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Encyclopedia > Ingria
Ingria may be seen represented in the easternmost part of the Carta Marina (1539)

Ingria (Finnish: Inkeri or Inkerinmaa, Russian: Ижора or Ингерманландия or Ингрия, Swedish: Ingermanland, Estonian: Ingeri or Ingerimaa) is a historical region, now situated mostly in Russia, comprising the area along the basin of the river Neva, between the Gulf of Finland, the Narva River, Lake Peipsi in the west, and Lake Ladoga and boggy plain to the south of it in the east. The traditional border with Finnish Karelia followed the Sestra River in North-West on Karelian Isthmus. Historically Ingria was populated by the Finnic peoples of Izhorians, Votes, and later also Ingrian Finns and Estonians. It was russified in the 1930s. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 593 pixelsFull resolution (5016 × 3715 pixel, file size: 7. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 593 pixelsFull resolution (5016 × 3715 pixel, file size: 7. ... The Carta Marina (latin: the book of the sea) is the earliest map over the Nordic countries containing details and placenames. ... The River Neva (Russian: Нева́) is a 74 km-long Russian river flowing from Lake Ladoga (Ладожское Озеро, Ladožskoe Ozero) through the Karelian Isthmus (Карельский Перешеек, Karelskij PereÅ¡eek) and the city of Saint Petersburg (Санкт-Петербург, Sankt-Peterburg) to the Gulf of Finland (Финский Залив, Finskij Zaliv). ... The Baltic Sea The Gulf of Finland is an arm of the Baltic Sea that extends between Finland (to the north) and Estonia (to the south) all the way to the city of Saint Petersburg in Russia, where the river Neva drains into it. ... Narva river is a river which flows at the border of Estonia and Russia. ... Lake Peipsi (Estonian: Peipsi järv, Russian: Чудское озеро(Chud Lake), German: Peipus-See) is a large lake, on the border between Estonia and Russia in Eastern Europe. ... Map of lake Ladoga Towpath Bridge between Lake Ladoga and Lake Onega (from a photograph taken ca. ... Finnish Karelia, historically also Swedish Karelia or Carelia, is a historical province in eastern Finland. ... Sestra River, also known as Rajajoki in Finnish (Сестра in Russian) is a river in the Leningrad Oblast in Russia. ... The Karelian Isthmus is the narrow stretch of land between the Gulf of Finland and Lake Ladoga in northwestern Russia. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Izhorians (sg. ... Votes are people of Votia who speak the Finno-Ugric Votic language, who until World War II lived in the northern parts of Estonia. ... The Ingrian Finns (inkeriläinen or inkerinsuomalainen) are an ethnic group who speak a dialect of Finnish language and have traditionally inhabited the area called Ingria (or Ingermanland, in Finnish: Inkeri) situated between what is now Saint Petersburg and the northeastern border of Estonia. ...


The Orthodox Izhorians, along with the Votes, are the indigenous people of historical Ingria (Inkeri in Finnish). However, after the Swedish conquest the Ingrian Finns, descendants of 17th century Lutheran emigrants from present-day Finland became the majority in Ingria. The Russian Orthodox Church (Русская Православная церковь) is that body of Christians who are united under the Patriarch of Moscow, who in turn is in communion with... The Izhorians (sg. ... Votes are people of Votia who speak the Finno-Ugric Votic language, who until World War II lived in the northern parts of Estonia. ... Indigenous peoples are: Peoples living in an area prior to colonization by a state Peoples living in an area within a nation-state, prior to the formation of a nation-state, but who do not identify with the dominant nation. ... The Ingrian Finns (inkeriläinen or inkerinsuomalainen) are an ethnic group who speak a dialect of Finnish language and have traditionally inhabited the area called Ingria (or Ingermanland, in Finnish: Inkeri) situated between what is now Saint Petersburg and the northeastern border of Estonia. ... Lutheranism is a major branch of Protestant Christianity which follows the teachings of the sixteenth-century reformer Martin Luther. ...


