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Encyclopedia > Inquisition
Galileo facing the Roman Inquisition.
Galileo facing the Roman Inquisition.

Inquisition (capitalised I) is broadly used in reference to the judgment of heresy by the Roman Catholic Church. It can mean an ecclesiastical tribunal or institution of the Roman Catholic Church for combating or suppressing heresy, a number of historical expurgation movements against heresy (orchestrated by the Roman Catholic Church) or the trial of an individual accused of heresy. Inquisition can refer to: Inquisition, the name given to a number of historical movements in the Roman Catholic Church Protestant Inquisition, the persecution of alleged heretics by Protestants in the years immediately following the Reformation. ... Image File history File links Galileo_facing_the_Roman_Inquisition. ... Image File history File links Galileo_facing_the_Roman_Inquisition. ... Galileo can refer to: Galileo Galilei, astronomer, philosopher, and physicist (1564 - 1642) the Galileo spacecraft, a NASA space probe that visited Jupiter and its moons the Galileo positioning system Life of Galileo, a play by Bertolt Brecht Galileo (1975) - screen adaptation of the play Life of Galileo by Bertolt Brecht... For other uses, see Heresy (disambiguation). ... Catholic Church redirects here. ... This article should be transwikied to wiktionary Ecclesiastical means pertaining to the Church (especially Christianity) as an organized body of believers and clergy, with a stress on its juridical and institutional structure. ...

Contents

Inquisition tribunals and institutions

Before the twelfth century, the Catholic Church gradually suppressed heresy usually through a system of ecclesiastical tribunals. Initially the persecution was carried out mostly by state authorities, but the Catholic Church gradually became more active as episcopal jurisdiction grew in power. The Church's punishment included excommunication, proscription and imprisonment. Although many states allowed the Church to use the death penalty, initially it was not frequently imposed, as this form of punishment had many ecclesiastical opponents[1][2].


In the 12th century, to counter the spread of Catharism, prosecution against heresy became more frequent. Church Councils, composed of bishops and archbishops, were charged with establishing inquisitions. (see Episcopal Inquisition) (11th century - 12th century - 13th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 12th century was that century which lasted from 1101 to 1200. ... Cathars being expelled from Carcassonne in 1209. ... Pedro Berruguete. ...


Later in the 13th century, the pope assigned the duty of carrying out inquisitions to the Dominican Order. Inquisitors acted in the name of the Pope and with his full authority. They used inquisitorial procedures, which was a common law practice at the time. They judged heresy alone, using the local authorities to establish a tribunal and prosecute heretics. After the end of the fifteenth century, inquistions were headed by a Grand Inquisitor. Inquisition in this way persisted until the 19th century.[3] (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ... “Dominicans” redirects here. ... Grand Inquisitor (Latin: Inquisitor Generalis) is the lead official of an Inquisition. ...


In the 16th century, Pope Paul III established a system of tribunals, ruled by the "Supreme Sacred Congregation of the Universal Inquisition", staffed by cardinals and other Church officials. This event would later be known as Roman Inquisition. In 1908 its name was changed to "Supreme Sacred Congregation of the Holy Office" by Saint Pope Pius X. This in turn was changed in 1965 to the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith[4], which name continues to this day. (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... Pope Paul III with his cardinal-nephew Alessandro Cardinal Farnese (left) and his other grandson (right), Ottavio Farnese, Duke of Parma Pope Paul III (February 29, 1468 – November 10, 1549), born Alessandro Farnese, was Pope of the Roman Catholic Church from 1534 to his death 1549. ... The Roman Inquisition began in 1542 when Pope Paul III established the Holy Office as the final court of appeal in trials of heresy and served as an important part of the Counter-Reformation. ... Pope St. ... The Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith (CDF) (Congregatio pro Doctrina Fidei) is the oldest of the nine congregations of the Roman Curia. ...


Historic Inquisition movements

Historians distinguish between four different manifestations of the Inquisition: the Medieval Inquisition, the Spanish Inquisition, the Portuguese Inquisition and the Roman Inquisition. Pedro Berruguete. ... This article is about one of the historical Inquisitions. ... An Inquisition - Auto-da-fe. ... The Roman Inquisition began in 1542 when Pope Paul III established the Holy Office as the final court of appeal in trials of heresy and served as an important part of the Counter-Reformation. ...


