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Encyclopedia > Ingmar Bergman
Ingmar Bergman

Ingmar Bergman during production of Wild Strawberries (1957)
Birth name Ernst Ingmar Bergman
Born July 14, 1918(1918-07-14)
Uppsala, Sweden
Died July 30, 2007 (aged 89)
Fårö, Sweden
Years active 1944–2005
Spouse(s) Else Fisher (1943–1945)
Ellen Lundström (1945-1950)
Gun Grut (1951–1959)
Käbi Laretei (1959–1969)
Ingrid von Rosen (1971–1995)
Children Lena Bergman (b. 1943)
Eva Bergman (b. 1945)
Jan Bergman (b. 1946)
Mats Bergman (b. 1948)
Anna Bergman (b. 1948)
Ingmar Bergman Jr. (b. 1951)
Maria von Rosen (b. 1959)
Daniel Bergman (b. 1962)
Linn Ullmann (b. 1966)

Ingmar Bergman  (IPA: ['ɪŋmar 'bærjman] in Swedish; usually IPA: ['ɪŋgmɑɹ ˈbɝgmən] in English) (July 14, 1918July 30, 2007) was a Swedish film, stage, and opera director. He found bleakness and despair as well as comedy and hope in his explorations of the human condition. He is recognized as one of the greatest and most influential filmmakers of modern cinema.[1] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Wild Strawberries a 1957 film written and directed by Ingmar Bergman. ... is the 195th day of the year (196th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... Uppsala (older spelling Upsala) is a city in central Sweden, located about 70 km north of Stockholm. ... is the 211th day of the year (212th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... Map of Sweden highlighting Gotlands location. ... Käbi Laretei (born July 14, 1922 is an Estonian concert pianist; her father was a diplomat in the service of the Republic of Estonia and when the Soviet Union invaded the country he and his family fled to Sweden. ... Ingrid von Rosen (sometimes cited as Ingrid Bergman) (January 17, 1930-May 20, 1995) was a house wife and married to Swedish film director Ingmar Bergman. ... Lena Bergman (21 December 1943 – ), is a Swedish film actor. ... Eva Bergman (pronounced in Swedish, but usually in English), born 5 September 1945 in Helsingborg, Sweden is a Swedish film and TV director. ... Mats Bergman, (born May 5, 1948 in Gothenburg, Sweden) is a Swedish actor. ... Anna Bergman is a Swedish actress, born 5 May 1949 in Gothenburg, Sweden. ... Daniel Da Pimpzmastah of Huddinge is known for some stuff. ... Linn Ullmann (born in Oslo, Norway in 1966) is the daughter of actress Liv Ullmann and director Ingmar Bergman, and a respected Norwegian author and journalist. ... Academy Award The Academy Awards, popularly known as the Oscars, are the most prominent and most watched film awards ceremony in the world. ... The Irving G. Thalberg Memorial Award is awarded periodically (although not every year) at the Academy Awards ceremonies to Creative producers, whose bodies of work reflect a consistently high quality of motion picture production. ... The César Award is the national film award of France first given out in 1975. ... César Award for Best Foreign Film: 1976: Scent of a Woman (Italy), directed by Dino Risi 1977: We All Loved Each Other So Much (Italy), directed by Ettore Scola 1978: A Special Day (Italy), directed by Ettore Scola 1979: The Tree with the Wooden Clogs (Italy), directed by Ermanno... Fanny och Alexander is a 1982 Swedish film written and directed by Ingmar Bergman. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Cries and Whispers (Swedish: Viskningar och rop) is a 1973 Swedish film about two sisters who watch over their third sister on her deathbed, both afraid she might die, but both hoping she does. ... Scener ur ett äktenskap (roughly translated as Scenes from a Marriage) is a Swedish film written and directed by Ingmar Bergman. ... Fanny och Alexander is a 1982 Swedish film written and directed by Ingmar Bergman. ... The New York Film Critics Circle Award for Best Screenplay is one the annual film awards given by the New York Film Critics Circle. ... Cries and Whispers (Swedish: Viskningar och rop) is a 1973 Swedish film about two sisters who watch over their third sister on her deathbed, both afraid she might die, but both hoping she does. ... Image File history File links Sv-Ingmar Bergman. ... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... is the 195th day of the year (196th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... is the 211th day of the year (212th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... The film director, on the right, gives last minute direction to the cast and crew, whilst filming a costume drama on location in London. ... A theatre director is a principal in the theatre field who oversees and orchestrates the mounting of a play by unifying various endeavors and aspects of production. ... This article is about Opera, the art form. ... For other uses, see Human condition (disambiguation). ...


He directed 62 films, most of which he wrote, and directed over 170 plays. Some of his internationally known favorite actors were Liv Ullmann and Max von Sydow. Most of his films were set in the landscape of his native Sweden. The themes were often bleak, dealing with illness, betrayal, and insanity. Liv Johanne Ullmann (born December 16, 1938) is an Academy Award-nominated, Golden Globe-winning Norwegian actress, author and film director. ...  , (born April 10, 1929) is an Academy-Award nominated Swedish actor, known in particular for his collaboration with filmmaker Ingmar Bergman. ...


Bergman was active for more than 60 years, but his career was seriously threatened in 1976 when he suspended a number of pending productions, closed his studios, and went into self-imposed exile in Germany for eight years following a botched criminal investigation for alleged income tax evasion.

Contents

Biography

Ingmar's father, Pastor Erik Bergman, pictured at Hedvig Eleonora Church in Stockholm
Bergman appeared on the cover of the TIME Magazine edition of March 14, 1960

Ingmar Bergman was born in Uppsala, Sweden, to Erik Bergman, a Lutheran minister and later chaplain to the King of Sweden, and his wife, Karin (maiden name Åkerblom). He grew up surrounded by religious imagery and discussion. His father was a rather conservative parish minister and strict family father: Ingmar was locked up in dark closets for infractions such as wetting the bed. "While father preached away in the pulpit and the congregation prayed, sang or listened," Ingmar wrote in his biography Laterna Magica, Image File history File links Size of this preview: 459 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (500 × 653 pixel, file size: 66 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)Erik Bergman (1886-1970), parish minister, father of the Swedish film director Ingmar Bergman. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 459 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (500 × 653 pixel, file size: 66 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)Erik Bergman (1886-1970), parish minister, father of the Swedish film director Ingmar Bergman. ... Ingemars father, Erik Bergman pictured at Hedvig Eleonora Church in Stockholm Erik Bergman (1886-1970) was a Swedish parish minister of the Lutheran Church and Ingmar Bergmans father. ... Hedvig Eleonora Church Hedvig Eleonora Church (Hedvig Eleonora kyrka) is a church in central Stockholm, Sweden (in the east district of Östermalm). ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Time (whose trademark is capitalized TIME) is a weekly American newsmagazine, similar to Newsweek and U.S. News & World Report. ... is the 73rd day of the year (74th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Uppsala (older spelling Upsala) is a city in central Sweden, located about 70 km north of Stockholm. ... Ingemars father, Erik Bergman pictured at Hedvig Eleonora Church in Stockholm Erik Bergman (1886-1970) was a Swedish parish minister of the Lutheran Church and Ingmar Bergmans father. ... The Lutheran movement is a group of denominations of Protestant Christianity by the original definition. ... Sweden is a constitutional monarchy with a representative democracy based on a parliamentary system. ...