Ingria as a whole never formed a state (cf., however, North Ingria); the Ingrians can hardly be said to have been a nation, although their "nationality" was recognized in the Soviet Union, and as an ethnic group the Ingrians (Izhorians) have almost died out together with their language. But many people still recognize their Ingrian heritage.[1] A state is a political association with effective dominion over a geographic area. ... After the Bolshevic revolution in Russia the Republic of North Ingria (Pohjois Inkeri) seceded from Russia with the support of Finland with the aim to be incorporated into Finland. ... One of the most influential doctrines in history is that all humans are divided into groups called nations. ... In English usage, nationality is the legal relationship between a person and a country. ... The Izhorians (sg. ... Cultural heritage (national heritage or just heritage) is the legacy of physical artifacts and intangible attributes of a group or society that are inherited from past generations, maintained in the present and bestowed for the benefit of future generations. ...


The historic Ingria covers approximately the same area as Gatchinsky, Kingiseppsky, Kirovsky, Lomonosovsky, Tosnensky, Volosovsky and Vsevolozhsky districts of modern Leningrad Oblast as well as the city of Saint Petersburg. Coat of arms of Gatchina Gatchina (Russian: ) is a town in Leningrad Oblast, Russia, located 45 km south of St. ... Kingisepp (Russian: ), formerly Yamburg () and Jama (), is a town in Leningrad Oblast, Russia. ... Kirovsk (Russian: ) is a town in Leningrad Oblast, Russia, located on the left bank of the Neva River, 33 km east of Saint Petersburg. ... Lomonosov (Russian: ; before 1948: Oranienbaum, ) is a town under the jurisdiction of St. ... Tosno (Russian: ) is a town in Leningrad Oblast, Russia. ... Location of the Volosovsky District in the Leningrad Oblast Volosovsky District (Russian: ) is a district (raion) of Leningrad Oblast, Russia. ... Vsevolozhsky District (Russian: ) is a district (raion) of Leningrad Oblast, Russia, located in the southeastern part of Karelian Isthmus. ... Leningrad Oblast (Russian: , tr. ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and...

Contents

History

In the Viking–late Iron Age, from the 750s and on, Ladoga was a bridgehead on the Varangian trade route to Eastern Europe. A Varangian aristocracy developed, that would ultimately rule over Novgorod and Kievan Rus'. In the 860s, the warring Finnic and Slavic tribes rebelled under Vadim the Bold, but later asked the Varangians under Rurik to return and to put an end to the recurring conflicts between them. The Viking Age is the name of the age in Northern Europe, following the Germanic Iron Age. ... Iron Age Axe found on Gotland This article is about the archaeological period known as the Iron Age, for the mythological Iron Age see Iron Age (mythology). ... The fortress of Ladoga was built in stone in the 12th century and rebuilt 400 years later. ... The Varangians (Russian: Variags, Варяги) were Scandinavians who travelled eastwards, mainly from Jutland and Sweden. ... Map of Eastern Europe Pre-1989 division between the West (grey) and Eastern Bloc (orange) superimposed on current national boundaries: Russia (dark orange), other countries of the former USSR (medium orange),members of the Warsaw pact (light orange), and other former Communist regimes not aligned with Moscow (lightest orange). ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      The term aristocracy refers to a form of government where power kept by an elite (from a caste, class, family or even some individuals). ... Velikiy Novgorod (Russian: ) is the foremost historic city of North-Western Russia, situated on the M10(E95) federal highway connecting Moscow and St. ... Coat of arms Map of the Kievan Rus′, 11th century Capital Kiev Religion Orthodox Christianity Government Monarchy Historical era Middle Ages  - Established 9th century  - Disestablished 12th century Currency Hryvnia Kievan Rus′ was an early, mostly East Slavic[1] state dominated by the city of Kiev from about 880 to the... Finnic peoples (Fennic, sometimes Baltic-Finnic) refers to a group of related ethnic groups and nations speaking Finnic languages (also known as Balto-Finnic languages). ... Distribution of Slavic people by language The Slavic peoples are a linguistic and ethnic branch of Indo-European peoples, living mainly in Europe, where they constitute roughly a third of the population. ... Vadim was a legendary chieftain of Ilmen Slavs who led their struggle against the Varangians and Rurik in the 9th century. ... Rurik or Riurik (Russian: , Old East Norse Rørik, meaning famous ruler) (ca 830 – ca 879) was a Varangian who gained control of Ladoga in 862 and built the Holmgard settlement (Ryurikovo Gorodishche) in Novgorod. ...


