay of body tissues caused by infection or thrombosis or lack of blood flow. ...

Chorthippus biguttulus, a grasshopper
Chorthippus biguttulus, a grasshopper

In some parts of the world, insects are used for human food ("Entomophagy"), while being a taboo in other places. There are proponents of developing this use to provide a major source of protein in human nutrition. Since it is impossible to entirely eliminate pest insects from the human food chain, insects already are present in many foods, especially grains. Most people do not realize that food laws in many countries do not prohibit insect parts in food, but rather limit the quantity. According to cultural materialist anthropologist Marvin Harris, the eating of insects is taboo in cultures that have protein sources that require less work, like farm birds or cattle. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (559x882, 287 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Insect Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (559x882, 287 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Insect Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create... Entomophagy is the habit of eating insects as food. ... This article is about cultural prohibitions in general, for other uses, see Taboo (disambiguation). ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... The updated USDA food pyramid, published in 2005, is a general nutrition guide for recommended food consumption for humans. ... The term Cultural materialism refers to two separate scholarly endeavours: It is an anthropological research paradigm championed most notably by Marvin Harris. ... Marvin Harris Marvin Harris (August 18, 1927 – October 25, 2001) was an American anthropologist. ...


Many insects, especially beetles, are scavengers, feeding on dead animals and fallen trees, recycling the biological materials into forms found useful by other organisms, and insects are responsible for much of the process by which topsoil is created. The ancient Egyptian religion adored beetles and represented them as scarabeums. Suborders Adephaga Archostemata Myxophaga Polyphaga See subgroups of the order Coleoptera Beetles are the most diverse group of insects. ... HERBIVORS Herbivory is a form of predation in which an organism known as an herbivore, consumes only autotrophs[1] such as plants, algae and photosynthesizing bacteria. ... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... “Life on Earth” redirects here. ... Topsoil is the uppermost layer of soil, usually the top six to eight inches. ... Egyptian goddess Isis Ancient Egyptian religion encompasses the beliefs and rituals of Ancient Egypt. ...


Although mostly unnoticed by most humans, the most useful of all insects are insectivores, those that feed on other insects. Many insects, such as grasshoppers, can potentially reproduce so quickly that they could literally bury the earth in a single season. However, there are hundreds of other insect species that feed on grasshopper eggs, and some that feed on grasshopper adults. This role in ecology is usually assumed to be primarily one of birds, but insects, though less glamorous, are much more significant. For any pest insect one can name, there is a species of wasp that is either a parasitoid or predator upon that pest, and plays a significant role in controlling it. Any organism with a diet that consists chiefly of insects and similar small creatures is an insectivore. ... Families Superfamily: Tridactyloidea Cylindrachaetidae Ripipterygidae Tridactylidae Superfamily: Tetrigoidea Tetrigidae Superfamily: Eumastacoidea Chorotypidae Episactidae Eumastacidae Euschmidtiidae Mastacideidae Morabidae Proscopiidae Thericleidae Superfamily: Pneumoroidea Pneumoridae Superfamily: Pyrgomorphoidea Pyrgomorphidae Superfamily: Acridoidea Acrididae Catantopidae Charilaidae Dericorythidae Lathiceridae Lentulidae Lithidiidae Ommexechidae Pamphagidae Pyrgacrididae Romaleidae Tristiridae Superfamily: Tanaoceroidea Tanaoceridae Superfamily: Trigonopterygoidea Trigonopterygidae Xyronotidae Grasshoppers are herbivorous insects... For other uses, see Bird (disambiguation). ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... This snapping turtle is trying to make a meal of a Canada goose, but the goose is too wary. ...


Human attempts to control pests by insecticides can backfire, because important but unrecognised insects already helping to control pest populations are also killed by the poison, leading eventually to population explosions of the pest species.


