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Encyclopedia > Information warfare

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Information warfare is the use and management of information in pursuit of a competitive advantage over an opponent. Information warfare may involve collection of tactical information, assurance that one's own information is valid, spreading of propaganda or disinformation to demoralize the enemy and the public, undermining the quality of opposing force information and denial of information collection opportunities to opposing forces. This is a partial list of battles that have entries in Wikipedia. ... . ... This is a list of missions, operations, and projects. ... The 1453 Siege of Constantinople (painted 1499) A siege is a prolonged military assault and blockade on a city or fortress with the intent of conquering by force or attrition. ... See also list of military writers. ... This is a list of lists of wars, sorted by country, date, region, and type of conflict. ... This article lists and summarizes War Crimes committed since the Hague Conventions of 1907. ... There are a bewildering array of weapons, far more than would be useful in list form. ... This is a list of military writers, alphabetical by last name. ... Intelligence Gathering Disciplines HUMINT - Human Intelligence - gathered from a person on the ground. ... U.S. Department of Defense Information Assurance emblem Information Assurance (IA) is the science of managing the risks to information assets. ... For other uses, see Propaganda (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Disinformation (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about persons held as enemy combatants. ...



Information warfare can take many forms:

  • Television and radio transmission can be jammed.
  • Television and radio transmission can be hijacked for a disinformation campaign
  • Logistics networks can be disabled.
  • Stock exchanges transactions can be sabotaged either with electronic intervention, leaking sensitive information or placing disinformation.

During the 1991 Gulf War, Dutch hackers stole information about U.S. troop movements from U.S. Defense Department computers and tried to sell it to the Iraqis, who thought it was a hoax and turned it down [1]. In January 1999, U.S. Air Intelligence computers were hit by a coordinated attack, part of which appeared to come from Russian hacking [2]. For other uses, see Disinformation (disambiguation). ... An advertising campaign is a series of advertisement messages that share a single idea and theme which make up an integrated marketing communication (IMC). ... For other uses, see Sabotage (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Iraq war (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into black hat. ...


Information about own forces, allied forces and opposing forces has always been a key feature of military operations, discussed in Sun Tzu's The Art of War: The ASCII codes for the word Wikipedia represented in binary, the numeral system most commonly used for encoding computer information. ... For other uses, see The Art of War (disambiguation). ...

If you know the enemy and know yourself, you need not fear the result of a hundred battles. If you know yourself but not the enemy, for every victory gained you will also suffer a defeat. If you know neither the enemy nor yourself, you will succumb in every battle.

Nations, corporations, and individuals each seek to increase, protect and exploit their own information while trying to limit and penetrate the adversary's. Methods to collect, store, analyse and exploit information cover the whole range of both military and commercial activities and whilst this discussion is related to the military application of the discipline these methods legitimately apply in the commercial environment. For other uses, see Nation (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Corporation (disambiguation). ...

Since the 1960s, there have been extraordinary improvements in the technical means of transmission, protection, collection, storage and analysis which have allowed significant improvements in the exploitation of the information domain.

Information Operations

Information Operations (Info Ops) is an evolving discipline within the military. It has emerged from earlier concepts such as "Command & Control Warfare" and "Information Warfare" - mainly US dominated, originating in the 1990s and considering lessons learned from the Gulf War(s), phenomena like the so-called "CNN Effect", and the enormous advance in Information Technology. Image File history File links Broom_icon. ...

Today Germany leads a multinational effort on developing Info Ops as an integrating function / joint mission area within the military, called the "Multinational Information Operations Experiment" (MNIOE). The current 20 MNIOE partners define Info Ops as "The advice to and co-ordination of military activities affecting information and information systems – including system behaviour and capabilities – in order to create desired effects." This definition - and its related context - differs from extant national views (e.g., the USA or GBR) and provides an advanced approach to multinational and interagency information activities in support of crisis management and effects-based operations.

Designing and implementing guidance for Coalition actions to affect information and information systems (information activities) is a challenge; it applies to the whole scope of civil-military efforts from pre-crisis situations to post-conflict reconstruction, and spans all levels of involvement.

Ongoing initiatives for Info Ops Concept Development and Experimentation (CD&E) are derived from the following problem statement:

Joint and combined warfighters lack integrated processes and organisation to plan, execute and assess effects-based information activities in a multinational and interagency context based on a comprehensive and systemic understanding of the operational environment using all available and appropriate means. In particular:

  • commanders and their staff lack the means, methods and training to gain and maintain appropriate situational awareness and understanding of the information environment;
  • commanders are often unaware of the scope and scale of options to affect information and/or information systems;
  • relevant co-ordination processes are not institutionalised, but rather depend on the personality of actors, occur by chance and/or erratically;
  • extant organisational structures often limit the flexibility of the force to adapt to mission and situation requirements;
  • commanders often do not realise the full scope of opportunities as well as risk associated with mainstream military actions and their potential to create effects on information and information systems;
  • military plans and operations are often inadequately integrated with civil information activities; the overall consistency of comprehensive Coalition efforts needs to be improved in this respect.