The ancient Novgorodian land of Vod was called Ingermanland by the Swedes, Latinized to "Ingria". Folk etymology traces its name to Ingegerd Olofsdotter, the daughter of the Swedish king Olof Skötkonung (995–1022). Upon her marriage to Yaroslav I the Wise in 1019, she was given the lands around Ladoga as a marriage gift. They were administered by Swedish jarls, such as Ragnvald Ulfsson under the sovereignty of the Novgorod Republic. Velikiy Novgorod (Russian: ) is the foremost historic city of North-Western Russia, situated on the M10(E95) federal highway connecting Moscow and St. ... Folk etymology is a term used in two distinct ways: A commonly held misunderstanding of the origin of a particular word, a false etymology. ... Ingegerd Olofsdotter, born 1001 in Sigtuna, Sweden, was the daughter of Swedish King Olof Skötkonung. ... Coin minted for Olof Skötkonung in Sigtuna Olof of Sweden or Olof Skötkonung/Skottkonung (Old Icelandic: Óláfr sænski, Old Swedish: Olawær skotkonongær) was the son of Eric the Victorious and Sigrid the Haughty. ... Mikhail Gerasimovs reconstruction of Yaroslavs appearance, based on his examination of Yaroslavs skull Yaroslav I the Wise (c. ... Jarl may refer to: Alternative word for the peerage dignity Earl Japan Amateur Radio League, the Amateur Radio association of Japan Jarl, a Norse title Jarl Wahlström, the 12th General of The Salvation Army Category: ... Ragnvald Ulfsson the Old, Jarl of Westrogothia ca 1010-1020, and later of Staraja Ladoga and Ingria. ... Medieval walls of Novgorod City The Novgorod Feudal Republic (Новгородская феодальная республика or Novgorodskaya feodalnaya respublika in Russian) was a powerful medieval state which stretched from the Baltic Sea to the Ural Mountains between the 12th and 15th century. ...


In the 12th century, Western Ingria was absorbed by the Republic. There followed centuries of frequent wars, chiefly between Russians and Swedes, but often involving Danes and Teutonic Knights as well. The latter established a stronghold in the town of Narva, followed by the Russian castle Ivangorod on the opposite side of the Narva River in 1492. The Republic of Novgorod and medieval Sweden waged a number of wars for control of the Gulf of Finland, an area vital for the lucrative Hanseatic trade. ... For the historical novel, see The Teutonic Knights (novel). ... The reconstructed fortress of Narva (to the left) overlooking the Russian fortress of Ivangorod (to the right). ... The reconstructed fortress of Narva (to the left) overlooking the Russian fortress of Ivangorod (to the right). ...


Swedish Ingria

Ingria and the Lutheran parishes in the Saint Petersburg Governorate ca. 1900.
Ingria and the Lutheran parishes in the Saint Petersburg Governorate ca. 1900.[2]
Main article: Swedish Ingria