"I devoted my interest to the church’s mysterious world of low arches, thick walls, the smell of eternity, the colored sunlight quivering above the strangest vegetation of medieval paintings and carved figures on ceilings and walls. There was everything that one’s imagination could desire — angels, saints, dragons, prophets, devils, humans."

Despite growing up in this devout Lutheran household, Bergman stated that he lost his faith at age eight and only came to terms with this fact while making Winter Light.[2] Winter Light (originally titled Nattvardsgästerna) was both written and directed by world-renowned Swedish filmmaker Ingmar Bergman in 1963, and stars Bergman regulars Gunnar Björnstrand and Max von Sydow. ...


Bergman's interest in theatre and film began early:

"At the age of 9, he traded a set of tin soldiers for a battered magic lantern, a possession that altered the course of his life. Within a year, he had created, by playing with this toy, a private world in which he felt completely at home, he recalled. He fashioned his own scenery, marionettes and lighting effects and gave puppet productions of Strindberg plays in which he spoke all the parts."[3]

In 1934, at the age of 16, Bergman was sent to spend the summer vacation with family friends in Germany. It is believed that he attended a Nazi rally in Weimar at which he saw Adolf Hitler.[4] He later wrote in his biography Laterna Magica about the visit to Germany, how the German family had put a portrait of Adolf Hitler on the wall by his bed, and that "for many years, I was on Hitler's side, delighted by his success and saddened by his defeats".[5] The Nazi swastika The National Socialist German Workers Party (German: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei), better known as the NSDAP or the Nazi Party was a political party that was led to power in Germany by Adolf Hitler in 1933. ... For other uses, see Weimar (disambiguation). ... Hitler redirects here. ...


He performed two five-month stretches of mandatory military service.


In 1937 he entered Stockholm University College (later renamed to Stockholm University), to study art and literature. He spent most of his time involved in student theatre and became a "genuine movie addict".[6] At the same time a romantic involvement led to a break with his father that lasted several years. Although he did not graduate, he wrote a number of plays, as well as an opera, and became an assistant director at a theatre. In 1942, while working for the theatre he was given the chance to direct one of his own scripts, Caspar's Death. The play was seen by members of Svensk Filmindustri who then offered him a position working on scripts. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Stockholm University (Stockholms universitet) is a state university in Stockholm, Sweden. ... AB Svensk Filmindutri or Svensk Filmindustri (SF) is Swedens most well-known company for film production and distribution of cinema, both Swedish and international. ...


In 1943 he married Else Fisher.


Since the early 1960s Bergman lived much of his life on the island of Fårö, Gotland, Sweden, where he made several of his films. Map of Sweden highlighting Gotlands location. ...   is a county, province and municipality of Sweden and the second largest island in the Baltic Sea after Zealand. ...


Tax evasion charges and exile

1976 was one of the most traumatic years in the life of Ingmar Bergman. On January 30, 1976, while rehearsing August Strindberg's Dance of Death at the Royal Dramatic Theatre in Stockholm, he was arrested by two plainclothes police officers and charged with income-tax evasion. The impact of the event on Bergman was devastating. He suffered a nervous breakdown as a result of the humiliation and was hospitalized in a state of deep depression. is the 30th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1976 Pick up sticks(MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... August Strindberg Portrait of August Strindberg by Richard Bergh   (January 22, 1849 – May 14, 1912) was a Swedish writer, playwright, and painter. ... The Dance of Death (Dödsdansen) is a play is two parts written by August Strindberg in 1900. ... The Royal Dramatic Theatre or in Swedish Kungliga Dramatiska Teatern, colloquially known in Sweden as Dramaten, is Swedens national stage for spoken drama. Around one thousand shows are played annually on the theatres eight running stages. ... Clinical depression (also called major depressive disorder, or unipolar depression when compared to bipolar disorder) is a state of intense sadness, melancholia or despair that has advanced to the point of being disruptive to an individuals social functioning and/or activities of daily living. ...


The investigation was focused on an alleged 1970 transaction of SEK 500,000 between Bergman's Swedish company Cinematograf and its Swiss subsidiary Persona, an entity that was mainly used for the paying of salaries to foreign actors. Bergman dissolved Persona in 1974 after having been notified by the Swedish Central Bank and subsequently reported the income. On March 23,1976, the special prosecutor Anders Nordenadler dropped the charges against Bergman, saying that the alleged "crime" had no legal basis, comparing the case to the bringing of "charges against a person who is stealing his own car".[7] Director General Gösta Ekman, chief of the Swedish Internal Revenue Service, defended the failed investigation, saying that the investigation was dealing with important legal material and that Bergman was treated just like any other suspect. He offered some regret that Bergman had left the country, hoping that Bergman was a "stronger" person now when the investigation had shown that he had not done anything wrong.[8]


Even though the charges were dropped, Bergman was for a while disconsolate, fearing he would never again return to directing. He eventually recovered from the shock, but despite pleas by the Swedish prime minister Olof Palme, high public figures, and leaders of the film industry, he vowed never to work again in Sweden. He closed down his studio on the barren Baltic island of Fårö, suspended two announced film projects and went into self-imposed exile in Munich, Germany. Harry Schein, director of the Swedish Film Institute, estimated the immediate damage caused by Bergman's exile to SEK 10 million and hundreds of jobs lost.[9] Sven Olof Joachim Palme ( ) (January 30, 1927 – March 1, 1986) was a Swedish politician. ... Map of Sweden highlighting Gotlands location. ... For other uses, see Munich (disambiguation). ... Harry Schein (13 October 1924, Wien - 11 Februari 2006, Djursholm) was an Austrian born Swedish writer and a major figure in Swedish culture. ... Entrance to the building of the Swedish Film Institute in Östermalm, Stockholm The 140 meters long studio and office building, Kaknästornet is seen in the background The Swedish Film Institute was founded in 1963 to support and develop the Swedish film industry. ...


Return from Exile

Although he continued to operate from Munich, by mid-1978, Ingmar Bergman seemed to have overcome some of his bitterness toward his motherland. In July of that year he was back in Sweden, celebrating his 60th birthday at Fårö and partly resumed his work as a director at Royal Dramatic Theatre. To honor his return, the Swedish Film Institute launched a new Ingmar Bergman Prize to be awarded annually for excellence in film making.[10] Entrance to the building of the Swedish Film Institute in Östermalm, Stockholm The 140 meters long studio and office building, Kaknästornet is seen in the background The Swedish Film Institute was founded in 1963 to support and develop the Swedish film industry. ...


However, he remained in Munich until 1984. In one of the last major interviews with Bergman, done in 2005 at Fårö Island, Bergman said that despite being active during the exile, he had effectively lost eight years of his professional life.[11] Bergman retired from film making in December 2003. He had hip surgery in October 2006 and was having a difficult recovery. He died peacefully in his sleep,[12] at his home on Fårö, on July 30, 2007, age 89,[13] the same day that another renowned film director, Michelangelo Antonioni, also died. He was buried August 18, 2007 on the island in a private ceremony. A place in the Fårö churchyard was prepared for him under heavy secrecy. Although he was buried on the island of Fårö, his name and date of birth were inscribed under his wife's name on a tomb at Roslagsbro churchyard, Norrtälje Municipality, several years before his death, where it seems that he had at one point intended to be buried. Map of Sweden highlighting Gotlands location. ... is the 211th day of the year (212th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... Michelangelo Antonioni (September 29, 1912 - July 30, 2007) was an Italian modernist film director whose films are widely considered as some of the most influential in film aesthetics. ... is the 230th day of the year (231st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... Norrtälje Municipality is located in Stockholm County, in the easten part of central Sweden, with the town Norrtälje (pop. ...


Film Work

Many filmmakers worldwide, including Americans Woody Allen, David Lynch,[14] Stanley Kubrick,[15] and Robert Altman, the Danish director Lars Von Trier, the Polish director Krzysztof Kieślowski, the Russian director Andrei Tarkovsky,[16] and the South Korean director Chan-wook Park, have cited the work of Bergman as a major influence on their own work.[citation needed]Woody Allen said Bergman was "probably the greatest film artist, all things considered, since the invention of the motion picture camera."[17] Woody Allen (born Allen Stewart Königsberg on December 1, 1935) is a three-time Academy Award-winning American film director, writer, actor, jazz musician, comedian, and playwright. ... For other persons named David Lynch, see David Lynch (disambiguation). ... “Kubrick” redirects here. ... For other persons named Robert Altman, see Robert Altman (disambiguation). ... Lars von Trier (born Lars Trier, April 30, 1956) is a Danish film director closely associated with the Dogme95 collective, calling for a return to plausible stories in filmmaking and a move away from artifice and towards technical minimalism. ... Krzysztof KieÅ›lowski   (June 27, 1941 Warsaw, Poland – March 13, 1996 Warsaw, Poland) was an influential Oscar-nominated Polish film director and screenwriter, known internationally for his film cycles Three Colors and The Decalogue. ... “Tarkovsky” redirects here. ... ... Woody Allen (born Allen Stewart Königsberg on December 1, 1935) is a three-time Academy Award-winning American film director, writer, actor, jazz musician, comedian, and playwright. ...


Career

Classroom scene from Torment (1944): The Latin teacher Caligula (Stig Järrel) and Jan-Erik Widgren (Alf Kjellin)

Bergman first began working in film in 1941 rewriting scripts, but his first major accomplishment was in 1944 when he wrote the screenplay for Torment/Frenzy (Hets), a film directed by Alf Sjöberg. Along with writing the screenplay he was also given a position as assistant director to the film. In his second autobiography Images : My Life in Film, Bergman describes the filming of the exteriors as his actual film directorial debut.[18] The international success of this film led to Bergman's first opportunity to direct a year later. During the next ten years he wrote and directed more than a dozen films including The Devil's Wanton/Prison (Fängelse) in 1949 and The Naked Night/Sawdust and Tinsel (Gycklarnas afton) in 1953. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Torment (Swedish: ) is a Swedish film from 1944, directed by Alf Sjöberg, with screen play by director Ingmar Bergman. ... Stig Järrel (February 8, 1910-July 1, 1998) was a Swedish actor, film director and revue artist. ... Alf Kjellin (28 February 1920 – 5 April 1988), was a Swedish film actor and director. ... Torment (Swedish: ) is a Swedish film from 1944, directed by Alf Sjöberg, with screen play by director Ingmar Bergman. ... Alf Sjöberg (June 21, 1903 – April 16, 1980) was a Swedish film director. ... Prison (original title Fängelse) is a 1949 Swedish film by Ingmar Bergman. ... Sawdust and Tinsel (original title Gycklarnas afton) is a 1953 Swedish film by Ingmar Bergman. ...


Bergman first achieved international success with Smiles of a Summer Night (Sommarnattens leende) (1955), which won for "Best poetic humor" and was nominated for the Golden Palm at Cannes the following year. This was followed two years later with two of Bergman's most well known films, The Seventh Seal (Det sjunde inseglet) and Wild Strawberries (Smultronstället). The Seventh Seal won a special jury prize and was nominated for the Golden Palm at Cannes and Wild Strawberries won numerous awards for Bergman and its star, Victor Sjöström. Sommarnattens leende (Smiles of a Summer Night) is a 1955 film directed by Ingmar Bergman. ... The Seventh Seal (Swedish: Det sjunde inseglet) is an existential 1957 Swedish film directed by Ingmar Bergman about the journey of a medieval knight (Max von Sydow) across a plague-ridden landscape. ... Wild Strawberries a 1957 film written and directed by Ingmar Bergman. ... Victor Sjöström   (in the United States sometimes known as Victor Seastrom) (September 20, 1879 – January 3, 1960) was a Swedish actor, screenwriter, and film director. ...