Because of its objective, combating heresy, the Inquisition had jurisdiction only over baptized members of the Church (which, however, encompassed the vast majority of the population). Non-Christians could still be tried for blasphemy by secular courts. Also, most of the witch trials were held by secular courts. For the black metal band, see Blasphemy (band). ... Devil, one of the main protagonists of the witch trials. ...


Medieval Inquisition

Main article: Medieval Inquisition

The Medieval Inquisition is a term historians use to describe the various inquisitions that started around 1184, including the Episcopal Inquisition (1184-1230s) and later the Papal Inquisition (1230s). It was in response to large popular movements throughout Europe considered apostate or heretical to Christianity, in particular the Cathars and Waldensians in southern France and northern Italy. These were the first inquisition movements of many that would follow. Pedro Berruguete. ... // Events Abbeville receives its commercial charter. ... Centuries: 12th century - 13th century - 14th century Decades: 1180s 1190s 1200s 1210s 1220s - 1230s - 1240s 1250s 1260s 1270s 1280s Years: 1230 1231 1232 1233 1234 1235 1236 1237 1238 1239 Events and Trends Categories: 1230s ... Pedro Berruguete. ... Centuries: 12th century - 13th century - 14th century Decades: 1180s 1190s 1200s 1210s 1220s - 1230s - 1240s 1250s 1260s 1270s 1280s Years: 1230 1231 1232 1233 1234 1235 1236 1237 1238 1239 Events and Trends Categories: 1230s ... Apostasy (from Greek αποστασία, meaning a defection or revolt, from απο, apo, away, apart, στασις, stasis, standing) is a term generally employed to describe the formal renunciation of ones religion, especially if the motive is deemed unworthy. ... Heresy, as a blanket term, describes a practice or belief that is labeled as unorthodox. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... Cathars being expelled from Carcassonne in 1209. ... The Waldensians, Waldenses or Vaudois are a Christian denomination believing in poverty and austerity, promoting true poverty, public preaching and the literal interpretation of the scriptures. ...


Spanish Inquisition

Representation of an Auto de fe, (1475).Many artistic representations depict torture and the burning at the stake as occurring during the auto da fe.
Representation of an Auto de fe, (1475).
Many artistic representations depict torture and the burning at the stake as occurring during the auto da fe.
Main article: Spanish Inquisition

The Spanish Inquisition was set up by King Ferdinand of Aragon and Queen Isabella of Castile in 1478 with the approval of Pope Sixtus IV. In contrast to the previous inquisitions, it operated completely under royal authority, though staffed by secular clergy and orders, and independently of the Holy See. It aimed primarily at converts from Judaism and Islam (who were still residing in Spain after the end of the Moor control of Spain), who were suspected of either continuing to adhere to their old religion (often after having been converted under duress) or having fallen back into it, and later at Protestants; in Sicily and Southern Italy, which were under Spanish rule, it targeted Greek Orthodox Christians. After religious disputes waned in the 17th century, the Spanish Inquisition more and more developed into a secret police against internal threats to the state. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 351 × 598 pixelsFull resolution (447 × 762 pixel, file size: 127 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Pedro Berruguete. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 351 × 598 pixelsFull resolution (447 × 762 pixel, file size: 127 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Pedro Berruguete. ... Representation of an Auto de fe, (1475). ... 5<sup>Superscript text</sup>7<!-- Comment --><blockquote> Block quote </blockquote>{| class=class=wikitable |- ! header 1 ! header 2 ! header 3 |-{| class=wikitable |- ! header 1 ! header 2 ! header 3{| class=wikitable |- ! header 1 ! header 2 ! header 3 |- | row 1, cell 1 | row 1, cell 2 | row 1, cell 3 |- | row 2... For other uses, see Torture (disambiguation). ... Jan Hus burned at the stake Execution by burning has a long history as a method of punishment for crimes such as treason, heresy and witchcraft (burning, however, was actually less common than hanging, pressing, or drowning as a punishment for witchcraft). ... Pedro Berruguete. ... This article is about one of the historical Inquisitions. ... This article is about one of the historical Inquisitions. ... Ferdinand V of Castile & II of Aragon the Catholic (Spanish: , Catalan: , Aragonese: ; March 10, 1452 – January 23, 1516) was king of Aragon (1479–1516), Castile, Sicily (1468–1516), Naples (1504–1516), Valencia, Sardinia and Navarre and Count of Barcelona. ... Isabella I of Castile (April 22, 1451 – November 26, 1504) was Queen regnant of Castile and Leon. ... Sixtus IV, born Francesco della Rovere (July 21, 1414 - August 12, 1484) was Pope from 1471 to 1484, essentially a Renaissance prince, the Sixtus of the Sistine Chapel where the team of artists he brought together introduced the Early Renaissance to Rome with a masterpiece. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... Greek Orthodox Church can refer to any of several hierarchical churches within the larger group of mutually recognizing Eastern Orthodox churches: the Orthodox Church of Constantinople, headed by the Patriarch of Constantinople, who is also the first among equals of the Eastern Orthodox Communion. ... (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ... This article is about secret police as organizations. ...