Ingria became a Swedish dominion in the 1580s, was returned to Russia by the Treaty of Teusina (1595), and after the Ingrian War again ceded to Sweden in the Treaty of Stolbova (1617). Sweden's interest in the territory was strategic: the area was a buffer zone against Russian attacks on the Karelian Isthmus and present-day Finland; and Russian trade had to pass through Swedish territory. In addition, Ingria became the destination for Swedish deportees. The townships of Ivangorod, Jama (now Kingisepp), Caporie (now Koporye) and Nöteborg (now Shlisselburg) became centres of the four Ingrian counties (slottslän). Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2144x1592, 97 KB) Based on fi:Kuva:Inkeri3. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2144x1592, 97 KB) Based on fi:Kuva:Inkeri3. ... Lutheranism is a major branch of Protestant Christianity which follows the teachings of the sixteenth-century reformer Martin Luther. ... A parish is a type of administrative subdivision. ... Map of Saint Petersburg Governorate in 1900. ... Ingria, or Ingermanland, was a dominion of Sweden from 1580 to 1595 and then again from 1617 to 1719, when it was ceded to Russia in the Treaty of Nystad. ... The Dominions of Sweden or Svenska besittningar were territories that historically came under control of the Swedish Crown, but never became fully integrated with Sweden. ... The Treaty of Teusina, called the Eternal Peace with Sweden in Russia, was concluded by the Russian diplomats under the boyar Afanasiy Pushkin (the poets ancestor) and ambassadors of the Swedish king at the village of Tyavzino on May 18, 1595 to end the 25-year-long hostilities between... The Ingrian War, which lasted from 1610 to 1617, was initiated by Sweden against Russia in a final attempt to put a Swedish count on the Russian throne, but ended with a large Swedish territorial gain in the Treaty of Stolbovo See also The De la Gardie Campaign Dymitriads Mikhail... ... Buffer Zone is one of the neighborhoods of North Nazimabad Town in Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan. ... The Karelian Isthmus is the narrow stretch of land between the Gulf of Finland and Lake Ladoga in northwestern Russia. ... The reconstructed fortress of Narva (to the left) overlooking the Russian fortress of Ivangorod (to the right). ... St Catherine Cathedral of Yamburg was built in 1764-1782 to a late baroque design by Antonio Rinaldi. ... Koporye Fortress near St Petersburg Koporye (Russian: Копорье) is a historic village in Russia, about 100 km to the west of St Petersburg, which contains some of the most impressive medieval ruins in Russia. ... Shlisselburg (Russian: ) is a town in western Russia (Kirovsky District, Leningrad Oblast) located at the head of the Neva River on Lake Ladoga, 45 km east of Saint Petersburg, which lies at the mouth of the Neva on the Gulf of Finland. ... Län and lääni are the Swedish and Finnish terms for the administrative divisions used in Sweden and Finland, and sometimes in other countries, especially as a translation of the Russian word oblast. The word literally means fief. ...


Ingria remained sparsely populated. In 1664 the total population was counted as 15,000. Swedish attempts to introduce Lutheranism were met with repugnance by the majority of the Orthodox peasantry, who were obliged to attend Lutheran services; converts were promised grants and tax reductions, but Lutheran gains were mostly due to voluntary resettlements by Finns from Savonia and Finnish Karelia (mostly from the parish of Äyräpää).[1][3] The proportion of Lutheran Finns in Ingria (Ingrian Finns) made up 41.1% in 1656, 53.2% in 1661, 55.2% in 1666, 56.9% in 1671 and 73.8% in 1695, the remainder being mostly Izhorians and Votes[4] Ingermanland was enfeoffed to noble military and state officials, who brought their own Lutheran servants and workmen. Lutheranism is a major branch of Protestant Christianity which follows the teachings of the sixteenth-century reformer Martin Luther. ... The Russian Orthodox Church (Русская Православная церковь) is that body of Christians who are united under the Patriarch of Moscow, who in turn is in communion with... Savonia, Savolax or Savo, is a historical province in the south of Finland. ... Finnish Karelia, historically also Swedish Karelia or Carelia, is a historical province in eastern Finland. ... Combatants Finland Soviet Union Strength 30,000 60,000 Casualties 795 killed in action 4,976 wounded 754 missing 3,050 killed in action 11,750 wounded 250 missing The Battle of Vuosalmi (also known as the Battle of Äyräpää-Vuosalmi) – the main bulk of it – lasted from July... The Ingrian Finns (inkeriläinen or inkerinsuomalainen) are an ethnic group who speak a dialect of Finnish language and have traditionally inhabited the area called Ingria (or Ingermanland, in Finnish: Inkeri) situated between what is now Saint Petersburg and the northeastern border of Estonia. ... The Izhorians (sg. ... Votes are people of Votia who speak the Finno-Ugric Votic language, who until World War II lived in the northern parts of Estonia. ... The Swedish nobility (Adeln) was historically a privileged class in Sweden. ...