Quotations

  • "Something in the insect seems to be alien to the habits, morals, and psychology of this world, as if it had come from some other planet: more monstrous, more energetic, more insensate, more atrocious, more infernal than our own."
Maurice Maeterlinck (18621949)
  • When asked what can be learned about the Creator by examining His work, J.B.S. Haldane said "an inordinate fondness for beetles."
  • "To understand the success of insects is to appreciate our own shortcomings" —Thomas Eisner

Maurice Polydore Marie Bernard Maeterlinck, Belgian author Count Maurice Polydore Marie Bernard Maeterlinck (August 29, 1862 - May 6, 1949) was a Belgian poet, playwright, and essayist. ... 1862 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1949 calendar). ... John Burdon Sanderson Haldane (November 5, 1892 - December 1, 1964), who normally used J.B.S. as a first name, was a geneticist born in Scotland and educated at Eton and Oxford University. ... Thomas Eisner is the Jacob Gould Schurman Professor of Chemical Ecology at Cornell University, and Director of the Cornell Institute for Research in Chemical Ecology (CIRCE). ...

Gallery

  • Flesh fly ( file info) — Watch in browser
    • Video of a flesh fly cleaning itself
  • Problems seeing the videos? See media help.

Image File history File links Warning: This file may contain malicious code, by executing it your system may be compromised. ... Subfamilies Miltogramminae Paramacronychiinae Sarcophaginae Flies of the Diptera family Sarcophagidae (from the Greek sarco- = corpse, phage = eating; the same roots as the word sarcophagus) are commonly known as flesh flies. ...

See also

Wikispecies has information related to:
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:

GFDL Wikispecies logo File links The following pages link to this file: Solanaceae Species Asterias Homo (genus) Human Wikipedia:Template messages/Links Wikipedia:Template messages/All Homo floresiensis User talk:Tuneguru Template:Wikispecies Categories: GFDL images ... Wikispecies is a sister project supported by the Wikimedia Foundation that anybody can edit with a great potential use to students and researchers. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... A number of animals have evolved aerial locomotion, either by powered flight or by gliding. ... Not to be confused with Etymology, the study of the origin of words. ... Invertebrate is an English word that describes any animal without a spinal column. ... Prehistoric Insects are various groups of insects that lived before recorded history. ... The Dragonfly Insect flight, In the past several million years, flying insects have evolved with amazing flight characteristics and abilities. ...

References

  1. ^ a b Chapman, A. D. (2006). Numbers of living species in Australia and the World, 60pp. ISBN 978-0-642-56850-2. 
  2. ^ Vojtech Novotny, Yves Basset, Scott E. Miller, George D. Weiblen, Birgitta Bremer, Lukas Cizek & Pavel Drozd (2002). Low host specificity of herbivorous insects in a tropical forest. Nature 416: 841–844. 
  3. ^ Erwin, Terry L. (1997). "Biodiversity at its utmost: Tropical Forest Beetles": 27–40.  In: Reaka-Kudla, M. L., D. E. Wilson & E. O. Wilson (eds.). Biodiversity II. Joseph Henry Press, Washington, D.C.. 
  4. ^ a b c Walker, T.J., ed. 2001. University of Florida Book of Insect Records, 2001. [1]
  5. ^ Oxford English Dictionary. Oxford University Press. 
  6. ^ Hristov, N.I., Conner, W.E. (2005) Sound strategy: acoustic aposematism in the bat–tiger moth arms race. Naturwissenschaften 92:164–169. DOI:10.1007/s00114-005-0611-7
  7. ^ Barber, J. R. and W. E. Conner. (2007) Acoustic mimicry in a predator–prey interaction. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 104(22):9331-9334 [2]
  8. ^ [3]PDF (176 KiB) Virant-Doberlet M. & Čokl A. (2004). Vibrational communication in insects. Neotropical Entomology, 33(2): 121-134.
  9. ^ Bennet-Clark H.C. (1998). Size and scale effects as constraints in insect sound communication. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B, 353: 407-419
  10. ^ Dudley, R. 1998. Atmospheric oxygen, giant Paleozoic insects and the evolution of aerial locomotor performance. Journal of Experimental Biology 201(8):1043-1050 [4]PDF
  11. ^ Drake, V A and R A Farrow 1988. The Influence of Atmospheric Structure and Motions on Insect Migration. Annual Review of Entomology. 33:183-210 doi:10.1146/annurev.en.33.010188.001151
  12. ^ a b [5] Michael S. Engel and David A. Grimaldi. (2004). New light shed on the oldest insect. Nature 427: 627-630 (12 February 2004) | doi:10.1038/nature02291
  13. ^ Tree of Life Web Project. 1995. Arthropoda. Version 01 January 1995 (temporary). [6] in The Tree of Life Web Project, [7]

Nature is one of the most prominent scientific journals, first published on 4 November 1869. ... The Oxford English Dictionary print set The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is a dictionary published by the Oxford University Press (OUP), and is the most successful dictionary of the English language, (not to be confused with the one-volume Oxford Dictionary of English, formerly New Oxford Dictionary of English, of... The Portable Document Format (PDF) is the file format created by Adobe Systems in 1993 for document exchange. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to... The Portable Document Format (PDF) is the file format created by Adobe Systems in 1993 for document exchange. ... Michael S. Engel (born 24 September 1971 in Creve Coeur, Missouri) is a paleontologist and entomologist. ...

Further reading

  • Davidson, E. (ed.) 1981. Pathogenesis of Invertebrate Micorobial Diseases. Allanheld, Osmun & Co. Publishers, Inc., Totowa, New Jersey, USA. 562 pages.
  • Davidson, E. 2006. Big Fleas Have Little Fleas: How Discoveries of Invertebrate Diseases Are Advancing Modern Science University of Arizona Press, Tucson, 208 pages, ISBN 0-8165-2544-7
  • Davidson, RH and William F. Lyon. 1979 Insect Pests of Farm, Garden, and Orchard. John Wiley & Sons., New York. 596 pages, ISBN 0-471-86314-9.
  • Grimaldi, D. and Engel, M.S. (2005). Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-82149-5. 
  • Reimer, N.J., J.W. Beardsley, and G. C. Jahn 1990. Pest ants in the Hawaiian Islands. In R. Vander Meer, K. Jaffe, and A. Cedena [eds.], "Applied Myrmecology: a world perspective." Westview Press, Oxford, 40-50.
  • Triplehorn, Charles A. and Norman F. Johnson (2005-05-19). Borror and DeLong's Introduction to the Study of Insects, 7th edition, Thomas Brooks/Cole. ISBN 0-03-096835-6. — a classic textbook in North America
  • Grimaldi, D. and Engel, M.S. (2005). Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-82149-5.  — an up to date review of the evolutionary history of the insects
  • Rasnitsyn, A.P. and Quicke, D.L.J. (2002). History of Insects. Kluwer Academic Publishers. ISBN 1-4020-0026-X.  — detail coverage of various aspects of the evolutionary history of the insects
  • Biewener, Andrew A. (2003). Animal Locomotion. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-850022-X. 

David Grimaldi (entomologist) (born September 22, 1957) is an entomologist and Curator of Invertebrate Zoology at the American Museum of Natural History in New York. ... Michael S. Engel (born 24 September 1971 in Creve Coeur, Missouri) is a paleontologist and entomologist. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The headquarters of the Cambridge University Press, in Trumpington Street, Cambridge. ... David Grimaldi (entomologist) (born September 22, 1957) is an entomologist and Curator of Invertebrate Zoology at the American Museum of Natural History in New York. ... Michael S. Engel (born 24 September 1971 in Creve Coeur, Missouri) is a paleontologist and entomologist. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The headquarters of the Cambridge University Press, in Trumpington Street, Cambridge. ... Alexandr (Alex) Rasnitsyn One of world leading experts in palaeoentomology. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... A Dutch STM publishing company now known as Springer. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Image resources


  Results from FactBites:
 
Insect Printouts - AllAboutNature.com (1164 words)
Insects are arthropods (a type of invertebrate, animals that lack a backbone).
The silkworm moth is an insect (not a worm) that produces a silken cocoon.
Wasps are insects with 2 pairs of wings and strong jaws.
Insect - MSN Encarta (1194 words)
In addition, insects are of aesthetic importance—some insects, such as dragonflies, beetles, and butterflies, are widely thought to be among the most beautiful of all animals.
Insects range in length from the feathery-winged dwarf beetle, which is barely visible to the naked eye at 0.25 mm (0.01 in), to the walkingstick of Southeast Asia, which measures up to 50 cm (20 in) with its legs stretched out.
Insect exoskeletons are highly effective as a body framework, but they have two drawbacks: they cannot grow once they have formed, and like a suit of armor, they become too heavy to move when they reach a certain size.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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