The Spanish Inquisition would subsequently be employed in certain Spanish colonies such as Peru and Mexico. The Spanish Inquisition continued in the Americas until Mexican Independence and was not abolished in Europe until 1834. This article refers to a colony in politics and history. ... Year 1834 (MDCCCXXXIV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


One source estimates that as many as 60 million Native Americans were killed during the Spanish Inquisition, some of whom were already Christians[5] Most experts reject this number. Estimates of how many people were living in the Americas when Columbus arrived have varied tremendously; 20th century scholarly estimates ranged from a low of 8.4 million to a high of 112.5 million persons. Given the fragmentary nature of the evidence, precise pre-Columbian population figures are impossible to obtain, and estimates are often produced by extrapolation from comparatively small bits of data. In 1976, geographer William Denevan used these various estimates to derive a "consensus count" of about 54 million people, although some recent estimates are lower than that.[6]


Portuguese Inquisition

Copper engraving intitled "Die Inquisition in Portugall", by Jean David Zunner from the work "Description de L'Univers, Contenant les Differents Systemes de Monde, Les Cartes Generales & Particulieres de la Geographie Ancienne & Moderne" by Alain Manesson Mallet, Frankfurt, 1685.

The Portuguese Inquisition was established in Portugal in 1536 by the King of Portugal, João III. An Inquisition - Auto-da-fe. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... This is a List of Portuguese monarchs from the independence of Portugal from Castile in 1139, to the beginning of the Republic in October 5, 1910. ... John III (Portuguese: João III pron. ...

Main article: Goa Inquisition

The Goa Inquisition was the office of the Inquisition acting in the Indian city of Goa and the rest of the Portuguese empire in Asia. Established in 1560 , it was aimed primarily at wayward new converts from Hinduism. St. ... For other uses, see Goa (disambiguation). ... An anachronous map of the Portuguese Empire (1415-1999). ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... Hinduism (known as in modern Indian languages[1]) is a religious tradition[2] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ...


