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Encyclopedia > Initiative

In political science, the initiative (also known as popular or citizen's initiative) provides a means by which a petition signed by a certain minimum number of registered voters can force a public vote on a proposed statute, constitutional amendment, charter amendment or ordinance, or, in its minimal form, to simply oblige the executive or legislative bodies to consider the subject by submitting it to the order of the day. It is a form of direct democracy. It has also been referred to as "minority initiative," thus relating it to minority influence [1]. Furthermore, it is, in itself, a politically neutral tool, despite its name which refers it to the "people." It can be used as well for conservative proposal as for progressive ends. Initiative can mean: Look up initiative in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... An election is a decision making process where people choose people to hold official offices. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Politics is the process by which groups of people make decisions. ... Sortition is the method of random selection, particularly in relation to the selection of decision makers also known as allotment. ... A by-election or bye-election is a special election held to fill a political office when the incumbent has died or resigned. ... Electoral fraud is illegal interference with the process of an election. ... A show election or a sham election is an election that is held purely for show, that is, without any significant political purpose. ... A Fixed-term election is an election that occurs on a set date, and cannot be changed by the incumbent politician. ... A general election is an election in which all or most members of a given political body are up for election. ... Indirect election is a process in which voters in an election do not actually choose between candidates for an office but rather elect persons who will then make the choice. ... Rules for, and experience with, local elections vary widely across jurisdictions. ... Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A referendum (plural: referendums or referenda) or plebiscite (from Latin plebiscita, originally a decree of the Concilium Plebis) is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal. ... Gerrymandering is a controversial form of redistricting in which electoral district or constituency boundaries are manipulated for an electoral advantage. ... The process known as redistricting in the United States and redistribution in many Commonwealth countries is the changing of political borders (in many countries, specifically the electoral district/constituency boundaries) usually in response to periodic census results. ... Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      The secret ballot is a voting method in which a voters choices are confidential. ... An election is a decision making process where people choose people to hold official offices. ... Political parties Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A political party is a political organization that seeks to attain political power within a government, usually by participating in electoral campaigns. ... Voting is a method of decision making wherein a group such as a meeting or an electorate attempts to gauge its opinion—usually as a final step following discussions or debates. ... A voting system is a means of choosing between a number of options, based on the input of a number of voters. ... Elections by country gives information on elections. ... This electoral calendar lists the national/federal direct elections in the countries listed in the list of countries. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Politics is the process by which groups of people make decisions. ... Consent of the governed is a political theory that says a governments legitimacy and moral right to use state power is, or ought to be, derived from the people or society over which that power is exercised. ... Information on politics by country is available for every country, including both de jure and de facto independent states, inhabited dependent territories, as well as areas of special sovereignty. ... Political economy was the original term for the study of production, the acts of buying and selling, and their relationships to laws, customs and government. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Political history is the narrative and analysis of political events, ideas, movements, and leaders. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Political philosophy is the study of fundamental questions about the state, government, politics, liberty, justice, property, rights, law and the enforcement of a legal code by authority: what they are, why (or even if) they are needed, what makes a government legitimate, what... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Political Science is the field concerning the theory and practice of politics and the description and analysis of political systems and political behaviour. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      International relations (IR), a branch of political science, is the study of foreign affairs and global issues among states within the international system, including the roles of states, inter-governmental organizations (IGOs), non-governmental organizations (NGOs), and multinational corporations (MNCs). ... Main International Relations Theories and derivates Realism & Neorealism Idealism, Liberalism & Neoliberalism Marxism & Dependency theory Functionalism & Neofunctionalism Critical theory & Constructivism International relations theory attempts to provide a conceptual model upon which international relations can be analyzed. ... This is a list of notable political scientists. ... Comparative politics is a huge subfield of political science that studies the various forms of government found throughout the world. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Public administration can be broadly described as the study and implementation of policy. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Bureaucracy. ... Street-level bureaucracy is a term used to refer to a public agency employee who actually performs the actions that implement laws. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Separation of powers a term coined by French political Enlightenment thinker Baron de Montesquieu[1][2], is a model for the governance of democratic states. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      In law, the judiciary or judicial is the system of courts which administer justice in the name of the sovereign or state, a mechanism for the resolution of disputes. ... A legislature is a type of representative deliberative assembly with the power to adopt laws. ... Sovereignty is the exclusive right to exercise supreme political (e. ... The psychodynamics of decision-making form a basis to understand institutional functioning. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Politics is the process by which groups of people make decisions. ... An election is a decision making process where people choose people to hold official offices. ... Voting is a method of decision making wherein a group such as a meeting or an electorate attempts to gauge its opinion—usually as a final step following discussions or debates. ... Political federalism is a political philosophy in which a group of members are bound together (Latin: foedus, covenant) with a governing representative head. ... A form of government (also referred to as a system of government or a political system) is a system composed of various people, institutions and their relations in regard to the governance of a state. ... Political Ideologies Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      An ideology is an organized collection of ideas. ... Political campaign Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A political campaign is an organized effort to influence the decision making process within a group. ... Political parties Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A political party is a political organization that seeks to attain political power within a government, usually by participating in electoral campaigns. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Political Science is the field concerning the theory and practice of politics and the description and analysis of political systems and political behaviour. ... Look up Petition in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Statute of Grand Duchy of Lithuania A statute is a formal, written law of a country or state, written and enacted by its legislative authority, perhaps to then be ratified by the highest executive in the government, and finally published. ... An amendment is a change to the constitution of a nation or a state. ... Ordinance can mean: A law made by a non-sovereign body such as a city council or a colony. ... Direct democracy, classically termed pure democracy,[1] comprises a form of democracy and theory of civics wherein sovereignty is lodged in the assembly of all citizens who choose to participate. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ...