Bergman continued to be productive for the next 20 years. In the early 60's he directed a trilogy that explored the theme of faith and doubt in God, Through a Glass Darkly (i en Spegel - 1961), Winter Light (Nattvardsgasterna - 1962), and The Silence (Tystnaden - 1963). In 1966 he directed Persona, a film that he himself considered one of his most important films. While the film won few awards many consider it his masterpiece and one of the best films ever produced. Bergman himself considers this film along with Cries and Whispers (Viskningar och rop - 1972) to be his two most important films. Other notable films of the period include The Virgin Spring (Jungfrukällan - 1960), Hour of the Wolf (Vargtimmen - 1968), Shame (Skammen - 1968) and A Passion/The Passion of Anna (En Passion - 1969). Bergman also produced extensively for Swedish TV at this time. Two works of note were Scenes from a Marriage (Scener ur ett äktenskap - 1973) and The Magic Flute (Trollflöjten - 1975). Through a Glass Darkly (originally titled SÃ¥som i en spegel) is a 1961 film written and directed by Swedish filmmaker Ingmar Bergman, and produced by Allan Ekelund. ... Winter Light (originally titled Nattvardsgästerna) was both written and directed by world-renowned Swedish filmmaker Ingmar Bergman in 1963, and stars Bergman regulars Gunnar Björnstrand and Max von Sydow. ... The Silence is a 1963 film written and directed by Ingmar Bergman and starring Ingrid Thulin and Gunnel Lindblom. ... Persona is a movie by Swedish director Ingmar Bergman, released in 1966, and featuring Bibi Andersson and Liv Ullmann. ... Cries and Whispers (original title Viskningar och rop) is a 1973 Swedish film which tells the story of two sisters who watch over their third sisters deathbed, both afraid she might die, but hoping she does. ... The Virgin Spring (Swedish: Jungfrukällan) is a 1960 Swedish film directed by Ingmar Bergman. ... This article is not about the WBAI radio show, Hour of the Wolf, which was named after this movie. ... Skammen (Swedish for Shame), is a 1968 black-and-white film written and directed by Ingmar Bergman, and starring Liv Ullmann and Max von Sydow. ... The Passion of Anna (original Swedish title En Passion) is a 1969 drama film written and directed by Ingmar Bergman. ... Scener ur ett äktenskap (roughly translated as Scenes from a Marriage) is a Swedish film written and directed by Ingmar Bergman. ... For the opera by Mozart, see Die Zauberflöte. ...


After his arrest in 1976 for tax evasion, Bergman swore he would never again make films in his native country. He shut down his film studio on the island of Faro and went into exile. He briefly considered the possibility of working in America and his next film, The Serpent's Egg (1977) was a German-American production and his first and only English language film. This was followed a year later with a British-Norwegian co-production of Autumn Sonata (Höstsonaten - 1978). The film starred Ingrid Bergman and was the one notable film of this period. The one other film he directed was From the Life of the Marionettes (Aus dem Leben der Marionetten - 1980) a British-German co-production. The Serpents Egg is a 1977 English and German film directed by Ingmar Bergman, set in 1920s Berlin. ... Höstsonaten is a 1978 Swedish film which tells the story of a famous pianist who confronts her neglected daughters. ... Aus dem Leben der Marionetten (From the Life of the Marionettes) is a 1980 film directed by Ingmar Bergman. ...


In 1982, he temporarily returned to his homeland to direct Fanny and Alexander (Fanny och Alexander), a film that, unlike his previous productions, was aimed at a broader audience, but also critizised within the profession for being shallow and commercial.[19] Bergman stated that the film would be his last, and that afterwards he would focus on directing theatre. Since then, he wrote several film scripts and directed a number of television specials. As with previous work for TV some of these productions were later released in theatres. The last such work was Saraband (2003), a sequel to Scenes from a Marriage and directed by Bergman when he was 84 years old. Fanny and Alexander (Swedish: Fanny och Alexander) is a 1982, Academy Award-winning Swedish film written and directed by Ingmar Bergman. ... For the Baroque dance and its corresponding musical form, see Sarabande. ...


Repertory company

Bergman developed a personal "repertory company" of Swedish actors whom he repeatedly cast in his films, including Max von Sydow, Bibi Andersson, Harriet Andersson, Erland Josephson, Ingrid Thulin, and Gunnar Björnstrand, each of whom appeared in at least five Bergman features. Norwegian actress Liv Ullmann, who appeared in nine of Bergman's films and one TV movie (Saraband), was the last to join this group (in the 1966 film Persona), and ultimately became most closely associated with Bergman, both artistically and personally. They had a daughter together, Linn Ullmann (b. 1966).  , (born April 10, 1929) is an Academy-Award nominated Swedish actor, known in particular for his collaboration with filmmaker Ingmar Bergman. ... Bibi Andersson (born 11 November 1935 in Stockholm) is a Swedish actress. ... Harriet Andersson (born 14 January 1932 in Stockholm) is a Swedish actress, best known for being one of Ingmar Bergmans regular actresses. ... Erland Josephson (born June 15, 1923 in Stockholm, Sweden) is a Swedish actor. ... Ingrid Thulin (27 January 1926 – 7 January 2004) was a Swedish actress. ... Gunnar Björnstrand, (13 November 1909 - 26 May 1986) was a Swedish character actor known for his frequent work with writer/director Ingmar Bergman. ... Liv Johanne Ullmann (born December 16, 1938) is an Academy Award-nominated, Golden Globe-winning Norwegian actress, author and film director. ... Persona is a movie by Swedish director Ingmar Bergman, released in 1966, and featuring Bibi Andersson and Liv Ullmann. ... Linn Ullmann (born in Oslo, Norway in 1966) is the daughter of actress Liv Ullmann and director Ingmar Bergman, and a respected Norwegian author and journalist. ... Year 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the 1966 Gregorian calendar. ...

Ingmar Bergman with his long time cinematographer Sven Nykvist during the production of Through a Glass Darkly (1960)
A great number of Bergman's interior scenes were filmed at the Filmstaden studios north of Stockholm.
A great number of Bergman's interior scenes were filmed at the Filmstaden studios north of Stockholm.

