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Encyclopedia > Innate idea

In philosophy and psychology, an innate idea is a concept or item of knowledge which is said to be universal to all humanity — that is, something people are born with rather than something people have learned through experience. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Psychology (ancient Greek: psyche = soul or mind, logos/-ology = study of) is an academic and applied field involving the study of the mind and behavior, both human and nonhuman. ... A concept is an abstract, universal idea, notion, or entity that serves to designate a category or class of entities, events, or relations. ... Universal has several meanings: Universalism - properties of universality in concepts or application For the concept of a universal in metaphysics, see Universal (metaphysics). ... Human beings are defined variously in biological, spiritual, and cultural terms, or in combinations thereof. ...


The issue is controversial, and can be said to be an aspect of a long-running nature versus nurture debate, albeit one localised to the question of understanding human cognition. Nature versus nurture is a shorthand expression for debates about the relative importance of an individuals innate qualities (nature) versus personal experiences (nurture) in determining or causing individual differences in physical and behavioral traits. ... Look up Cognition in Wiktionary, the free dictionary The term cognition (Latin, cogito: to think) is used in several different loosely related ways. ...

Contents


Philosophical Debate

Although there is obvious variation among individual human beings due to cultural, linguistic and era-specific influences, innate ideas are said to belong to a more fundamental level of human cognition. For example, the philosopher Rene Descartes theorized that knowledge of god is innate in everybody as a product of the faculty of reasoning. Other philosophers, most notably the empiricists, were critical of the theory and denied the existence of any innate ideas, saying all human knowledge was founded on experience, rather than a priori reasoning. René Descartes René Descartes (IPA: , March 31, 1596 – February 11, 1650), also known as Cartesius, worked as a philosopher and mathematician. ... Michelangelos depiction of God in the painting Creation of the Sun and Moon in the Sistine Chapel) This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and derived henotheistic forms. ... Empiricism comes from the Greek word εμπειρισμός, a noun meaning a test or trial. The -pir- is ultimately related to the -per- of the Latin words experientia and experimentum, both of which mean experiment, and from which our words experiment and experience come. ... A priori is a Latin phrase meaning from the former or less literally before experience. In much of the modern Western tradition, the term a priori is considered to mean propositional knowledge that can be had without, or prior to, experience. ...


Philosophically, the debate over innate ideas is central to the conflict between rationalist and empiricist epistemologies. Whilst rationalists believe that certain ideas exist independently of experience, empiricism claims that all knowledge is derived from experience. A separate article deals with a different philosophical position called rationalism. ... Empiricism comes from the Greek word εμπειρισμός, a noun meaning a test or trial. The -pir- is ultimately related to the -per- of the Latin words experientia and experimentum, both of which mean experiment, and from which our words experiment and experience come. ... Epistemology, from the Greek words episteme (knowledge) and logos (word/speech) is the branch of philosophy that deals with the nature, origin and scope of knowledge. ...


Gottfried Wilhelm Von Leibniz suggested that we are born with certain innate ideas, the most identifiable of these being mathematical truisms. The idea that 1 + 1 = 2 is evident to us without the necessity for empirical evidence. Leibniz argues that empiricism can only show us that concepts are true in the present; if we see one stick and then another we know that in that instance, and in that instance only, one and another equals two. If, however, we wish to suggest that one and another will always equal two, we reqire an innate idea, as we are talking about things we have not yet witnessed. Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (also von Leibni(t)z) (July 1 (June 21 Old Style) 1646, Leipzig – November 14, 1716, Hanover) was a German polymath, deemed a genius in his day and since. ...


Leibniz called such concepts as mathematical truisms necessary truths. Another example of such may be the phrase, ‘what is, is’ or ‘it is impossible for the same thing to be and not to be.’ Leibniz argues that such truisms are universally assented to (acknowledged by all to be true) and, this being the case, it must be due to their status as innate ideas. Often there are ideas that are acknowledged as necessarily true but are not universally assented to. Leibniz would suggest that this is simply because the person in question has not become aware of the innate idea, not because they do not possess it. Leibniz argues that empirical evidence can serve to bring to the surface certain principles that are already innately embedded in our minds. This is rather like needing to hear only the first few notes in order to recall the rest of the melody.


The main antagonist to the concept of innate ideas is John Locke, a contemporary of Leibniz. Locke argued that the mind is in fact devoid of all knowledge or ideas at birth; it is a blank sheet or tabula rasa. He argued that all our ideas are constructed in the mind via a process of constant composition and decomposition of the input that we receive through our senses. John Locke (August 29, 1632–October 28, 1704) was an influencial English philosopher and social contract theorist. ...


Locke, in An Essay Concerning Human Understanding, suggests that the concept of universal assent in fact proves nothing, except perhaps that everyone is in agreement; in short universal assent proves that there is universal assent and nothing else. Moreoever, Locke goes on to suggest that in fact there is no universal assent. Even a phrase such as ‘What is, is’ is not universally assented to, infants and severely handicapped adults do not generally acknowledge this truism. Locke also attacks the idea that an innate idea can be imprinted on the mind without the owner realising it. To return to the musical analogy, we may not be able to recall the entire melody until we hear the first few notes, but we were aware of the fact that we knew the melody and that upon hearing the first few notes we would be able to recall the rest. Locke would not accept the idea that we can know something yet not know that we knew it. An Essay Concerning Human Understanding is one of John Lockes two most famous works, the other being his Second Treatise on Civil Government. ...


Locke ends his attack upon innate ideas by suggesting that the mind is a tabula rasa, or 'blank slate,' and that all ideas come from experience; all our knowledge is founded in sensory experience


Scientific Ideas

In his Meno, Plato raises an important epistemological quandary. How is it that we have certain ideas which are not conclusively derivable from our environments? Noam Chomsky has taken this problem as a philosophical framework for the scientific enquiry into innatism. His linguistic theory, which derives from 18th century classical-liberal thinkers such as Wilhelm von Humboldt and Renée Descartes, attempts to explain in cognitive terms how we can develop knowledge of systems which are too rich and complex to be derived from our environment. One such example is our linguistic faculty. Our linguistic systems contain a systemic complexity which could not be empirically derived. The environment is too variable and indeterminate, according to Chomsky, to explain the extraodinary ability to learn complex concepts possesed by very young children. It follows that humans must be born with a universal innate grammar, which is determinate and has a highly organized directive component, and enables the language learner to ascertain and categorize language heard into a system. Noam Chomsky cites as evidence for this theory the apparent invariability of human languages at a fundamental level. In this way, linguistics has provided a window into the human mind, and has established scientifically theories of innateness which were previously merely speculative. Meno is a Socratic dialogue written by Plato. ... Avram Noam Chomsky (born December 7, 1928 Philadelphia, Pennsylvania) is the Institute Professor Emeritus of linguistics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. ... This article needs cleanup. ... Classical liberalism (also called classic liberalism or simply liberalism) is the original form of, and is today a tendency within, liberalism. ... Wilhelm von Humboldt Friedrich Wilhelm Christian Karl Ferdinand Freiherr von Humboldt (June 22, 1767 - April 8, 1835), government functionary, foreign diplomat, philosopher, founder of Humboldt Universität in Berlin, friend of Goethe and especially of Schiller, is especially remembered as a German linguist who introduced a knowledge of the Basque...


One implication of Noam Chomsky's innatism is that at least a part of human knowledge consists in cognitive predispositions, which are triggered and developed by the environment, but not determined by it. Parallels can then be drawn, on a purely speculative level, between our moral faculties and language, as has been done by sociobiologists such as E. O. Wilson and evolutionary psychologists such as Steven Pinker The relative consistency of fundamental notions of morality across cultures seems to produce convincing evidence for the these theories. In psychology, notions of archetypes such as those developed by Carl Jung, suggest determinate identity perceptions. Edward O. Wilson E. O. Wilson, or Edward Osborne Wilson, (born June 10, 1929) is an American entomologist and biologist known for his work on ecology, evolution, and sociobiology. ... Steven Pinker Steven Pinker (born September 18, 1954, in Montreal, Canada) is one of the most prominent cognitive scientists today. ... Archetype is defined as the first original model of which all other similar persons, objects, or concepts are merely derivative, copied, patterned, or emulated. ... Carl Gustav Jung (July 26, 1875 – June 6, 1961) (IPA:) was a Swiss psychiatrist and founder of Analytical Psychology. ...


See also

A concept is an abstract, universal idea, notion, or entity that serves to designate a category or class of entities, events, or relations. ... An idea (Greek: ιδέα) is a specific concept which arises in the mind of a person as a result of thought. ... A separate article deals with a different philosophical position called rationalism. ... Empiricism comes from the Greek word εμπειρισμός, a noun meaning a test or trial. The -pir- is ultimately related to the -per- of the Latin words experientia and experimentum, both of which mean experiment, and from which our words experiment and experience come. ... René Descartes René Descartes (IPA: , March 31, 1596 – February 11, 1650), also known as Cartesius, worked as a philosopher and mathematician. ... John Locke (August 29, 1632–October 28, 1704) was an influencial English philosopher and social contract theorist. ... Avram Noam Chomsky (born December 7, 1928 Philadelphia, Pennsylvania) is the Institute Professor Emeritus of linguistics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. ... Jerry Alan Fodor (born 1935) is a philosopher at Rutgers University, New Jersey. ...

References

  • Descartes, Rene. Meditations on First Philosophy with Selections from the Objections and Replies, translated by John Cottingham (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986).
  • Locke, John. An Essay Concerning Human Understanding. 1690.
  • Leibniz, Gottfried. Discourse on Metaphysics and Related Writings, edited and translated by R.N.D. Martin and Stuart Brown (Manchester and New York:Manchester University Press, 1988).
  • Chomsky, Noam. Aspects of the Theory of Syntax. (Cambridge, Mass, 1965)

  Results from FactBites:
 
Innate Idea (71 words)
Innate Idea - An innate idea is an idea that is present in the mind at birth.
Descartes believed that inborn in our minds are certain mathematical ideas (such as the ideas of geometrical shapes), metaphysical ideas (such as the idea of God and of essences), and eternal truths (such as the truth that something cannot come from nothing).
These innate ideas play a central role in his theory of knowledge.
Innate idea - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1090 words)
In philosophy and psychology, an innate idea is a concept or item of knowledge which is said to be universal to all humanity — that is, something people are born with rather than something people have learned through experience.
Philosophically, the debate over innate ideas is central to the conflict between rationalist and empiricist epistemologies.
The main antagonist to the concept of innate ideas is John Locke, a contemporary of Leibniz.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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