The initiative may take the form of either the direct or indirect initiative. Under the direct initiative, a measure is put directly to a vote after being submitted by a petition. Under the indirect initiative, a measure is first referred to the legislature, and then only put to a popular vote if not enacted by the legislature. In United States usage, a popular vote on a specific measure is referred to as a referendum only when originating with the legislature. Such a vote is known, when originating in the initiative process, as an "initiative," "ballot measure" or "proposition." A legislature is a type of representative deliberative assembly with the power to adopt laws. ... Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A referendum (plural: referendums or referenda) or plebiscite (from Latin plebiscita, originally a decree of the Concilium Plebis) is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal. ... A legislature is a type of representative deliberative assembly with the power to adopt laws. ...

Contents

Brief history of popular initiative

The initiative is only available in a certain minority of jurisdictions. It was included in the Swiss Federal Constitution in 1891, permitting a certain number of citizens to make a request to amend a constitutional article, or even to introduce a new article into the constitution. Right of initiative is also used at the cantonal and communal level in Switzerland. However, a citizen-proposed law cannot be passed in Switzerland at the national level if a majority of the people approve, but a majority of the states disapprove. The Swiss Constitution (Bundesverfassung in German, Constitution fédérale in French, Constituzione federale in Italian and Constituziun federala in Romansh) is at the highest level of Switzerlands judicial system. ...


Provision for the initiative was included in the 1922 constitution of the Irish Free State, but was hastily abolished when republicans organised a drive to instigate a vote that would abolish the Oath of Allegiance. The initiative also formed part of the 1920 constitution of Estonia. Year 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar). ... Territory of the Irish Free State Capital Dublin Language(s) Irish, English Government Constitutional monarchy Monarch  - 1922–1936 George V  - 1936–1936 George VI President of the Executive Council  - 1922–1932 W.T. Cosgrave  - 1932–1937 Eamon de Valera Legislature Oireachtas  - Upper house Seanad Éireann  - Lower house Dáil Éireann... The Irish Oath of Allegiance was a controversial provision in the Anglo-Irish Treaty of 1921, which Irish TDs (members of the Irish parliament) and Senators were required to take, in order to take their seats in Dáil Éireann (The Chamber of Deputies) and Seanad Éireann (the Irish Senate). ... 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ...


Initiative in the United States

In the United States the initiative is in use, at the level of state government, in 24 states and the District of Columbia [1], and is also in common use at the local and city government level. The initiative has been recognized in the US since at least 1777 when provision was made for it by the first constitution of Georgia. Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from... Year 1777 (MDCCLXXVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ...


The modern U.S. system of initiative and referendum originated in the state of Oregon in 1902, when the state's legislators adopted it by an overwhelming majority. The "Oregon System", as it was at first known, subsequently spread to many other states, and became one of the signature reforms of the Progressive Era (1890s-1920s). Well known U.S. initiatives include various measures adopted by voters in states such as Washington, Oregon, California, Massachusetts and Alaska. In U.S. politics, the initiative and referendum process is one of the signature reforms of the Progressive Era. ... Official language(s) (none)[1] Capital Salem Largest city Portland Area  Ranked 9th  - Total 98,466 sq mi (255,026 km²)  - Width 260 miles (420 km)  - Length 360 miles (580 km)  - % water 2. ... 1902 (MCMII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... The Oregon Legislative Assembly is the legislature for the U.S. state of Oregon. ... In the United States, the Progressive Era was a period of reform which lasted from the 1890s through the 1920s. ... Official language(s) English Capital Olympia Largest city Seattle Area  Ranked 18th  - Total 71,342 sq mi (184,827 km²)  - Width 240 miles (385 km)  - Length 360 miles (580 km)  - % water 6. ... Official language(s) (none)[1] Capital Salem Largest city Portland Area  Ranked 9th  - Total 98,466 sq mi (255,026 km²)  - Width 260 miles (420 km)  - Length 360 miles (580 km)  - % water 2. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... Official language(s) English Capital Boston Largest city Boston Area  Ranked 44th  - Total 10,555 sq mi (27,360 km²)  - Width 183 miles (295 km)  - Length 113 miles (182 km)  - % water 13. ... Official language(s) none Capital Juneau Largest city Anchorage Area  Ranked 1st  - Total 663,267 sq mi (1,717,855 km²)  - Width 808 miles (1,300 km)  - Length 1,479 miles (2,380 km)  - % water 13. ...