Bergman began working with Sven Nykvist, his cinematographer, in 1953. The two of them developed and maintained a working relationship of sufficient rapport to allow Bergman not to worry about the composition of a shot until the day before it was filmed. On the morning of the shoot, he would briefly speak to Nykvist about the mood and composition he hoped for, and then leave Nykvist to work without interruption or comment until post-production discussion of the next day's work. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Sven Nykvist (born 3 December 1922 in Moheda, Kronobergs län, Sweden) is a Swedish cinematographer known especially for his work with director Ingmar Bergman. ... Through a Glass Darkly (originally titled SÃ¥som i en spegel) is a 1961 film written and directed by Swedish filmmaker Ingmar Bergman, and produced by Allan Ekelund. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Filmstaden, main gate (c. ... Sven Nykvist (born 3 December 1922 in Moheda, Kronobergs län, Sweden) is a Swedish cinematographer known especially for his work with director Ingmar Bergman. ... A Cameraman-Reporter during a MINUSTAH mission in 2007 (Photo: Patrick-André Perron A cinematographer is one photographing with a motion picture camera (the art and science of which is known as cinematography). ... Year 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Financing

By Bergman's own account, he never had a problem with funding. He cited two reasons for this: one, that he did not live in the United States, which he viewed as obsessed with box-office earnings; and two, that his films tended to be low-budget affairs.[citation needed] (Cries and Whispers, for instance, was finished for about $450,000, while Scenes from a Marriage — a six-episode television feature — cost only $200,000.)[citation needed] Cries and Whispers (original title Viskningar och rop) is a 1973 Swedish film which tells the story of two sisters who watch over their third sisters deathbed, both afraid she might die, but hoping she does. ... Scener ur ett äktenskap (roughly translated as Scenes from a Marriage) is a Swedish film written and directed by Ingmar Bergman. ...


Technique

As a director, Bergman favored intuition over intellect, and chose to be unaggressive in dealing with actors. Bergman saw himself as having a great responsibility toward them, viewing them as collaborators often in a psychologically vulnerable position. He stated that a director must be both honest and supportive in order to allow others their best work.[citation needed] He encouraged young directors not to direct any film that does not have a "message," but rather to wait until one comes along that does, yet admitted that he himself was not always sure of the message of some of his films.[citation needed]


Bergman usually wrote his own screenplays, thinking about them for months or years before starting the actual process of writing, which he viewed as somewhat tedious. His earlier films are carefully structured, and are either based on his plays or written in collaboration with other authors. Bergman stated that in his later works, when on occasion his actors would want to do things differently from his own intentions, he would let them, noting that the results were often "disastrous" when he did not do so. As his career progressed, Bergman increasingly let his actors improvise their dialogue. In his latest films, he wrote just the ideas informing the scene and allowed his actors to determine the exact dialogue. Sample from a screenplay, showing dialogue and action descriptions. ... For other uses, see Play (disambiguation). ... Improvisation is the practice of acting and reacting, of making and creating, in the moment and in response to the stimulus of ones immediate environment. ...


When viewing daily rushes, Bergman stressed the importance of being critical but unemotional, claiming that he asked himself not if the work is great or terrible, but if it is sufficient or if it needs to be reshot.[citation needed] In film, daily rushes (or simply rushes or dailies) is the footage shot during a given day, without external soundtrack or adjustment. ...


Themes

Bergman's films usually deal with existential questions of mortality, loneliness, and faith; they also tend to be direct and not overtly stylized. Persona, one of Bergman's most famous films, is unusual among Bergman's work in being both existentialist and avant-garde. Existentialism is a philosophical movement which claims that individual human beings create the meanings of their own lives. ... For other uses, see Faith (disambiguation). ... Persona is a movie by Swedish director Ingmar Bergman, released in 1966, and featuring Bibi Andersson and Liv Ullmann. ... A work similar to Marcel Duchamps Fountain Avant garde (written avant-garde) is a French phrase, one of many French phrases used by English speakers. ...


While his themes could be cerebral, sexual desire found its way to the foreground of most of his movies, whether the setting was a medieval plague (The Seventh Seal), upper-class family life in early 20th century Uppsala (Fanny and Alexander) or contemporary alienation (The Silence). His female characters were usually more in touch with their sexuality than their men were, and were not afraid to proclaim it, with the sometimes breathtaking overtness (e.g., Cries and Whispers) that defined the work of "the conjurer," as Bergman called himself in a 1960 Time magazine cover story. In an interview with Playboy magazine in 1964, he said: "...the manifestation of sex is very important, and particularly to me, for above all, I don't want to make merely intellectual films. I want audiences to feel, to sense my films. This to me is much more important than their understanding them." Film, Bergman said, was his demanding mistress.[citation needed] Some of his major actresses became his actual mistresses as his real life doubled up on his movie-making one. The Silence is a 1963 film written and directed by Ingmar Bergman and starring Ingrid Thulin and Gunnel Lindblom. ... Cries and Whispers (original title Viskningar och rop) is a 1973 Swedish film which tells the story of two sisters who watch over their third sisters deathbed, both afraid she might die, but hoping she does. ...


Love — twisted, thwarted, unexpressed, repulsed — was the leitmotif of many of his movies, beginning, perhaps, with Winter Light, where the pastor's barren faith is contrasted with his former mistress' struggle, tinged with spite as it is, to help him find spiritual justification through human love. Winter Light (originally titled Nattvardsgästerna) was both written and directed by world-renowned Swedish filmmaker Ingmar Bergman in 1963, and stars Bergman regulars Gunnar Björnstrand and Max von Sydow. ...


Bergman's views on his career

Ingmar Bergman and actress Ingrid Thulin during the production of The Silence (1963)

When asked about his movies, Bergman said he held Winter Light,[20] Persona, and Cries and Whispers in the highest regard, though in an interview in 2004, Bergman said that he was "depressed" by his own films and could not watch them anymore.[21] In these films, he said, he managed to push the medium to its limit. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Ingrid Thulin (27 January 1926 – 7 January 2004) was a Swedish actress. ... The Silence is a 1963 film written and directed by Ingmar Bergman and starring Ingrid Thulin and Gunnel Lindblom. ... Winter Light (originally titled Nattvardsgästerna) was both written and directed by world-renowned Swedish filmmaker Ingmar Bergman in 1963, and stars Bergman regulars Gunnar Björnstrand and Max von Sydow. ... Persona is a movie by Swedish director Ingmar Bergman, released in 1966, and featuring Bibi Andersson and Liv Ullmann. ... Cries and Whispers (original title Viskningar och rop) is a 1973 Swedish film which tells the story of two sisters who watch over their third sisters deathbed, both afraid she might die, but hoping she does. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


While he denounced the critical classification of three of his films (Through a Glass Darkly, Winter Light, and The Silence) as a predetermined trilogy, saying he had no intention of connecting them and could not see any common motifs in them[22] , this contradicts the introduction Bergman himself wrote in 1964 when he had the three scripts published in a single volume: "These three films deal with reduction. Through a Glass Darkly - conquered certainty. Winter Light - penetrated certainty. The Silence - God's silence - the negative imprint. Therefore, they constitute a trilogy". The Criterion Collection sees the films as a trilogy and has released all three on DVD individually and as a boxed set. Through a Glass Darkly (originally titled SÃ¥som i en spegel) is a 1961 film written and directed by Swedish filmmaker Ingmar Bergman, and produced by Allan Ekelund. ... Winter Light (originally titled Nattvardsgästerna) was both written and directed by world-renowned Swedish filmmaker Ingmar Bergman in 1963, and stars Bergman regulars Gunnar Björnstrand and Max von Sydow. ... The Silence is a 1963 film written and directed by Ingmar Bergman and starring Ingrid Thulin and Gunnel Lindblom. ... The Criterion Collection logo The Criterion Collection is a privately held company that distributes authoritative consumer versions of important classic and contemporary films on DVD. It was established in 1984 as a joint venture between Janus Films and the Voyager Company. ... Size comparison: A 12 cm Sony DVD+RW and a 19 cm Dixon Ticonderoga pencil. ... A boxed set (often erroneously referred to as a box set) is one or more musical recordings, films, or television programs that are contained in a box. ...