Roman Inquisition

Main article: Roman Inquisition

In 1542, Pope Paul III established a permanent congregation staffed with cardinals and other officials, whose task was to maintain and defend the integrity of the faith and to examine and proscribe errors and false doctrines.[citation needed] This body, the Congregation of the Holy Office, now called the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, part of the Roman Curia, became the supervisory body of local Inquisitions. The Pope appoints one of the cardinals to preside over the meetings. There are usually ten other cardinals on the Congregation, as well as a prelate and two assistants all chosen from the Dominican Order. The Holy Office also has an international group of consultants, experienced scholars of theology and canon law, who advise it on specific questions.[citation needed] The Roman Inquisition began in 1542 when Pope Paul III established the Holy Office as the final court of appeal in trials of heresy and served as an important part of the Counter-Reformation. ... Events War resumes between Francis I of France and Emperor Charles V. This time Henry VIII of England is allied to the Emperor, while James V of Scotland and Sultan Suleiman I are allied to the French. ... Pope Paul III with his cardinal-nephew Alessandro Cardinal Farnese (left) and his other grandson (right), Ottavio Farnese, Duke of Parma Pope Paul III (February 29, 1468 – November 10, 1549), born Alessandro Farnese, was Pope of the Roman Catholic Church from 1534 to his death 1549. ... For other uses, see Cardinal (disambiguation). ... The Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith (CDF) (Congregatio pro Doctrina Fidei) is the oldest of the nine congregations of the Roman Curia. ... The Roman Curia — usually called the Vatican — is the administrative apparatus of the Holy See, coordinating and providing the necessary organisation for the correct functioning of the Catholic Church and the achievement of its goals. ... Look up prelate in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... “Dominicans” redirects here. ...


Arguably the most famous case tried by the Roman Inquisition was that of Galileo Galilei in 1633 . Because of Rome's power over the Papal States, Roman Inquisition activity continued until the mid-1800s. Galileo redirects here. ... Coat of arms Map of the Papal States; the reddish area was annexed to the Kingdom of Italy in 1860, the rest (grey) in 1870. ...


In 1908 the Holy Office of the Inquisition was changed to The Sacred Congregation of the Holy Office. In 1965 the name was changed again to the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith. Pedro Berruguete. ... The Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith (CDF) (Congregatio pro Doctrina Fidei) is the oldest of the nine congregations of the Roman Curia. ...


Recent Investigations

Main article: Recent Investigations

In the year 2000, Pope John Paul II called for an "Inquisition Symposium", and opened the Vatican to 30 external historians. What they found discounted many exaggerated facts previously believed. It was learned that more women accused of witchcraft died in the Protestant countries than under the Inquisition. For example, the Inquisition burned 59 women in Spain, 36 in Italy and 4 in Portugal, while in Europe civil justice put to trial close to 100,000 women; 50,000 of them were burned, 25,000 in Germany, during the XVI century by the followers of Martin Luther. Martin Luther (November 10, 1483 – February 18, 1546) was a German monk,[1] priest, professor, theologian, and church reformer. ...


Derivative works

The Inquisitions have been the subject of many cultural works. Some include:

This article is about the Monty Python comedy sketch. ... Monty Python, or The Pythons, is the collective name of the creators of Monty Pythons Flying Circus, a British television comedy sketch show that first aired on the BBC on 5 October 1969. ... Sliding Doors is a 1998 film written and directed by former actor Peter Howitt. ... Edgar Allan Poe (January 19, 1809 – October 7, 1849) was an American poet, short story writer, playwright, editor, literary critic, essayist and one of the leaders of the American Romantic Movement. ... This article is about the short story by Edgar Allan Poe. ... Alternative history or alternate history develops out of historiography to identify historical points of view that have been ignored, overlooked, or unseeable. ... The Two Georges is an alternate history novel co-written by science fiction author Harry Turtledove and Oscar-winning actor Richard Dreyfuss. ... Harry Norman Turtledove (born June 14, 1949) is an American historian and prolific novelist who has written historical fiction, fantasy, and science fiction works. ... Richard Stephen Dreyfuss (born October 29, 1947) is an Academy Award-winning American actor. ... This article is about one of the historical Inquisitions. ... Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s The 20th century lasted from 1901 to 2000 in the Gregorian calendar (often from (1900 to 1999 in common usage). ... The Inquisition (The Holy Orders of the Emperors Inquisition) is a secret organisation in the fictional Warhammer 40,000 universe. ... Warhammer 40,000 (informally known as Warhammer 40K, WH40K, W40K or just 40K) is a science fantasy game produced by Games Workshop. ... Mel Brooks (born June 28, 1926) is an Academy Award-winning American director, writer, comedian, actor and producer best known as a creator of broad film farces and comedy parodies. ... The DVD cover artwork for the movie depicts many of the eras parodied in the film History of the World, Part I is a 1981 film directed by Mel Brooks. ... Terence David John Pratchett, OBE (born 28 April 1948) is a British fantasy and science fiction author, best known for his Discworld series. ... This article is about the novel Small Gods; for the concept of Small Gods within the Discworld, see Discworld Gods Small Gods is the thirteenth of Terry Pratchetts popular Discworld novels, published in 1992. ... Joanne Rowling OBE (born July 31, 1965 in Chipping Sodbury, South Gloucestershire), commonly known as J.K. Rowling (pronunciation: roll-ing; her former students used to joke with her name calling her the Rolling Stone), is a British fiction writer. ... OotP redirects here. ... The meaning of the word professor (Latin: [1]) varies. ... Dolores Jane Umbridge is a fictional character from the Harry Potter series of novels by J. K. Rowling. ... In J. K. Rowlings best-selling Harry Potter series of novels, Hogwarts School of Witchcraft and Wizardry is a school of magic for witches and wizards between the ages of eleven and seventeen. ... Petrarch, who conceived the idea of a European Dark Age. From Cycle of Famous Men and Women, Andrea di Bartolo di Bargillac, c. ... The World of Darkness (or WoD) is the name given to three related but distinct fictional universes. ... (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ... Black Isle Studios was a division of the computer and video game developer and publisher Interplay Entertainment, created specifically for the development of computer role-playing games. ... Man of La Mancha is a 1965 Broadway musical in one act which tells the story of the classic novel Don Quixote as a play within a play, performed by Miguel de Cervantes and his fellow prisoners as he awaits a hearing with the Spanish Inquisition. ... This article is about the fictional character and novel. ... This article is about one of the historical Inquisitions. ... Starways Congress is the fictional interstellar government body in Orson Scott Cards Enders Game series. ... The tone or style of this article or section may not be appropriate for Wikipedia. ... Speaker for the Dead (1986) is a science fiction novel by Orson Scott Card and a sequel to the novel Enders Game. ... Andrew Ender Wiggin is a fictional character from Orson Scott Cards science fiction story Enders Game and its sequels (Speaker for the Dead, Xenocide, Children of the Mind), as well as in the first part of the spin-off series, Enders Shadow. ... The Fountain is a 2006 science fiction / fantasy film directed by Darren Aronofsky that follows three interwoven narratives that take place in the age of conquistadors, the modern day period, and the far future. ... For the Bernstein operetta based on the book, see Candide (operetta). ...

See also

Historical revision of the Inquisition is a historiographical project that has emerged in recent years. ... A witch-hunt is a search for suspected witches; it is a type of moral panic. ... An inquisitorial system is a legal system where the court or a part of the court is actively involved in determining the facts of the case, as opposed to an adversarial system where the role of the court is solely that of an impartial referee between parties. ... The Vatican Secret Archives (Latin: Archivum Secretum Apostolicum Vaticanum), is the central repository for all of the acts promulgated by the Holy See. ...

Documents and Works

Histoire de lInquisition en France is a book published in 1829 by Etienne Leon de Lamonthe-Langan, supposedly on the basis of his unprecedented access to Church archives in Toulouse, granted by one Bishop Hyacinthe Sermet. ... Cover of the seventh Cologne edition of the Malleus Maleficarum, 1520 (from the University of Sydney Library). ...

Notable Inquisitors

Grand Inquisitor (Latin: Inquisitor Generalis) is the lead official of an Inquisition. ... Konrad von Marburg (sometimes Anglicised as Conrad of Marburg) was a 13th century German inquisitor. ... Grand Inquisitor Tomás de Torquemada “Torquemada” redirects here. ...

Notable cases involving Inquisition

The Trial of Joan of Arc, which took place before an English backed church court in Rouen, France in the first half of the year 1431 was, by general consensus, one of the most significant and moving trials ever conducted in human history. ... Galileo before the Holy Office, a 19th century painting by Joseph-Nicolas Robert-Fleury The Galileo affair, in which Galileo Galilei came into conflict with the Catholic Church over his support of Copernican astronomy, is often considered a defining moment in the history of the relationship between religion and science. ... Edgardo Mortara (August 27, 1851 – March 11, 1940) was a Jewish-born Italian Catholic priest, who became the center of an international controversy when, as a six-year-old boy, he was seized from his Jewish parents by the Papal States authorities and taken to be raised as a Catholic. ...

Notes

References

  • Foxe's Book of Martyrs by John Foxe (Bridge-Logos Publishers) ISBN 0-88270-672-1
  • Edward Burman, The Inquisition: The Hammer of Heresy (Sutton Publishers, 2004) ISBN 0-7509-3722-X
    • A new edition of a book first published in 1984, a good, well-written and objective general history based on the main primary sources.
  • Edward M. Peters, Inquisition. (University of California Press, 1989). ISBN 0-520-06630-8
    • A brief, balanced inquiry, with an especially good section on the 'Myth of the Inquisition' (see The Inquisition Myth). This is particularly valuable because much of the history available in English of the Inquisition was written in the 19th century by Protestants interested in documenting the dangers of Catholicism or Catholic apologists demonstrating that the Inquisition had been an entirely reasonable judicial body without flaws.
  • Henry Kamen, The Spanish Inquisition: A Historical Revision. (Yale University Press, 1999). ISBN 0-300-07880-3
    • This revised edition of his 1965 original contributes to the understanding of the Spanish Inquisition in its local context.
  • Cecil & Irene Roth, A history of the Marranos, Sepher-Hermon Press, 1974.
  • Simon Whitechapel, Flesh Inferno: Atrocities of Torquemada and the Spanish Inquisition (Creation Books, 2003). ISBN 1-84068-105-5
  • William Thomas Walsh, Characters of the Inquisition (TAN Books, 1997). ISBN 0-89555-326-0
  • Parker, Geoffrey “Some Recent Work on the Inquisition in Spain and Italy” Journal of Modern History 54:3 1982
  • Given, James B Inquisition and Medieval Society New York, Cornell University Press, 2001
  • Henry Charles Lea, A History of the Inquisition of Spain (4 volumes), (New York and London, 1906–1907).
  • J.A. Llorente, “Historia Critica de la Inquisicion de Espana”
  • W.T. Walsh, “Isabella of Spain,” (1931).
  • Genaro Garcia, “Autos de fe de la Inquisicion de Mexico,” (1910).
  • F. Garau, “La Fee Triunfante,” (1691-reprinted 1931).
  • V. Vignau, “Catalogo... de la Inquisicion de Toledo,” (1903).
  • J. Baker, “History of the Inquisition,” (1736).
  • J. Marchant, “A Review of the Bloody Tribunal,” (1770).
  • E. N Adler, “Autos de fe and the Jew,” (1908).
  • Ludovico a Paramo, “De Origine et Progressu Sanctae Inquisitionis,” (1598).
  • J.M. Marin, “Procedimientos de la Inquisicion” (2 volumes), (1886).
  • R. Cappa, “La Inquisicion Espanola,” (1888).
  • A. Paz y Mellia, “Catalogo Abreviado de Papeles de Inquisicion,” (1914).
  • M. Jouve, “Torquemada,” (1935).
  • Sir Alexandr G. Cardew, “A Short History of the Inquisition,” (1933).
  • G. G. Coulton, “The Inquisition,” (1929).
  • Ramon de Vilana Perlas, “La Verdadera Practica Apostolica de el S. Tribunal de la Inquisicion,” (1735).
  • H.B. Piazza, “A Short and True Account of the Inquisition and its Proceeding,” (1722).
  • A.L. Maycock, “The Inquisition,” (1926).
  • H. Nickerson, “The Inquisition,” (1932).
  • L. Tanon, “Histoire des Tribunaux de l’Inquisition,” (1893).
  • A. Herculano, “Historia da Origem e Estabelecimento da Inquisicao em Portugal,” (English translation, 1926).
  • Henry Kamen, The Spanish Inquisition: A Historical Revision. (1999).
  • Simon Whitechapel, Flesh Inferno: Atrocities of Torquemada and the Spanish Inquisition (Creation Books, 2003).
  • Miranda Twiss, The Most Evil Men And Women In History (Michael O'Mara Books Ltd., 2002).
  • Geoffrey Parker “Some Recent Work on the Inquisition in Spain and Italy” Journal of Modern History 54:3 1982
  • Warren H. Carroll, "Isabel: the Catholic Queen" Front Royal, Virginia, 1991 (Christendom Press)
  • Emile van der Vekene: Bibliotheca bibliographica historiae sanctae inquisitionis. Bibliographisches Verzeichnis des gedruckten Schrifttums zur Geschichte und Literatur der Inquisition. Vol. 1 - 3. Topos-Verlag, Vaduz 1982-1992, ISBN 3-289-00272-1, ISBN 3-289-00578-X (7110 titres sur le thème de l'Inquisition)
  • Emile van der Vekene: La Inquisición en grabados originales. Exposición realizada con fondos de la colección Emile van der Vekene de la Universidad San Pablo-CEU, Aranjuez, 4-26 de Mayo de 2005, Madrid: Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, 2005. ISBN 84-96144-86-0

William Tyndale, just before being burnt at the stake, cries out Lord, ope the King of Englands eies in this woodcut from an early edition of Foxes Book of Martyrs. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      As a... Henry Charles Lea (September 19, 1825 - October 24, 1909) was an American historian who was born in Philadelphia. ... George Gordon Coulton (1858-1947) was a British historian, known for numerous works on medieval history. ... Dr. Warren H. Carroll is a historian who is the author of many books. ...

Online works

  • Ludwig von Pastor, History of the Popes from the Close of the Middle Ages; Drawn from the Secret Archives of the Vatican and other original sources, 40 vols. St. Louis,
  • B. Herder 1898
  • Joseph de Maistre, tr. John Fletcher, Letters on the Spanish Inquisition, London: Printed by W. Hughes, 1838 (composed 1815):— late defense of the Inquisition by the principal author of the Counter-Enlightenment.
  • Sister Antoinette Marie Pratt, A.M., The attitude of the Catholic Church towards witchcraft and the allied practices of sorcery and magic, A Dissertation Submitted to the Faculty of Philosophy of The Catholic University of America, Washington, D.C. June 1915, reprinted 1982, New York: AMS Press, ISBN 0-404-18429-4 - Google Books

Ludwig Pastor, created Freiherr von Campersfelden, (January 31, 1854, Aachen – September 30, 1928, Innsbruck), was the great Catholic historian of the Papacy, who published his Geschichte der Päpste seit dem Ausgang des Mittelalters in sixteen volumes that appeared from 1886 to a last posthumous volume in 1933. ... Joseph de Maistre (portrait by Karl Vogel von Vogelstein, 1810) Joseph-Marie, Comte de Maistre (April 1, 1753- February 26, 1821) was a French-speaking Savoyard lawyer, diplomat, writer, and philosopher. ... Francisco de Goya, The Sleep of Reason Produces Monsters (1799) Counter-Enlightenment is a term used in the second half of the twentieth century to refer to a movement that arose in the late-eighteenth and early-nineteenth centuries in opposition to the eighteenth century Enlightenment. ... The Catholic University of America (abbreviated CUA), located in Washington, D.C., is unique as the national university of the Roman Catholic Church and as the only higher education institution founded by U.S. Roman Catholic bishops. ... // Google offers a variety of services and tools besides its basic web search. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Category:Inquisition

  Results from FactBites:
 
The Galileo Project | Christianity | The Inquisition (1062 words)
The Inquisition was a permanent institution in the Catholic Church charged with the eradication of heresies.
Abuses by local Inquisitions early on led to reform and regulation by Rome, and in the 14th century intervention by secular authorities became common.
Until recently, Protestant literature on the Inquisition tended to be hostile to the Catholic Church, while Catholic literature tended to be apologetic and justificatory.
Inquisition - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2078 words)
The Inquisition was in response to the growing Catharist heresy in southern France.
The Papal Inquisition in the 1230s was in response to the failures of the Episcopal Inquisition and was staffed by professionals, trained specifically for the job as decreed by the Pope.
The Spanish Inquisition was decreed by the Roman Catholic Church in 1478 in Spain under Ferdinand and Isabella of Castile.
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