Nyen became the trading centre of Ingria, and in 1642 was made its administrative centre. In 1656 a Russian attack badly damaged the town, and the administrative centre was moved to Narva.[1] Nyen (Skantsen, Nyenskans, in Finnish: Nevanlinna, also Skantsi, in Russian: Kantsy) was a Swedish fortress built in 1611 at the mouth of the Neva river in Swedish Ingria. ... The reconstructed fortress of Narva (to the left) overlooking the Russian fortress of Ivangorod (to the right). ...


Russian Ingria

In the early 1700s the area was reconquered by Russia in the Great Northern War after having been in Swedish possession for about 100 years. Near the place of the Swedish town Nyen, close to the Neva river's estuary at the Gulf of Finland, the new Russian capital Saint Petersburg was founded in 1703. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1743x1276, 361 KB) The Russian map of Saint Petersburg Governorate from the Brockhaus and Efron Encyclopedic Dictionary (ca. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1743x1276, 361 KB) The Russian map of Saint Petersburg Governorate from the Brockhaus and Efron Encyclopedic Dictionary (ca. ... Map of Saint Petersburg Governorate in 1900. ... Combatants Sweden Ottoman Empire (1710–1714) Ukrainian Cossacks Russia Denmark-Norway Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth Saxony after 1718 Prussia Hanover Commanders Charles XII of Sweden Ahmed III Ivan Mazepa Peter the Great Frederick IV of Denmark Augustus II the Strong Strength 77,000 in the beginning of the war. ... Nyen (Skantsen, Nyenskans, in Finnish: Nevanlinna, also Skantsi, in Russian: Kantsy) was a Swedish fortress built in 1611 at the mouth of the Neva river in Swedish Ingria. ... This article is about a city that serves as a center of government and politics. ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and...


Peter the Great raised Ingria to the status of duchy with Prince Menshikov as its first (and last) duke. In 1708, Ingria was designated governorate (Ingermanland Governorate in 1708-1710, Saint Petersburg Governorate in 1710-1914, Petrograd Governorate in 1914-1924, Leningrad Governorate in 1924-1927). Peter the Great or Pyotr Alexeyevich Romanov (Russian: Пётр I Алексеевич Pyotr I Alekséyevich) (9 June 1672–8 February 1725 [30 May 1672–28 January 1725 O.S.][1]) ruled Russia from 7 May (27 April O.S.) 1682 until his death, jointly ruling before 1696 with his weak and sickly... Menshikov in Exile Aleksandr Danilovich Menshikov (Александр Данилович Меншиков) (1673 – 1729) was a Russian statesman, whose official titles included Generalissimo, Prince of the Holy Roman Empire... Map of Saint Petersburg Governorate in 1900. ...


In 1870, printing of the first Finnish language newspaper Pietarin Sanomat started in Ingria. Before that Ingria received newspapers mostly from Vyborg. The first public library was opened in 1850 in Tyrö. The largest of the libraries, situated in Skuoritsa, had more than 2,000 volumes in the second half of the 19th century. In 1899 the first song festival in Ingria was held in Puutosti (Skuoritsa).[1] A view of Vyborg from the castle tower Vyborg (Russian: ; Finnish: ; Swedish: ; German: ) is a town in Leningrad Oblast, Russia, situated on the Karelian Isthmus near the head of the Bay of Vyborg, 130 km to the northwest of St. ...


By 1897 (year of the Russian Empire Census) the number of Ingrian Finns had grown to 130,413, by 1917 it had exceeded 140,000 (45,000 in Northern Ingria, 52,000 in Central (Eastern) Ingria and 30,000 in Western Ingria, the rest in Petrograd). Russian Empire Census of 1897 was the first and the only census carried out in the Imperial Russia. ... The Ingrian Finns (inkeriläinen or inkerinsuomalainen) are an ethnic group who speak a dialect of Finnish language and have traditionally inhabited the area called Ingria (or Ingermanland, in Finnish: Inkeri) situated between what is now Saint Petersburg and the northeastern border of Estonia. ... Saint Petersburg  listen (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991...