Bergman has stated on numerous occasions (for example in the interview book Bergman on Bergman) that The Silence meant the end of an era when religious questions were a major concern in his films.


Theatrical work

Although Bergman was universally famous for his contribution to cinema, he was an active and productive stage director all his life. During his studies at Stockholm University he became active in its student theatre, where he early on made a name for himself. He first work after graduation was as a trainee-director at a Stockholm theatre. At age 26 he became the youngest theatre manager in Europe at the Helsingborg city theatre. He stayed at Helsingborg for 3 years and then became the director at Gothenburg city theatre from 1946 to 1949. Stockholm University (Stockholms universitet) is a state university in Stockholm, Sweden. ...


He was the director of the Malmö city theatre in 1953 and remained for seven years. Many of his star actors were people with whom he began working on stage, and a number of people in the "Bergman troupe" of his 1960s films came from Malmö's city theatre (Max von Sydow, for example). He was the director of the Royal Dramatic Theatre in Stockholm — from 1960 to 1966 and manager from 1963 to 1966. Motto: FrÃ¥n arbetarstad till kunskapsstad (eng: From industrial city to knowledge city) Location of Malmö in northern Europe Coordinates: , Country  Sweden Municipality Malmö Municipality County SkÃ¥ne County Province Scania (SkÃ¥ne) Charter 13th century Government  - Mayor Illmar Reepalu Area  - City 335. ... Motto: FrÃ¥n arbetarstad till kunskapsstad (eng: From industrial city to knowledge city) Location of Malmö in northern Europe Coordinates: , Country  Sweden Municipality Malmö Municipality County SkÃ¥ne County Province Scania (SkÃ¥ne) Charter 13th century Government  - Mayor Illmar Reepalu Area  - City 335. ...  , (born April 10, 1929) is an Academy-Award nominated Swedish actor, known in particular for his collaboration with filmmaker Ingmar Bergman. ... The Royal Dramatic Theatre or in Swedish Kungliga Dramatiska Teatern, colloquially known in Sweden as Dramaten, is Swedens national stage for spoken drama. Around one thousand shows are played annually on the theatres eight running stages. ...


After he left Sweden because of the tax evasion incident he was the director of the Residenz Theatre of Munich, Germany (1977-84). He remained active in theatre throughout the whole 90's and made his final production on stage with Ibsen's The Wild Duck at the Royal Dramatic Theatre in 2002. Residenztheater The Residence Theatre (German: Residenztheater) or New Residence Theatre ( Neues Residenztheater) of the Residence in Munich was built from 1950 to 1951 by Karl Hocheder. ... For other uses, see Munich (disambiguation). ... Ibsen redirects here. ... The Royal Dramatic Theatre or in Swedish Kungliga Dramatiska Teatern, colloquially known in Sweden as Dramaten, is Swedens national stage for spoken drama. Around one thousand shows are played annually on the theatres eight running stages. ...


A complete list of Bergman's work in theatre can be found under "Stage Productions and Radio Theatre Credits" in the Ingmar Bergman filmography-article. The following are the films and plays of Ingmar Bergman. ...


Family life

Bergman was married five times:

  • 25 March 19431945, to Else Fischer, choreographer and dancer (divorced). Children:
    • Lena Bergman, actress, born 1943.
  • 22 July 19451950, to Ellen Lundström, choreographer and film director (divorced). Children:
    • Eva Bergman, film director, born 1945,
    • Jan Bergman, film director (1946-2000), and
    • twins Mats and Anna Bergman, both actors and film directors and born in 1948.
  • 19511959, to Gun Grut, journalist (divorced). Children:
    • Ingmar Bergman Jr, airline captain, born 1951.
  • 19591969, to Käbi Laretei, concert pianist (divorced). Children:
  • 11 November 197120 May 1995, to Ingrid von Rosen (maiden name Karlebo) (widowed). Children:
    • Maria von Rosen, author, born 1959.

The first four marriages ended in divorce, while the last ended when his wife died of stomach cancer. is the 84th day of the year (85th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... Lena Bergman (21 December 1943 – ), is a Swedish film actor. ... is the 203rd day of the year (204th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... Year 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Eva Bergman (pronounced in Swedish, but usually in English), born 5 September 1945 in Helsingborg, Sweden is a Swedish film and TV director. ... Mats Bergman, (born May 5, 1948 in Gothenburg, Sweden) is a Swedish actor. ... Anna Bergman is a Swedish actress, born 5 May 1949 in Gothenburg, Sweden. ... Year 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1969 (Stargate SG-1) episode. ... Käbi Laretei (born July 14, 1922 is an Estonian concert pianist; her father was a diplomat in the service of the Republic of Estonia and when the Soviet Union invaded the country he and his family fled to Sweden. ... A pianist is a person who plays the piano. ... Daniel Da Pimpzmastah of Huddinge is known for some stuff. ... is the 315th day of the year (316th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1971 Gregorian calendar. ... is the 140th day of the year (141st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full 1995 Gregorian calendar). ... Ingrid von Rosen (sometimes cited as Ingrid Bergman) (January 17, 1930-May 20, 1995) was a house wife and married to Swedish film director Ingmar Bergman. ... Stomach cancer (also called gastric cancer) can develop in any part of the stomach and may spread throughout the stomach and to other organs; particularly the esophagus and the small intestine. ...


He was also the father of writer Linn Ullmann, with actress Liv Ullmann. In all, Bergman had nine children that he has acknowledged to be his own. He was married to all but one of the mothers of his children. His last wife was the mother of Maria von Rosen, who was born twelve years before the marriage. Linn Ullmann (born in Oslo, Norway in 1966) is the daughter of actress Liv Ullmann and director Ingmar Bergman, and a respected Norwegian author and journalist. ... Liv Johanne Ullmann (born December 16, 1938) is an Academy Award-nominated, Golden Globe-winning Norwegian actress, author and film director. ...


In addition to his marriages, Bergman also had major relationships with Harriet Andersson 1952-55, Bibi Andersson 1955-59 and Liv Ullmann 1965-70. Harriet Andersson (born 14 January 1932 in Stockholm) is a Swedish actress, best known for being one of Ingmar Bergmans regular actresses. ... Bibi Andersson (born 11 November 1935 in Stockholm) is a Swedish actress. ... Liv Johanne Ullmann (born December 16, 1938) is an Academy Award-nominated, Golden Globe-winning Norwegian actress, author and film director. ...


Work

Main article: Ingmar Bergman filmography

The following are the films and plays of Ingmar Bergman. ...

Awards

Academy Awards

In 1971, Bergman received The Irving G. Thalberg Memorial Award at the Academy Awards ceremony. Three of his films have won the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film: The Virgin Spring in 1961; Through a Glass Darkly in 1962; and Fanny and Alexander in 1984. Year 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1971 Gregorian calendar. ... The Irving G. Thalberg Memorial Award is awarded periodically (although not every year) at the Academy Awards ceremonies to Creative producers, whose bodies of work reflect a consistently high quality of motion picture production. ... Academy Award The Academy Awards, popularly known as the Oscars, are the most prominent and most watched film awards ceremony in the world. ... Although he never won an Oscar for any of his movie performances, the comedian Bob Hope received two honorary Oscars for his contributions to cinema. ... The Academy Award (Oscar) for Best Foreign Language Film is a yearly US award for the best film in a language other than English, released in the period October - September in the country of origin. ... The Virgin Spring (Swedish: Jungfrukällan) is a 1960 Swedish film directed by Ingmar Bergman. ... Through a Glass Darkly (originally titled Såsom i en spegel) is a 1961 film written and directed by Swedish filmmaker Ingmar Bergman, and produced by Allan Ekelund. ... Fanny and Alexander (Swedish: Fanny och Alexander) is a 1982, Academy Award-winning Swedish film written and directed by Ingmar Bergman. ...

Wild Strawberries a 1957 film written and directed by Ingmar Bergman. ... Through a Glass Darkly (originally titled SÃ¥som i en spegel) is a 1961 film written and directed by Swedish filmmaker Ingmar Bergman, and produced by Allan Ekelund. ... Cries and Whispers (original title Viskningar och rop) is a 1973 Swedish film which tells the story of two sisters who watch over their third sisters deathbed, both afraid she might die, but hoping she does. ... Cries and Whispers (original title Viskningar och rop) is a 1973 Swedish film which tells the story of two sisters who watch over their third sisters deathbed, both afraid she might die, but hoping she does. ... Cries and Whispers (original title Viskningar och rop) is a 1973 Swedish film which tells the story of two sisters who watch over their third sisters deathbed, both afraid she might die, but hoping she does. ... Face to Face (Ansikte mot ansikte in Swedish) is a 1976 movie which tells the story of a psychiatrist who is suffering from her own mental illness. ... Höstsonaten is a 1978 Swedish film which tells the story of a famous pianist who confronts her neglected daughters. ... Fanny and Alexander (Swedish: Fanny och Alexander) is a 1982, Academy Award-winning Swedish film written and directed by Ingmar Bergman. ... Fanny and Alexander (Swedish: Fanny och Alexander) is a 1982, Academy Award-winning Swedish film written and directed by Ingmar Bergman. ...

BAFTA Awards

The Magician can refer to: The Magician (1926 film), is a horror film directed by Rex Ingram The Magician (1958 film), is a film by Ingmar Bergman The Magician (television series), an American television series that ran during the 1973–1974 season The Magician (Maugham novel), a novel by Somerset... Fanny and Alexander (Swedish: Fanny och Alexander) is a 1982, Academy Award-winning Swedish film written and directed by Ingmar Bergman. ...

Cesar Awards

The Magic Flute (Swedish: Trollflöjten) is Ingmar Bergmans 1975 highly acclaimed film version of Mozarts opera Die Zauberflöte. ... Höstsonaten is a 1978 Swedish film which tells the story of a famous pianist who confronts her neglected daughters. ... Fanny and Alexander (Swedish: Fanny och Alexander) is a 1982, Academy Award-winning Swedish film written and directed by Ingmar Bergman. ... For the Baroque dance and its corresponding musical form, see Sarabande. ...

Cannes Film Festival

Sommarnattens leende (Smiles of a Summer Night) is a 1955 film directed by Ingmar Bergman. ... The Palme dOr (Golden Palm) is the name of the highest prize given to a film at the Cannes Film Festival. ... Sommarnattens leende (Smiles of a Summer Night) is a 1955 film directed by Ingmar Bergman. ... The Jury Prize (French: Prix du Jury) is an award presented at the Cannes Film Festival. ... The Seventh Seal (Swedish: Det sjunde inseglet) is an existential 1957 Swedish film directed by Ingmar Bergman about the journey of a medieval knight (Max von Sydow) across a plague-ridden landscape. ... The Seventh Seal (Swedish: Det sjunde inseglet) is an existential 1957 Swedish film directed by Ingmar Bergman about the journey of a medieval knight (Max von Sydow) across a plague-ridden landscape. ... Brink of Life (original title Nära livet) is a 1958 Swedish film by Ingmar Bergman. ... Brink of Life (original title Nära livet) is a 1958 Swedish film by Ingmar Bergman. ... The Virgin Spring (Swedish: Jungfrukällan) is a 1960 Swedish film directed by Ingmar Bergman. ... The Virgin Spring (Swedish: Jungfrukällan) is a 1960 Swedish film directed by Ingmar Bergman. ... Cries and Whispers (original title Viskningar och rop) is a 1973 Swedish film which tells the story of two sisters who watch over their third sisters deathbed, both afraid she might die, but hoping she does. ...

Golden Globe Awards

Fanny and Alexander (Swedish: Fanny och Alexander) is a 1982, Academy Award-winning Swedish film written and directed by Ingmar Bergman. ...

See also

Swedish cinema is one of the most widely-known national cinemas in the world, and certainly the most prominent of Scandinavia. ... This is a list of motion picture and television directors. ... Film directors frequently choose to work with the same actor or actress across several projects. ...

References

  1. ^ "Ingmar Bergman, Famed Director, Dies at 89", New York Times, July 30, 2007. Retrieved on 2007-07-31. “Ingmar Bergman, the 'poet with the camera' who is considered one of the greatest directors in motion picture history, died today on the small island of Faro where he lived on the Baltic coast of Sweden, Astrid Soderbergh Widding, president of The Ingmar Bergman Foundation, said. Bergman was 89.” 
  2. ^ The Films of Ingmar Bergman, by Jesse Kalin, 2003, p. 193
  3. ^ "Ingmar Bergman, Master Filmmaker, Dies at 89" by Mervyn Rothstein, New York Times, July 31, 2007
  4. ^ Ingmar Bergman: His Life and Films, by Jerry Vermilye, 2001, p. 6
  5. ^ Ingmar Bergman, The magic lantern (transl. from Swedish: Laterna Magica), Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2007. ISBN 9780226043821
  6. ^ Ingmar Bergman: His Life and Films, by Jerry Vermilye, 2001, p. 6
  7. ^ Åtal mot Bergman läggs ned (video) Sveriges Television, Rapport, March 23, 1976.
  8. ^ Generaldirektör om Bergmans flykt (video) Sveriges Television, Rapport, April 22, 1976.
  9. ^ Harry Schein om Bergmans flyk (video) Sveriges Television, Rapport, Aril 22, 1976.
  10. ^ Ephraim Katz, The Film Encyclopedia, New York: HarperCollins, 5th ed., 1998
  11. ^ Ingmar Bergman: Samtal på Fårö, Sveriges Radio, March 28, 2005
  12. ^ Bergman buried in quiet ceremony (2007-08-18).
  13. ^ Film Great Ingmar Bergman Dies at 89 (2007-07-30).
  14. ^ O'Hehir, Andrew (December 7, 2006). Beyond the Multiplex.
  15. ^ Harlan, Jan (2007). A Talk with Kubrick.
  16. ^ Le Cain, Maximillian. Andrei Tarkovsky.
  17. ^ "Ingmar Bergman, Master Filmmaker, 1918-2007", Blast Magazine, August 1, 2007. Retrieved on 2007-08-01. 
  18. ^ Ingmar Bergman, Images : my life in film (translated from the Swedish by Marianne Ruuth), London: Bloomsbury, 1994. ISBN 0-7475-1670-7
  19. ^ See e.g. "Filmkonstnären med stort F" Dagens Nyheter, August 2, 2007.
  20. ^ Winter Light (2005).
  21. ^ Bergman 'depressed' by own films (2004-04-10).
  22. ^ stated in Marie Nyreröd's interview series (the first part named Bergman och filmen) aired on Sveriges Television Easter 2004.

The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... is the 211th day of the year (212th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 212th day of the year (213th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Sveriges Television (SVT) is a national publicly-funded television broadcaster based in Sweden. ...

Bibliography

  • Bergman on Bergman: Interviews with Ingmar Bergman. By Stig Björkman, Torsten Manns, and Jonas Sima; Translated by Paul Britten Austin. Simon & Schuster, New York. Swedish edition copyright 1970; English translation 1973.
  • Filmmakers on filmmaking: the American Film Institute seminars on motion pictures and television (edited by Joseph McBride). Boston, Houghton Mifflin Co., 1983.
  • Images: my life in film, Ingmar Bergman, Translated by Marianne Ruuth. New York, Arcade Pub., 1994, ISBN 1-55970-186-2
  • The Magic Lantern, Ingmar Bergman, Translated by Joan Tate New York, Viking Press, 1988, ISBN 0-670-81911-5

All of Bergman's original screenplays for films directed by himself, from Through a Glass Darkly onwards — and the screenplays he has penned since the 1980s for other directors — have been published in Swedish and most of them translated into English and other languages. Some of his screenplays have also come to use in stage theatre, often without the knowledge or license of the author (e.g. Scenes from a Marriage, Smiles of a Summer Night, After the Rehearsal). Scener ur ett äktenskap (roughly translated as Scenes from a Marriage) is a Swedish film written and directed by Ingmar Bergman. ... Sommarnattens leende (Smiles of a Summer Night) is a 1955 film directed by Ingmar Bergman. ... After the Rehearsal (called Efter repetitionen in the original Swedish) is a made for TV play, written and directed by Ingmar Bergman in 1984. ...


In 1968, when the Swedish film magazine Chaplin published an "anti-Bergman issue" to clear the air from the slightly suffocating presence of the genius director, who was collecting Oscars and Palmes d'Or by the handful, Bergman secretly contributed one of the more acerbic pieces, signed by "the French film critic Ernest Riffe". The word soon began to spread that he was the author himself, and though he half-heartedly denied this, in Bergman on Bergman he admits to the truth of the allegation.


External links

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Ingmar Bergman
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Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is a sister project of Wikipedia, using the same MediaWiki software. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ...

Overviews

The Internet Movie Database (IMDb) is an online database of information about movies, actors, television shows, production crew personnel, and video games. ... Turner Classic Movies (TCM) is a cable television channel featuring commercial-free classic movies, mostly from the Turner Entertainment and Warner Bros. ...

Interviews

Other articles

  • Derek Malcolm on Wild Strawberries, June 10, 1999
  • Peter Bradshaw on Trolösa, The Guardian, February 9, 2001
  • Robin Buss on Saraband in the TLS, October 14, 2005
  • Twin visionaries of a darker art, The Guardian, August 5, 2007
  • Ingmar Bergman In Revista Observaciones Filosoficas

is the 287th day of the year (288th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Bibliographies

Obituaries

Persondata
NAME Bergman, Ingmar
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Bergman, Ernst Ingmar
SHORT DESCRIPTION Stage and film director
DATE OF BIRTH July 14, 1918(1918-07-14)
PLACE OF BIRTH Uppsala, Sweden
DATE OF DEATH July 30, 2007
PLACE OF DEATH Fårö, Sweden

is the 195th day of the year (196th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... This article is about the modern city of Uppsala. ... is the 211th day of the year (212th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... Map of Sweden highlighting Gotlands location. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Ingmar Bergman (3068 words)
As with other Bergman films, most notably Autumn Sonata, the film is a heartbreaking portrait of pain and regret, of things left unsaid and undone, until it is too late.
Filmed during Ingmar Bergman's self-imposed exile in Germany after a protracted and acrimonious dispute with Swedish authorities on charges of income tax evasion, From the Life of Marionettes is a challenging, visually hypnotic, and atypically voluptuous film that reflects Bergman's own personal struggle with alienation, estrangement, and psychological duress.
Bergman visually contrasts the color-saturated sequences of the film's prologue and epilogue with the austere, high contrast fl and white episodes that encapsulate the chronicled activities of the characters before and after the murder.
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