The MNIOE project will develop solutions to answer the following questions (CD&E issues):

  • How do we describe the characteristics of the information environment to support focused systemic analysis?
  • What means, methods and training do we need to gain a comprehensive and systemic understanding of the information environment?
  • How do we incorporate comprehensive, clear, and achievable guidance for Coalition information activities (Coalition Information Strategy) in the multinational interagency strategic planning process?
  • How do we translate and implement the Coalition Information Strategy for coordinated civil and military action at the operational level of command?
  • How can we identify, rate, and exploit the full spectrum of effects in the information environment and military information activities within a comprehensive approach?
  • How do we appropriately consider the opportunities and risks associated with effects in the information environment and mainstream military and civil actions?
  • How do we design and implement efficient and effective advice and co-ordination for planning, execution and assessment of military information activities?
  • How do we coordinate effects and activities related to the information environment amongst military and civil actors within a comprehensive approach?
  • How do we share information to enable efficient and effective multinational interagency planning for Coalition information activities?
  • How do we share information to enable efficient and effective execution and assessment of military and civil information activities?


Organized teams of non-military, even non-governmental information fighters become an increasingly common phenomenon. They can advance different political agendas [1], be involved in astroturfing [2], or participate in election campaigns [3]. The political agenda is the issues and policies set out by either the executive or cabinet in government which dictate existing and near-future political news and debate. ... For the artificial grass, see AstroTurf. ... A political campaign is an effort to reach a certain political goal. ...

See also

The Information Operations Roadmap is a document commissioned by the Pentagon in 2003 and declassified in January 2006. ... Communications security (COMSEC): Measures and controls taken to deny unauthorized persons information derived from telecommunications and ensure the authenticity of such telecommunications. ... In telecommunication, command and control warfare (C 2 W) is the integrated use of operations security (OPSEC), military deception, psychological operations (PSYOP), electronic warfare (EW), and physical destruction, mutually supported by intelligence, to deny information to, influence, degrade, or destroy adversary command and control capabilities, while protecting friendly command and... In political parlance, a gatekeeper or left gatekeeper is an activist or organization that acts within the larger milieu of a political movement, in order to manage, constrain and co-opt the movement, often on behalf of the Establishment opponents of that movement. ... For other uses, see Disinformation (disambiguation). ... Black propaganda is propaganda that purports to be from a source on one side of a conflict, but is actually from the opposing side. ... Network-centric warfare (NCW), now commonly called Network-centric operations (NCO), is a new military doctrine or theory of war pioneered by the United States Department of Defense. ... The Internet brigades (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: Russian: ) [1][2] are state-sponsored information warfare teams that conduct psychological operations on-line. ... Each of the military services (Army, Navy, Air Force, Marine Corps and the Coast Guard) have formal Public Affairs offices in addition to numerous other specific-purpose Public Affairs offices. ...


  1. ^ Internet as a field of information war against Armenia, by Samvel Martirosyan, 18 October 2006,
  2. ^ George Monbiot, "The Fake Persuaders. Corporations are inventing people to rubbish their opponents on the internet," The Guardian (UK) (posted by Norfolk Genetic Information Network), May 14, 2002,
  3. ^ Jeffrey H. Birnbaum, "For Activist Constituents, Click Here," The Washington Post, September 19, 2005.

is the 291st day of the year (292nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... George Monbiot. ... May 14 is the 134th day of the year (135th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... The Washington Post is the largest newspaper in Washington, D.C.. It is also one of the citys oldest papers, having been founded in 1877. ... is the 262nd day of the year (263rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...



  • Winn Schwartau, ed, Information Warfare: Cyberterrorism: Protecting your personal security in the electronic age, Thunder's Mouth Press, 2nd ed, (1996) (ISBN 1560251328).
  • Dorothy Denning, Information Warfare and Security, Addison-Wesley (1998) (ISBN 0201433036).
  • James Adams, The Next World War: Computers are the Weapons and the Front line is Everywhere, Simon and Schuster (1998) (ISBN 0684834529).
  • Edward Waltz, Information Warfare Principles and Operations, Artech House, 1998, ISBN 0-89006-511-X
  • Gregory J. Rattray, Strategic Warfare in Cyberspace, MIT Press (2001) (ISBN 0262182092).
  • Anthony H. Cordesman, Cyber-threats, Information Warfare, and Critical Infrastructure Protection: DEFENDING THE US HOMELAND (2002) (ISBN 0275974235).
  • Leigh Armistead, Information Operations: The Hard Reality of Soft Power, Joint Forces Staff College and the National Security Agency (2004) (ISBN 1574886991).
  • Thomas Rid, War and Media Operations: The US Military and the Press from Vietnam to Iraq], Routledge (2007) (ISBN 0415416590).

The RAND Corporation is a nonprofit global policy think tank first formed to offer research and analysis to the United States armed forces. ... The RAND Corporation is a nonprofit global policy think tank first formed to offer research and analysis to the United States armed forces. ...


External links


The Association of Old Crows is an nonprofit international professional organization specializing in electronic warfare, information operations, and related topics. ...

Course Syllabi

Papers: Research and Theory

  • Col Andrew Borden, USAF (Ret.), What is Information Warfare? Aerospace Power Chronicles (1999).
  • Dr Carlo Kopp, A Fundamental Paradigm of Infowar (February, 2000).
  • Research & Theory Links, Cyberspace and Information Operations Study Center, Air War College, