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Encyclopedia > Innu
Innu flag
Innu flag
Innu communities of Québec and Labrador
Innu communities of Québec and Labrador

The Innu are the indigenous inhabitants of an area they refer to as Nitassinan, which comprises most of what Canadians refer to as eastern Québec and Labrador, Canada. Their population in 2003 includes about 18,000 persons, of which 15,000 live in Québec. They are known to have lived on these lands as hunter-gatherers for several thousand years, living in tents made of animal skins. Their subsistance activities were historically centered on hunting and trapping caribou, moose, deer and small game. Their language, Innu-aimun or Montagnais, is spoken throughout Nitassinan, with certain dialect differences. Innu-aimun is related to the language spoken by the Cree of the James Bay region of Québec and Ontario. Image File history File links Bandera_innu. ... Image File history File links Bandera_innu. ... Image File history File links Innus. ... Image File history File links Innus. ... Indigenous peoples are: Peoples living in an area prior to colonization by a state Peoples living in an area within a nation-state, prior to the formation of a nation-state, but who do not identify with the dominant nation. ... Nitassinan is the ancestral homeland of the Innu, an indigenous tribal people of Eastern Canada. ... During the 1960s, a terrorist group known as the Front de libération du Québec (FLQ) launched a decade of bombings, robberies and attacks on government offices. ... Motto: Quaerite Prime Regnum Dei (Latin: Seek ye first the kingdom of God) Official languages English Flower Pitcher Plant Tree Black Spruce Bird Atlantic Puffin Capital St. ... In anthropology, the hunter-gatherer way of life is that led by certain societies of the Neolithic Era based on the exploitation of wild plants and animals. ... Binomial name Rangifer tarandus The reindeer, known as caribou in North America, is an Arctic-dwelling deer (Rangifer tarandus). ... Binomial name Alces alces (Linnaeus, 1758) Moose range map The moose (so named in North America) or elk (in Europe), Alces alces, is the largest member of the deer family Cervidae, distinguished from the others by the palmate antlers of its males. ... Subfamilies Odocoilinae Cervinae Hydropotinae Muntiacinae A deer is a ruminant mammal belonging to the family Cervidae. ... Innu-aimun is the language spoken by over 16 500 people called the Innu in Labrador and Quebec in Eastern Canada. ... Motto: Ut Incepit Fidelis Sic Permanet (Latin: Loyal she began, loyal she remains) Official languages English Flower White Trillium Tree Eastern White Pine Bird Common Loon Capital Toronto Largest city Toronto Lieutenant-Governor James K. Bartleman Premier Dalton McGuinty (Liberal) Parliamentary representation  - House seats  - Senate seats 106 24 Area Total...

Contents

Montagnais, Naskapi or Innu

The Innu people are frequently sub-divided into two groups, the Montagnais who live along the north shore of the Gulf of Saint Lawrence, in Québec, and the less numerous Naskapi ["inland people" in Innu-aimun] who live farther north. The Innu themselves recognize several distinctions (e.g. Mushuau Innut, Maskuanu Innut, Uashau Innut) based on different regional affiliations and various dialects of the Innu language. Bathymetry of the Gulf, with the Laurentian Channel visible Gulf of Saint Lawrence (French: golfe du Saint-Laurent), the worlds largest estuary, is the outlet of North Americas Great Lakes via the Saint Lawrence River into the Atlantic Ocean. ...


The word "Naskapi" seems to have first made an appearance in the 17th century and was subsequently applied to Innu groups beyond the reach of missionary influence, most notably those living in the lands which bordered Ungava Bay and the northern Labrador coast, near the Inuit communities of northern Québec and northern Labrador. It is here that this term finally settled upon the northern most group of Innu, the Mushuau Innuts, or People of the Tundra. The Mushuau Innuts include family groups who bridge the dialect change from y to n as in "Iiyuu" versus "Innu" and today there are Mushuauinnu families living in Kawawachikamach, in Québec, and Natuashish (formerly Davis Inlet) and Sheshatshiu of Labrador. Some of the families of the Naskapi Nation of Kawawachikamach have close relatives in the Cree village of Whapmagoostui, on the eastern shore of Hudson Bay. For other uses, see Inuit (disambiguation). ... Sheshatshiu (IPA pronunciation /ʃɛ.hÉ™.ʃiː/) is an Innu village in the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador, located approximately 20 kilometres north of Goose Bay. ... The Cree are an indigenous people of North America whose people range from the Rocky Mountains to the Atlantic Ocean in both Canada and the United States. ... Whapmagoostui (place of the beluga in Cree) is a Cree village of about 700 people at the mouth of the Grande-Baleine River, on the coast of Hudson Bay in Nunavik, Quebec. ... Hudson Bay, Canada. ...


Since the 1990, this people has generally been known as the Innu, which means human being in Innu-aimun.


History

The Innu of Labrador and those living on the north shore of the Gulf of Saint-Lawrence have never officially surrendered their territory to Canada by way of treaty or other agreement. As the forest and mining operations began at the turn of the 20th century, the Innu became increasingly settled in coastal communities and in the interior of Québec. The settlement of the Innu was furthermore encouraged by the Canadian government, the provinces of Québec and Newfoundland and Labrador, as well as the Catholic and Anglican churches, thus ending their traditional lifestyle. However, with the gradual decline of traditional activities (hunting, trapping, fishing), life in these permanent settlements was often marred by high levels of alcoholism, substance abuse by children, domestic violence and suicide. System of government Canada is a constitutional monarchy as a Commonwealth Realm (see Monarchy in Canada) with a federal system of parliamentary government, and strong democratic traditions. ... The Anglican Communion is a world-wide organisation of Anglican Churches. ... Alcoholism is the consumption of, or preoccupation with, alcoholic beverages to the extent that this behavior interferes with the drinkers normal personal, family, social, or work life, and may lead to physical or mental harm. ... Substance abuse refers to the overindulgence in and dependence on a stimulant, depressant, chemical substance, herb (plant) or fungus leading to effects that are detrimental to the individuals physical health or mental health, or the welfare of others. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Suicide (from Latin sui caedere, to kill oneself) is the act of willfully ending ones own life. ...


Davis Inlet, Labrador

Survival International published in 1999 a scathing study of the Innu communities of Labrador and the impact of the Canadian government's policy of relocating them far away from their ancestral lands and preventing them from practising their ancient way of life. Survival International considered these policies to be in violation of international law and have drawn parallels with the treatment of Tibetans by the People's Republic of China. During the period from 1990 to 1997, according to the Survival International study, the Innu community of Davis Inlet, Labrador, had a suicide rate more than twelve times the Canadian average, and well over three times the rate often observed in isolated northern villages. Survival International is a human rights organisation formed in 1969 that campaigns for the rights of indigenous peoples, helping them preserve their land and culture. ... International law (also called public international law to distinguish from private international law, i. ... Ethnolinguistic Groups of Tibet, 1967 ( See entire map, which includes a key) Ethnic Tibetan autonomous entities set up by the Peoples Republic of China. ...


By 2000, the Innu community of Davis Inlet asked the Canadian government to assist with a local addiction crisis and the community was moved, at their request, to a nearby location now known as Natuashish. At the same time, the Canadian government created the Natuashish and Sheshatshiu band councils under the Indian Act. Addiction is a chronic disorder proposed to be precipitated by a combination of genetic, biological/pharmacological and social factors. ...


Kawawachikamach, Québec

The Naskapi Nation of Kawawachikamach, of Québec, is the only Innu community that has signed a comprehensive land claims settlement, the Northeastern Quebec Agreement, in 1978. Since that date, the Naskapi of Kawawachikamach are no longer subject to the Indian Act, as are all the other Innu communities of Québec. The James Bay And Northern Quebec Agreement was Canadas first modern Aboriginal land claim settlement, approved in 1975 by the Cree and Inuit of northern Quebec, and later slightly modified in 1978 by the Northeastern Quebec Agreement, through which Quebecs Naskapi Indians joined the treaty. ...


Culture

The best-known members of the Innu nation are the folk rock duo Kashtin of Québec. Bob Dylans folk-rock album, Blonde on Blonde Folk-rock is a musical genre, combining elements of folk music and rock music. ... Kashtin were a Canadian folk rock duo in the 1980s and 1990s, who are one of Canadas most famous First Nations musical groups. ...


Innu communities

Labrador

Sheshatshiu (IPA pronunciation /ʃɛ.hə.ʃiː/) is an Innu village in the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador, located approximately 20 kilometres north of Goose Bay. ...

Québec

Kawawachikamach, Quebec, meaning meandering waters, is an aboriginal village at the sound end of Lac Matemace (where it joins Lac Peter) about eight kilometres northeast of Schefferville, population 581, latitude 54° 51 49, longitude 66° 45 34. The village was built by the Naskapi from 1980 to 1983. ... La Romaine is an Innu community in the Canadian province of Quebec, located on the north shore of the Gulf of St. ... Natashquan (2001 population 896 people - including 63 outside the reserve) is an Innu reserve in the Canadian province of Quebec, located on the shores of the Gulf of St. ... Sept-Îles (French for Seven Islands)is a city in the Côte-Nord region of eastern Quebec, Canada. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Innu (303 words)
The Innu live in Nitassinan, which is the area containing eastern Quebec and Labrador.
The Innu have began to turn their lives around by beginning programs to teach the young harvesting skills, knowledge of the land, and oral traditions.
The Innu language and culture have been introduced to the school curriculum, and intensive alcohol treatment programs have allowed families to be united once more.
DIVERSITY WATCH - Ryerson University School of Journalism (997 words)
Innu began to show up on the coast in a starving condition, seeking assistance from missionaries, traders, nursing stations, and the government.
By the 1950s the growing dependence of the Innu on government services and social assistance had the effect of restricting them to the vicinity of the villages, with unfortunate results for their society and culture.
A study was released by Innu Chief Simeon Tshakapesh in late 2000 that showed 154 of 169 youths in the Davis Inlet had abused solvents at some point in their lives.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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