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Encyclopedia > Inland Northern American English

The Inland North Dialect of American English was the "standard Midwestern" speech that was the basis for General American in the mid-20th Century, though it has been recently modified by the northern cities vowel shift. For other uses, see American English (disambiguation). ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Three isoglosses identifying the NCVS. In the brown areas is more retracted than . ...


This area is centered on the Great Lakes, and consists of western New York State (Buffalo, Rochester, Syracuse), much of Michigan's Lower Peninsula (Detroit, Grand Rapids), Cleveland, Toledo, Chicago, Gary, and Southeastern Wisconsin (Milwaukee, Racine, Kenosha). The Great Lakes from space The Laurentian Great Lakes are a group of five large lakes in North America on or near the Canada-United States border. ... State nickname: Empire State Other U.S. States Capital Albany Largest city New York Governor George Pataki Official languages None Area 141,205 km² (27th)  - Land 122,409 km²  - Water 18,795 km² (13. ... Nickname: Location of Buffalo in New York State County Erie County Government  - Mayor Byron Brown (D) Area  - City 52. ... Nickname: Motto: Rochester: Made for Living Location of Rochester in New York State Country United States State New York County Monroe Government  - Mayor Robert Duffy (D) Area  - City  37. ... Nickname: The Salt City Location of Syracuse within the state of New York Coordinates: City Government  - Mayor Matthew Driscoll Area  - City 66. ... Official language(s) None (English, de-facto) Capital Lansing Largest city Detroit Area  Ranked 11th  - Total 97,990 sq mi (253,793 km²)  - Width 239 miles (385 km)  - Length 491 miles (790 km)  - % water 41. ... Motto: Speramus Meliora; Resurget Cineribus (We Hope For Better Things; It Shall Rise From the Ashes - this motto was adopted after the disastrous 1805 fire that devastated the city) Nickname: The Motor City and Motown Location in Wayne County, Michigan Founded Incorporated July 24, 1701 1815  County Wayne County Mayor... Grand Rapids is the name of several places in the United States of America: Grand Rapids, Michigan Grand Rapids, Minnesota Grand Rapids, Ohio Grand Rapids, Wisconsin is the former name of Wisconsin Rapids, Wisconsin Grand Rapids is also the name of a town in Canada: Grand Rapids, Manitoba. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Nickname: Location in the state of Ohio Coordinates: , Country United States State Ohio County Lucas Founded 1833 Government  - Mayor Carty Finkbeiner (D) Area  - City 84. ... Nickname: Motto: “Urbs in Horto” (Latin: “City in a Garden”), “I Will” Location in the Chicago metro area and Illinois Coordinates: , Country United States State Illinois Counties Cook, DuPage Settled 1770s Incorporated March 4, 1837 Government  - Mayor Richard M. Daley (D) Area  - City  234. ... “Gary” redirects here. ... Official language(s) None Capital Madison Largest city Milwaukee Area  Ranked 23rd  - Total 65,498 sq mi (169,790 km²)  - Width 260 miles (420 km)  - Length 310 miles (500 km)  - % water 17  - Latitude 42°30N to 47°3N  - Longitude 86°49W to 92°54W Population  Ranked... This article is about Milwaukee in Wisconsin. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Kenosha is a city located in Kenosha County, Wisconsin. ...

This map shows the approximate extent of the Northern Cities Vowel Shift, and thus the approximate area where the Inland North dialect predominates. Note that the region surrounding Erie, Pennsylvania is excluded; the dialect spoken there more closely resembles that of Pittsburgh.

Contents

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Nickname: Location in Erie County Location in the state of Pennsylvania Coordinates: , Country  United States State  Pennsylvania County Erie Founded 1795 Incorporated 1851-04-14 Government  - Mayor Joseph Sinnott Area  - City  28. ... Pittsburgh English is a popular term for the dialect of American English spoken by many residents of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA and surrounding Western Pennsylvania. ...

Characteristics

Many of the characteristics listed here are not unique to the region, but are found elsewhere in the United States, especially elsewhere in the Midwest. The Northern Cities Vowel Shift, however, is found only in the Inland North—in fact, it's the feature that defines the Inland North, for modern dialectological purposes. The Midwest is a common name for a region of the United States of America. ... Three isoglosses identifying the NCVS. In the brown areas is more retracted than . ...


Phonology

As in General American, which was based on this accent, Inland North speech is rhotic. Also, the words "roof" and "root" may be variously pronounced with either [ʊ] or [u]; that is, with the vowel of "foot" or "boot", respectively. This is highly variable, however, and these words are pronounced both ways in other parts of the country. English pronunciation is divided into two main accent groups, the rhotic and non-rhotic, depending on when the phoneme (the letter r) is pronounced. ...

  • The Northern Cities Vowel Shift

Perhaps the most distinctive feature of Inland Northern dialects, this chain shift has been occurring in six stages: Three isoglosses identifying the NCVS. In the brown areas is more retracted than . ... In the study of phonetic changes, a chain shift is a type of sound shift in which a group of sounds all change at about the same time, with some sounds taking the place of others. ...

  1. The first stage of the shift is the diphthongization of [æ] to [ɪə]. This results in words like "candy" being pronounced more like "kee-uhndy."
  2. The second stage is the fronting of [ɑ] to [a], which occupies a place close to the former [æ]. "Not" then sounds closer to "nat".
  3. In the third stage, [ɔ] lowers towards [ɑ], causing "stalk" to sound more like "stock".
  4. The fourth stage, the lowering of [ɛ], is not unique to this particular vowel shift.
  5. During the fifth stage, [ʌ] is backed towards [ɔ]. "Stuck" sounds like "stalk".
  6. In the sixth stage, [ɪ] is lowered and backed, although it is kept distinct from [ɛ]. This means that the pin-pen merger does not occur.

Note that this merger is in progress across the region, but that each subsequent stage is a result of the previous one(s), so that an individual speaker may not display all of these shifts, but no speaker will display the last without also showing the ones before it. In phonetics, a diphthong (Greek δίφθογγος, diphthongos, literally with two sounds) is a vowel combination in a single syllable involving a quick but smooth movement from one vowel to another, often interpreted by listeners as a single vowel sound or phoneme. ... The merger of pin and pen in American English. ...

  • The Mary-Marry-Merry Merger
Main article: Mary-marry-merry merger

This merger is widespread throughout the Midwest, West, and Canada. Words containing /æ/, /ɛ/, or /eɪ/ before an "r" and a vowel are all pronounced "[eɪ]-r-vowel," so that Mary, marry, and merry all rhyme with each other, and have the same first vowel as Sharon, Sarah, and bearing. The English language has undergone a number of phonological changes before the historic phoneme . ... The Midwest is a common name for a region of the United States of America. ... The Western United States, also referred to as the American West or simply The West, traditionally refers to the region constituting the westernmost states of the United States (see geographical terminology section for further discussion of these terms). ...

  • Other Characteristics
  1. The starting point of /aʊ/ (for example, mouse, down) is pronounced noticeably in the back of the mouth ([mɑʊs], [dɑʊn]), while /aɪ/ (mice, dine) is much further front: ([maɪs], [daɪn]). Standard American diphthongal glide /ɪ/ and word- or morph-final /ɪ/ are pronounced as a shortened /i/.
  2. The long-o of "bone" and "goat" is rounded and pronounced far back.
  3. The word "on" rhymes with "don," not with "dawn."
  4. Canadian raising is found in areas close to the Canadian border.

Canadian raising is a phonetic phenomenon that occurs in varieties of the English language, especially Canadian English, in which diphthongs are raised before voiceless consonants (e. ...

Vocabulary

Note that not all of these are specific to the region.

  • Faucet vs. Southern spigot.
  • (Peach) Pit vs. Southern stone or seed.
  • Pop for soft drink, vs. East-Coastal and Californian soda and Southern coke. In parts of Eastern Wisconsin, soda is more common.
  • Shopping cart vs. Southern buggy.
  • Teeter totter vs. Southern seesaw.
  • Tennis shoes vs. New England sneakers.
  • drinking fountain vs. Water fountain.

Individual cities and regions also have their own vocabularies. For example, in Eastern and Southern Wisconsin, drinking fountains are known as bubblers, and in Cleveland the strip of grass between the sidewalk and the street is called a tree lawn. Indoor Tap - commonly found in the bathroom/laundry and/or kitchen. ... A soft drink is a drink that contains no alcohol. ... A row of parked (and very colorful) shopping carts equipped with a coin-operated mechanism. ... Modern seesaws have springs for safer play. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... The Jet dEau fountain in Lake Geneva in Geneva The Samson fountain at Peterhof near St Petersburg: the lion is the heraldic animal of Peter the Greats enemy, Sweden A traditional fountain is an arrangement where water issues from a source (Latin fons), fills a basin of some... A tree lawn, also called a nature strip or devils strip in some areas, is a small area, often planted with trees and grass, between a street and the sidewalk of that street. ...


Notable Speakers of the Inland North Dialect

The United States Senate is the upper house of the U.S. Congress, smaller than the United States House of Representatives. ... Hillary Rodham Clinton (born Hillary Diane Rodham on October 26, 1947) is the Biggest loser/retard these united states have seen from New York. ... The City of Park Ridge The city of Park Ridge is an affluent suburb of Chicago in Cook County in the United States. ... The areas highlighted in YELLOW and GREEN are those which are considered to be a bona fide part of Upstate New York from the perspective of New York City. ... Daniel Edward Aykroyd CM (born July 1, 1952) is an Academy Award-nominated and Emmy Award-winning Canadian/American comedian, actor, screenwriter, and musician. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Blues Brothers 2000 is a 1998 musical/comedy film and sequel to the highly successful 1980 film The Blues Brothers. ... Bill Swerskis Superfans was a recurring sketch on the American sketch comedy program Saturday Night Live. ... SNL could mean: Saturday Night Live Scots National League This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Jami Gertz (born October 28, 1965 in Chicago, Illinois) is an American actress of Jewish descent. ... For the song by The Rasmus, see Still Standing (song). ... Nickname: Motto: “Urbs in Horto” (Latin: “City in a Garden”), “I Will” Location in the Chicago metro area and Illinois Coordinates: , Country United States State Illinois Counties Cook, DuPage Settled 1770s Incorporated March 4, 1837 Government  - Mayor Richard M. Daley (D) Area  - City  234. ... Michael Francis Moore (born April 23, 1954) is an American political-activist, a film director, author, social commentator, and political humorist. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Robert Clark Seger (born May 6, 1945) is a rock and roll musician from Michigan. ... Official language(s) None (English, de-facto) Capital Lansing Largest city Detroit Area  Ranked 11th  - Total 97,990 sq mi (253,793 km²)  - Width 239 miles (385 km)  - Length 491 miles (790 km)  - % water 41. ... Christopher Crosby Farley (February 15, 1964 – December 18, 1997) was an American actor and comedian. ... Nickname: Location of Madison in Dane County, Wisconsin Coordinates: , Municipality City Incorporated 1848 Government  - Mayor Dave Cieslewicz Area  - City 219. ... John Adam Belushi (January 24, 1949 – March 5, 1982) was an Emmy Award-winning American actor, comedian and musician, notable for his work on Saturday Night Live, National Lampoons Animal House and The Blues Brothers. ... Nickname: Motto: “Urbs in Horto” (Latin: “City in a Garden”), “I Will” Location in the Chicago metro area and Illinois Coordinates: , Country United States State Illinois Counties Cook, DuPage Settled 1770s Incorporated March 4, 1837 Government  - Mayor Richard M. Daley (D) Area  - City  234. ... The Second City Logo The Second City is a long-running improvisational comedy troupe based in the Old Town neighborhood of Chicago, with offshoot troupes in other cities, most notably Toronto. ...

See also

This is a list of varieties of the English language. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with North American regional phonology. ... The Midwest is a common name for a region of the United States of America. ... Buffalo English, sometimes colloquially referred to as Buffalonian, is the unique variety of English used in and around Buffalo, New York. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ...

External links

  • The Northern Cities Vowel Shift
  • Telsur Project Maps
  • Chicago Dialect Samples
  • Nick Digilio interview with Corrine McCarthy
  • PBS resource from the show "Do you Speak American?"
  • NPR interview with Professor William Labov about the shift

 
 

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