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Encyclopedia > Inoculation

Inoculation, originally Variolation, is a method of purposefully infecting a person with smallpox (Variola) in a controlled manner so as to minimise the severity of the infection and also to induce immunity against further infection. It preceded vaccination and is separate from it, though today the terms inoculation, vaccination and immunisation are used more or less interchangeably and popularly refer to the process of artificially inducing immunity against various infectious diseases. The microorganism used in an inoculation is called the inoculant or inoculum. An infection is the detrimental colonization of a host organism by a foreign species. ... Smallpox (also known by the Latin names Variola or Variola vera) was a highly contagious viral disease unique to humans. ... A request has been made on Wikipedia for this article to be deleted in accordance with the deletion policy. ... Vaccination is the process of administering live, albeit weakened, microbes to patients, with the intent of conferring immunity against a targeted form of a related disease agent. ... Immunization (AmE) or Immunisation (BE) has a number of meanings: In medicine immunization is the process by which an individual is exposed to a material that is designed to prime his or her immune system against that material. ... In medicine immunization is the process by which an individual is exposed to a material that is designed to prime his or her immune system against that material. ... Contagious redirects here. ...

Typical site of inoculation in Europe and the British colonies
Typical site of inoculation in Europe and the British colonies

Inoculation in the East was historically performed by blowing smallpox crusts into the nostril, but in Britain, Europe and the American Colonies the preferred method was rubbing material from a smallpox pustule from a selected mild case - Variola Minor - into a scratch between the thumb and forefinger. [2] This would generally be performed when an individual was in normal good health, and thus at his peak resistance. The recipient would develop smallpox; however, due to being introduced through the skin rather than the lungs, and possibly because of the inoculated individual's preexisting state of good health, the small inoculum, and the single point of initial infection, the resulting case of smallpox was generally milder than the naturally-occurring form, produced far less facial scarring, and had a far lower mortality rate. As with survivors of the natural disease, the inoculated individual was subsequently immune to re-infection. Image File history File linksMetadata Inoculation. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Inoculation. ... Mortality rate (the word mortality comes from mortal, which originates from Latin mors, death) is the number of deaths (from a disease or in general) per 1000 people and typically reported on an annual basis. ...

Contents


Origins and Importation to Christendom

Mary Wortley Montagu, by Charles Jervas, after 1716.
Mary Wortley Montagu, by Charles Jervas, after 1716.

Lady Mary Wortley Montagu (May 26, 1689-August 21, 1762), introduced inoculation to England. The earliest use of the practice remains unknown, though it had reportedly existed in various forms in East Africa, India and in China for centuries. In the early 18th century, Lady Montagu, whose husband Edward Wortley Montagu served as the English ambassador to the Ottoman Empire from 1716 to 1717, witnessed inoculation in Constantinople. The process impressed her greatly: she had lost a brother to smallpox and bore facial scars from the disease herself. In March 1718 she had the embassy surgeon, Charles Maitland, inoculate her five-year-old son. In 1721, after returning to England, she had her four-year-old daughter inoculated. She invited friends to see her daughter, including Sir Hans Sloane, the King's physician. Sufficient interest arose that Maitland gained permission to test inoculation at Newgate prison in exchange for their freedom on six prisoners due to be hanged, an experiment which was witnessed by a number of notable doctors. The experiment succeeded, and in 1722 the Prince of Wales' daughters received inoculations. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1256x2001, 225 KB) Description: Title: de: Porträt der Lady Mary Wortley Montagu Technique: de: Öl auf Leinwand Dimensions: de: 215,5 × 127,5 cm Country of origin: de: Irland Current location (city): de: Dublin Current location (gallery): de: National Gallery... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1256x2001, 225 KB) Description: Title: de: Porträt der Lady Mary Wortley Montagu Technique: de: Öl auf Leinwand Dimensions: de: 215,5 × 127,5 cm Country of origin: de: Irland Current location (city): de: Dublin Current location (gallery): de: National Gallery... Porträt der Lady Mary Wortley Montagu , 1716 by Charles Jervis currently on display at the National Gallery of Ireland in Dublin. ... The Lady Mary Wortley Montagu (May 26, 1689 - August 21, 1762), was an English woman of letters. ... May 26 is the 146th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (147th in leap years). ... Events Louis XIV of France passed the Code Noir, allowing the full use of slaves in the French colonies. ... August 21 is the 233rd day of the year (234th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1762 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... For other uses, see Africa (disambiguation). ... Motto: (French for God and my right) Anthem: Multiple unofficial anthems Capital London Largest city London Official language(s) English Government Constitutional monarchy  - Queen Queen Elizabeth II  - Prime Minister Tony Blair MP Unification    - by Athelstan AD927  Area    - Total 130,395 km² (1st in UK)   50,346 sq mi   - Water (%) Population... An ambassador, rarely embassador, is a diplomatic official accredited to a foreign sovereign or government, or to an international organization, to serve as the official representative of his or her own country. ... Imperial motto (Ottoman Turkish) دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) The Ottoman Empire at the height of its power (1683) Official language Ottoman Turkish Capital Söğüt (1299-1326), Bursa (1326-1365), Edirne (1365-1453), Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul) (1453-1922) Imperial anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Sovereigns Padishah... Map of Constantinople. ... // Events The Funj warrior aristocracy deposes the reigning mek and places one of their own ranks on the throne of Sennar. ... // Events Pope Innocent XIII becomes pope Johann Sebastian Bach composes the Brandenburg Concertos April 4 - Robert Walpole becomes the first prime minister of Britain September 10 - Treaty of Nystad is signed, bringing an end to the Great Northern War November 2 - Peter I is proclaimed Emperor of All the Russias... Hans Sloane. ... George I (Georg Ludwig) (28 May 1660 – 11 June 1727) was Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg (Hanover) from 23 January 1698, and King of Great Britain and King of Ireland from 1 August 1714, until his death. ... Old Newgate Prison, which was replaced in the 18th century. ... George II (George Augustus) (10 November 1683–25 October 1760) was King of Great Britain and Ireland, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg (Hanover) and Archtreasurer and Prince-Elector of the Holy Roman Empire from 11 June 1727 until his death. ...


The practice of inoculation slowly spread amongst the royal families of Europe, usually followed by more general adoption amongst the people.


The practice is documented in America as early as 1721. Cotton Mather in Boston had a description of the African practice of inoculation from his slave Onesimus and encouraged its application, with considerable controversy and strife. Fearing the outbreak of an epidemic, the editor of the South Carolina Gazette published a detailed description of the inoculation process in the April 22 issue. In Boston, there was opposition from churchmen regarding the practice who regarded it as "bidding defiance to Heaven itself, even to the will of God", though one historian also notes that "...within a year or two after the first experiment nearly three hundred persons had been inoculated ... in Boston and neighbouring towns, and out of these only six had died; whereas, during the same period, out of nearly six thousand persons who had taken smallpox naturally, and had received only the usual medical treatment, nearly one thousand had died." (from A History Of The Warfare Of Science With Theology In Christendom by Andrew Dickson White.) // Events Pope Innocent XIII becomes pope Johann Sebastian Bach composes the Brandenburg Concertos April 4 - Robert Walpole becomes the first prime minister of Britain September 10 - Treaty of Nystad is signed, bringing an end to the Great Northern War November 2 - Peter I is proclaimed Emperor of All the Russias... Cotton Mather (1663–1728) circa 1700 Cotton Mather (February 12, 1663 – February 13, 1728). ... Onesimus In the New Testament, Onesimus (d. ... The South Carolina Gazette was South Carolinas first successful newspaper. ...

  
Natural experiment in Inoculation around Boston, 1721
Total Died Mortality %
Variolated c 300 6 c 2%
Unvariolated c 6000 c 1000 "about 14%"

(The 14% figure rather than 17% comes from
"Edward Jenner and Vaccination." Harris[3])

J.Z. Holwell described the Ayurvedic system of inoculation against smallpox to the Royal College of Physicians in London in 1767[1] . He based his account on observations made during his residence in Bengal. John Zephaniah Holwell (1711-1798) was a survivor of the so-called Black Hole of Calcutta and gained fame for his account of the incident. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... College building by Denys Lasdun The Royal College of Physicians of London is the oldest medical institution in England (the oldest medical institution in the UK being the Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh), and among the most active of all medical professional organisations. ... London (pronounced ) is the capital city of England and of the United Kingdom. ... 1767 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Bengal, known as Bôngo (Bengali: বঙ্গ), Bangla (বাংলা), Bôngodesh (বঙ্গদেশ), or Bangladesh (বাংলাদেশ) in Bangla, is a region in the northeast of South Asia. ...


In France considerable opposition arose to the introduction of inoculation. Voltaire, in his Lettres Philosophiques, wrote a criticism of his countrymen for being opposed to inoculation and having so little regard for the welfare of their children, concluding that "had inoculation been practised in France it would have saved the lives of thousands." [2]. Voltaire by 24 years of age by Nicolas de Largillière. ...


Inoculation grew in popularity in Europe through the 18th century. Given the high prevalence and often severe consequences of smallpox in Europe in the 18th century (according to Voltaire, there was a 60% incidence of first infection, a 20% mortality rate, and a 20% incidence of severe scarring), many parents felt that the benefits of inoculation outweighted the risks and so inoculated their children[3].


Mechanism

Two forms of the disease of Smallpox were recognised, now known to be due to two strains of the Variola virus. Those contracting Variola Minor had a greatly reduced risk of death - 1-2% - compared to those contracting Variola Major with 20% mortality. Infection via the lungs - inhaled viral particles in droplets - spread the infection more widely than the deliberate infection through a small skin wound. The smaller, localised infection is adequate to stimulate the immune system to produce specific immmunity to the virus, while requiring more generations of the virus to reach levels of infection likely to kill the patient. The rising immunity terminates the infection. So the twofold effect is to ensure the less fatal form of the disease is the one caught, and to give the immune system the best start possible in combating it.


Supplanted by vaccination

Main article: Vaccination

In 1796, Edward Jenner introduced the far safer method of inoculation with the cowpox virus, a non-fatal virus that also induced immunity to smallpox. This led to smallpox inoculation falling into disuse and eventually being banned in England in 1840. Vaccination is the process of administering live, albeit weakened, microbes to patients, with the intent of conferring immunity against a targeted form of a related disease agent. ... Portrait of Edward Jenner Edward Jenner FRS (May 17, 1749 – January 26, 1823) was an English country doctor who studied nature and his natural surroundings from childhood and practiced medicine in Berkeley, Gloucestershire, England. ... Cowpox is a disease of the skin caused by a virus (Cowpox virus) that is related to the Vaccinia virus. ... A request has been made on Wikipedia for this article to be deleted in accordance with the deletion policy. ...


See also

In communication theory, the inoculation effect refers to a strategy of prejudicing ones audience against an opposing argument they may hear in the future. ... Resilience is a commonly used concept in psychology (such as in child development, adolescent development, psychopathology, and positive psychology) to describe the positive capacity of people to cope with stress and catastrophe. ...

References

  1. ^ An account of the manner of inoculating for the small pox in the East Indies. John Zephaniah Holwell. 1767
  2. ^ Lettres Philosophiques. Voltaire. (English translation on-line [1])
  3. ^ Letter of Lady Montagu reproduced at http://www.foundersofscience.net/lady_mary_montagu.htm viewed 18 March 2006
  • US National Library of Medicine
  • Lettres Philosophiques. Voltaire (English translation.
  • An account of the manner of inoculating for the small pox in the East Indies. Holwell, J Z. RCP
  • Edward Jenner and Vaccination. Harris
  • A HISTORY OF THE WARFARE OF SCIENCE WITH THEOLOGY IN CHRISTENDOM Andrew Dickson White.
  • [4]Arm-to-Arm Against Bioterrorism by Donald W. Miller, Jr., MD
Vaccination/Vaccine (and Immunization, Inoculation. See also List of vaccine topics and Epidemiology)
Development: Models - Timeline - Toxoid - Trial

Administration: ACIP - GAVI - VAERS - Vaccination schedule - VSD There is: Remote Copy Protocol (rcp) is a TCP/IP-based protocol used to copy files between computers on a network. ... Vaccination is the process of administering live, albeit weakened, microbes to patients, with the intent of conferring immunity against a targeted form of a related disease agent. ... A vaccine is an antigenic preparation used to produce active immunity to a disease, in order to prevent or ameliorate the effects of infection by any natural or wild strain of the organism. ... Immunization, or immunisation, is the process by which an individual is exposed to an agent that is designed to fortify his or her immune system against that agent. ... Vaccine topics 2000 Simpsonwood CDC conference AIDS vaccine Andrew Wakefield Edward Jenner Edward Yazbak Generation Rescue Genetics Immunization Immunology Inoculation MMR vaccine Safe Minds Timeline of vaccines Vaccination Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System Vaccine controversy Vaccines and Fetal Tissue ... Epidemiology is the scientific study of factors affecting the health and illness of individuals and populations, and serves as the foundation and logic of interventions made in the interest of public health and preventive medicine. ... It is possible to model mathematically the progress of most infectious diseases to discover the likely outcome of an epidemic or to help manage them by vaccination. ... Timeline of vaccines This is a timeline of the development of prophylactic vaccines. ... A toxoid is a bacterial toxin whose toxicity as been weakened or supressed while other properties, typically immunogenicity, are maintained. ... I am an elf. ... The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) consists of fifteen advisors to the Centers for Disease Control (CDC), selected by the Secretary of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, to provide advice and guidance on the most effective means to prevent diseases through nation-wide vaccination campaigns. ... The Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization is an alliance between various UN organizations, national governments, private foundations, NGOs and the pharmaceutical industry. ... The Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System is a United States program for vaccine safety, co-sponsored by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). ... Over the past two decades, the recommended vaccination schedule in the United States and elsewhere has grown rapidly and become more complicated as many new vaccines have been developed and marketed. ... The Vaccine Safety Datalink Project (VSD) was established, in 1990, by the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) for the study of adverse side effects of vaccines. ...


Specific vaccines: Anthrax - BCG - Cancer - DPT - Flu - HIV - HPV - MMR - Pneumonia - Polio - Smallpox Bacillus of Calmette and Guérin (BCG) is a vaccine against tuberculosis that is prepared from a strain of the attenuated (weakened) live bovine tuberculosis bacillus, Mycobacterium bovis that has lost its virulence in humans by specially culturing in artificial medium for years. ... The term cancer vaccine is often used to describe a process whereby a persons immune system is coaxed into recognizing and destroying malignant cells without harming normal cells. ... DPT, (sometimes DTP) is a mixture of three vaccines, to immunize against diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus. ... Model of Influenza Virus from NIH The flu vaccine is a vaccine to protect against the highly variable influenza virus. ... An HIV vaccine is a hypothetical vaccine against HIV, the etiological agent of AIDS. As there is no known cure for AIDS, the search for a vaccine has become part of the struggle against the disease. ... Human papillomavirus vaccine research focuses on the prevention of cervical cancer. ... The MMR vaccine is a mixture of live attenuated viruses, administered via injection for immunization against measles, mumps and rubella. ... This is a vaccine used for Pneumonia, it is usually used for people 65 and older ... Two polio vaccines are used throughout the world to combat polio. ... The smallpox vaccine is the only effective preventive treatment for the deadly smallpox disease. ...


Controversy: A-CHAMP - Anti-vaccinationists - NCVIA - Pox party - Safe Minds - Simpsonwood - Thimerosal controversy - Vaccine injury The vaccine controversy encompasses many concerns over the use and lack of use of vaccines - whether vaccination in general or mass vaccination in particular is beneficial to the health of individuals and the population. ... Advocates for Childrens Health Affected by Mercury Poisoning (A-CHAMP), is a United States political activism group, founded by parents, which advocates on behalf of children who were injured by mercury in thimerosal-containing vaccines, and other toxins. ... Anti-vaccinationists are those who oppose the practice of vaccination. ... The National Childhood Vaccine Injury Act (NCVIA) of 1986 (42 U.S.C. §§ 300aa-1 to 300aa-34) was enacted in the United States to reduce the liability of vaccine makers, thereby ensuring a stable market supply, and to provide cost-effective arbitration in cases of possible vaccine injury. ... A pox party is a normal party for children organised by parents whose kids have the chicken pox. ... The Coalition for Safe Minds (Sensible Action For Ending Mercury-Induced Neurological Disorders) is a nonprofit organization dedicated to investigating the risks of exposure to mercury from medical products. ... The 2000 Simpsonwood CDC conference was a meeting convened in June, 2000, by the Centers for Disease Control, held at the isolated Simpsonwood Methodist retreat and conference center in Norcross, Georgia. ... // Thimerosal controversy In recent years, it has been suggested that thimerosal in childhood vaccines could contribute to or cause neurodevelopmental disorders in children (most notably autism, but also other disorders on the PDD spectrum, such as ADHD). ... Vaccine injury is a term used in both medicine and law to designate alleged injuries sustained by individuals subsequent to having been vaccinated. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Inoculation - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (994 words)
Inoculation, originally Variolation, is a method of purposefully infecting a person with smallpox (Variola) in a controlled manner so as to minimise the severity of the infection and also to induce immunity against further infection.
Inoculation in the East was historically performed by blowing smallpox crusts into the nostril, but in Britain, Europe and the American Colonies the preferred method was rubbing material from a smallpox pustule from a selected mild case - Variola Minor - into a scratch between the thumb and forefinger.
In France considerable opposition arose to the introduction of inoculation.
Subclinical Prion Disease Induced by Oral Inoculation -- Thackray et al. 77 (14): 7991 -- The Journal of Virology (5277 words)
Inoculation of mice with RML 5.0 prion inoculum.
wild-type mice, tga20 mice inoculated by the i.c.
Neuropathology of wild-type and tga20 mice inoculated with RML 5.0 prions.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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