From 1868 Estonians began to migrate to Ingria as well. In 1897 the number of Estonians inhabiting the St. Petersburg Governorate reached 64,116 (12,238 of them in St. Petersburg itself), by 1926 it had increased to 66,333 (15,847 of them in Leningrad). Saint Petersburg Governorate in 1900 Capital Saint Petersburg History  - Conquered December 18, 1708  - Treaty of Nystad 1721  - Disestablished 26 January, 1924 Saint Petersburg Governorate (Санкт-Петербургская губерния or Saint Petersburg guberniya) was a governorate of the Russian Empire. ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and...


As to Izhorians, in 1834 there were 17,800 of them, in 1897 -- 21,000, in 1926 -- 26,137. About 1000 Ingrians lived in the area ceded to Estonia under the Peace Treaty of Tartu (1920).[1] The Izhorians (sg. ... Treaty of Tartu (Estonian: Tartu rahu, literally Tartu peace) between Estonia and Bolshevist Russia was signed in February 2, 1920 after the Estonian War of Independence. ...


Parishes of Haapakangas, Keltto, Lempaala, Mikkulainen, Rääpyvä, Toksova, Valkeasaari, Vuole (North Ingria), Hevaa, Hietamäki, Inkere, Skuoritsa, Spankkova, Tuutari, Tyrö, Venjoki (Central Ingria) and Soikkola (West Ingria) had purely Finnic population as late as in the beginning of the 20th century.[5] , Lembolovo (Russian: , Finnish: ) is a rural locality on Karelian Isthmus, in Vsevolozhsky District of Leningrad Oblast, and a station of the Saint Petersburg-Hiitola railroad. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Valkeasaari is a Finnish name of Beloostrov (Russian: ), a settlement at former Russian-Finnish border. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Ingria and Soviet Russia

In 1920 under the Russian-Estonian Peace Treaty of Tartu a small part of West Ingria was joined to the Republic of Estonia. Treaty of Tartu (Estonian: Tartu rahu, literally Tartu peace) between Estonia and Bolshevist Russia was signed in February 2, 1920 after the Estonian War of Independence. ...


After the 1917 Bolshevik revolution in Russia, Republic of North Ingria (Pohjois Inkeri) declared its independence from Russia with the support of Finland and with the aim to be incorporated into Finland. It ruled parts of Ingria from 1919 until 1920. With the Russian-Finnish Peace Treaty of Tartu it was re-integrated into Russia, but enjoyed a certain degree of autonomy. “Red October” redirects here. ... After the Bolshevic revolution in Russia the Republic of North Ingria (Pohjois Inkeri) seceded from Russia with the support of Finland with the aim to be incorporated into Finland. ... The Finnish-Russian border was decided in the Treaty of Tartu. ...


At its height in the 1920s, there were about 300 Finnish language schools and 10 Finnish language newspapers in Ingria. [1]


The First All-Union Census of the Soviet Union in 1926 recorded 114,831 Leningrad Finns, as Ingian Finns were called.[1] The 1926 census also showed that the Russian population of central Ingria had outnumbered the Finnic peoples living there, but in Northern Ingria Ingrian Finns formed the majority.[3] Promotional poster to the 1926 Census The First All Union Census of the Soviet Union took place in 1926. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Ingrian Finns (inkeriläinen or inkerinsuomalainen) are an ethnic group who speak a dialect of Finnish language and have traditionally inhabited the area called Ingria (or Ingermanland, in Finnish: Inkeri) situated between what is now Saint Petersburg and the northeastern border of Estonia. ...


The Izhorian language in the early 1930s was thaught in the schools of the Soikino Peninsula and the area around the mouth of the Luga River.[1] The Izhorians (Inkeroine, Ižoralaine) can still be found in the western part of Ingria, between the Narva and Neva rivers. ... The Luga River (Луга in Russian) is a river in the Novgorod and Leningrad Oblasts in Russia. ...


In 1928 collectivization of agriculture started in Ingria. To facilitate it, in 1929-1931, 18,000 people (4320 families), kulaks (independent peasants) from North Ingria, were deported to East Karelia, the Kola Peninsula as well as Kazakhstan and Central Asia. Traditional farming In Imperial Russia, the Stolypin Reform was aimed at the development of capitalism in agriculture by giving incentives for creation of large farms. ... Kulaks (from the Russian кулак (kulak, fist)) is a pejorative term extensively used in Soviet political language, originally referring to relatively wealthy peasants in the Russian Empire who owned larger farms and used hired labor, as a result of the Stolypin reform introduced since 1906. ... East Karelia and West Karelia with borders of 1939 and 1940/1947. ... Location of Kola south of the Barents Sea. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ...


The situation for the Ingrian Finns deteriorated further when in the fall of 1934 the Forbidden Border Zone along the western border of the Soviet Union was established, where nobody could appear without special permission issued by NKVD. It was officially only 7.5 km deep initially, but along the Estonian border it extended as much as to 90 km. The zone should be free of the Finnic and some other peoples, which were considered politically unreliable.[3][6] On March 25, 1935, Genrikh Yagoda authorized a large-scale deportation targeting Estonian, Latvian and Finnish kulaks and lishentsy residing in the border regions near Leningrad. About 7,000 people (2,000 families) were deported from Ingria to Kazakhstan, Central Asia and the Ural region. In May and June of 1936 the entire 20,000 Finnish population of the parishes of Valkeasaari, Lempaala, Vuole and Miikkulainen near the Finnish border were resettled to the areas around Cherepovets and Siberia in the next wave of deportations. In Ingria they were replaced with people from other parts of the Soviet Union, mostly Russians, but also Ukrainians and Tatars.[1][3] The Border Security Zone in Russia is a strip of land (usually, though not always, along the state border) where economic activity and access are restricted without permission of the FSB[1]. In order to visit the zone, a permit issued by the local FSB department is required[1]. The... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... is the 84th day of the year (85th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1935 (MCMXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar). ... Genrikh Yagoda Genrikh Grigorevich Yagoda (Russian: ; born Yenokh (Enoch) Gershonovich Ieguda (Russian: )[1]; ; 1891 – March 15, 1938) was the head of the NKVD, the Soviet secret police, from 1934 to 1936. ... The collectivisation campaign in the USSR, 1930s. ... A lishenets (Russian: лишенец), from Russian word лишение, deprivation, properly translated in this context as a disenfranchised, was a person stripped of the right of voting in the Soviet Union of 1918 — 1936. ... Ural (Russian: ) is a geographical region in Russia, around Ural Mountains. ... Valkeasaari is a Finnish name of Beloostrov (Russian: ), a settlement at former Russian-Finnish border. ... , Lembolovo (Russian: , Finnish: ) is a rural locality on Karelian Isthmus, in Vsevolozhsky District of Leningrad Oblast, and a station of the Saint Petersburg-Hiitola railroad. ... Restored Church of the Nativity (1789) Cherepovets (Russian: ) is the biggest city in Vologda Oblast, Russia. ... Tatars (Tatar: Tatarlar/Татарлар) is a collective name applied to the Turkic people of Eastern Europe and Central Asia. ...


In 1937 Lutheran churches and Finnish and Izhorian schools in Ingria were closed down and publications and radio broadcasting in Finnish and Izhorian were suspended.


Both Ingrian Finnish and Izhorian populations all but disappeared from Ingria during the Soviet period. 63,000 fled to Finland during World War II, and were required back by Stalin after the war. Most became victims of Soviet population transfers and many executed as "enemies of the people".[3][6][1] The remainder, including some post-Stalin returnees (it was not until 1956 that some of the deported were allowed to return to their villages), were outnumbered by Russian immigration. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Josef Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili (Georgian: , Ioseb Besarionis Dze Jughashvili; Russian: , Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili) (December 18 [O.S. December 6] 1878[2] – March 5, 1953), better known by his adopted name, Joseph Stalin (alternatively transliterated Josef Stalin), was General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Unions Central Committee from... Not by Their Own Will. ... For the play by Henrik Ibsen, see An Enemy of the People. ...


The 1959 census recorded 1062 Izhorians; in 1979 that number had fallen to 748, only 315 of them around the mouth of the Luga River and on the Soykino Peninsula. According to the Soviet census of 1989, there were 829 Izhorians, 449 of them in Russia (including other parts of the country) and 228 in Estonia.[1] The Luga River (Луга in Russian) is a river in the Novgorod and Leningrad Oblasts in Russia. ... The 1989 Soviet Census was the final and most comprehensive census taken within The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics The census officially recorded the popullation of the USSR at 286,717,000, making it the third most populous country in the world. ...


After the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, surviving Ingrian Finns and their Russified descendants have been allowed to emigrate to Finland. This has led to the birth of a sizable Russophone minority in Finland. The rise of Gorbachev Although reform stalled between 1964–1982, the generational shift gave new momentum for reform. ... The term Right of return refers to the principle in international law that members of an ethnic or national group have a right to immigration and naturalization into the country that they, the destination country, or both consider to be that groups homeland, independent of prior personal citizenship in... Look up Russophone in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


See also

The Ingrian flag. ... Map of Saint Petersburg Governorate in 1900. ... Leningrad Oblast (Russian: , tr. ...

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Kurs, Ott (1994). Ingria: The broken landbridge between Estonia and Finland. GeoJournal 33.1, 107-113.
  2. ^ Based on Räikkönen, Erkki. Heimokirja. Helsinki: Otava, 1924.
  3. ^ a b c d e Matley, Ian M. (1979). The Dispersal of the Ingrian Finns. Slavic Review 38.1, 1-16.
  4. ^ Inkeri. Historia, kansa, kulttuuri. Edited by Pekka Nevalainen and Hannes Sihvo. Helsinki 1991.
  5. ^ Aminoff, Torsten G. Karjala Lännen etuvartiona. 700-vuotinen taistelu Karjalasta. Helsinki: Otava, 1943.
  6. ^ a b Martin, Terry (1998). The Origins of Soviet Ethnic Cleansing. The Journal of Modern History 70.4, 813-861.

GeoJournal is a peer-reviewed international academic journal on all aspects of geography founded in 1980. ... The Slavic Review is the leading international journal in Slavic studies with the coverage centered on Russia, Central Eurasia and Eastern and Central Europe. ... The Journal of Modern History is an academic journal published by the University of Chicago Press. ...

Further reading

  • Kurs, Ott (1994). Ingria: The broken landbridge between Estonia and Finland. GeoJournal 33.1, 107-113.
  • Site of the Ingrian Cultural Society in Helsinki

  Results from FactBites:
 
Ingria - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (773 words)
Historically Ingria (Finnish: Inkeri, Russian: Izhora, Swedish: Ingermanland) comprises the area along the basin of the river Neva, between the Gulf of Finland, the Narva River, Lake Peipsi in the south-west, and Lake Ladoga in the north-east.
Ingria never formed a state; the Ingrians can hardly be said to have been a nation, although their "nationality" was recognized in the Soviet Union, and as an ethnos the Ingrians dying out together with their language.
Ingria became a Swedish dominion in the 1580s, was returned to Russia by the Treaty of Teusina (1595), and after the Ingrian War again ceded to Sweden in the Treaty of Stolbova (1617).
Ingria - definition of Ingria in Encyclopedia (664 words)
Ingria never came to form a state, the Ingrians can hardly be said to have been a nation, although their "nationality" was recognized in the Soviet Union, and as an ethnos the Ingrians are about to perish together with their language.
In the Viking age/late Iron Age, from the 750s and on, Ingria was a bridgehead on the Varangian trade route to Eastern Europe.
Ingria fell to Sweden in the 1580s, was returned to Russia by the Treaty of Teusina (1595), and again ceded to Sweden in the Treaty of Stolbova (1617).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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