The first attempt to get National ballot initiatives occurred in 1907 when House Joint Resolution 44 was introduced by Rep. Elmer Fulton of Oklahoma. In 1977, both the Abourezk-Hatfield (National Voter Initiative) and Jagt Resolutions never got out of committee. Senator Mike Gravel (now a Presidential candidate) was part of that effort. Gravel since discovered a way to get a new proposal, the National Initiative for Democracy, into the Constitution without asking Congress. American citizens can now vote to ratify the National Initiative, much as citizens—not the existing 13 State Legislatures—ratified the Constitution at the Constitutional conventions. 1907 (MCMVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Also: 1977 (album) by Ash. ... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ...


Others

The rejected Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe (TCE) included a limited indirect initiative right (Article I-46(4)). The proposal was that 1,000,000 citizens, from a minimal numbers of different member states, could invite the executive body of the European Union (EU), the European Commission, to consider any proposal "on matters where citizens consider that a legal act of the Union is required for the purpose of implementing the Constitution." The precise mechanism had not been agreed upon. Critics underlined the weakness of this right of initiative, which did not ultimately entail any vote or referendum. The constitutional treaty as signed in Rome on 29 October 2004 by representatives of the EU member states The Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe (TECE), commonly referred to as the European Constitution, was an international treaty intended to create a new constitution for the European Union. ... The Commission seat in Brussels The European Commission (formally the Commission of the European Communities) is the executive body of the European Union. ...


A restricted, local, indirect initiative was introduced on 28 March 2003 in the French Constitution in the frame of the decentralization laws (article 72-1, référendum d'initiative locale.) However, it is only the initiative to propose to the local assembly (collectivité territoriale) the inscription of a subject to the order of the day. The local assembly then takes the decision to submit, or not, the question to popular referendum. The current Constitution of France was adopted on October 4, 1958, and has been amended 17 times, most recently on March 28, 2003. ... // Le de décentralisation de de est le processus de la dispersion prise de décision plus près du point de service ou action. ... Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A referendum (plural: referendums or referenda) or plebiscite (from Latin plebiscita, originally a decree of the Concilium Plebis) is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal. ...


References

  1. ^ French specialist of Constitutional law, Olivier Duhamel, speaks of an initiative minoritaire in Droit constitutionnel (1994), tome 2 Les Démocraties, 3×10{{{1}}} édition, Éditions du Seuil, coll. « Points / Essais » nº 414, Paris, 2000 ISBN 2-02-038982-7 p. 234–235

See also

The American tradition of direct democracy dates from the 1630s in the New England Colonies (Willard, 1858, Miller, 1991, and Zimmerman, December 1999). ... The Elections and Parties Series Democracy Liberal democracy History of democracy Referenda Representative democracy Representation Voting Voting systems Elections Elections by country Elections by calender Electoral systems Politics Politics by country Political campaigns Political science Political philosophy Related topics Political parties Parties by country Parties by name Parties by ideology... The following is a partial list of Arizona ballot initiatives. ... The following is a list of California ballot propositions broken down by decade. ... The following is a partial list of Oregon ballot measures, dating back to 1990. ... This is a list of all initiatives that have appeared before Washington voters from 1914 to 2005, listed by number, subject, and result. ... A recall election is a procedure by which voters can remove an elected official from office. ... In U.S. politics, the initiative and referendum process is one of the signature reforms of the Progressive Era. ... Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A referendum (plural: referendums or referenda) or plebiscite (from Latin plebiscita, originally a decree of the Concilium Plebis) is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal. ... A bond measure is a proposal to sell bonds for the purpose of acquiring funds for various public works projects, such as research, transportation infrastructure improvements, and others. ...

External links

  • Presidential Candidate & Senator Mike Gravel's National (ballot) Initiative for Democracy
  • OUR SAY - British campaign for Citizens' Initiatives
  • I&R Campaign for Direct Democracy in Britain
  • Initiative and Referendum Institute
  • IRI-Europe
  • National Initiative for Democracy
  • NCSL Ballot Measures Database

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Acronym and initialism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (4189 words)
Initialism originally referred to abbreviations formed from initials, without reference to pronunciation, but during the middle portion of the twentieth century, when they saw more use than ever before, the word acronym was coined for abbreviations which are pronounced as a word, like NATO or AIDS.
In the English language, the widespread use of acronyms, initialisms, and contractions is a relatively new linguistic phenomenon, having become most popular in the 20th and 21st centuries.
When initialisms are defined in print, especially in the case of industry-specific jargon, the initial letters of the full words are often capitalized.
Initialism (92 words)
An initialism is an abbreviation formed by using the first letters, or initials, of a series of words, for example BBC, IBM, or NATO.
The term initialism is often used by those who prefer to define an acronym as an abbreviation whose letters form a pronounceable word, like NATO or AIDS.
"Initialism" is then the name of the category for abbreviations that don't meet the strict definition of acronym and are pronounced as a series of the names of the constituent letters.
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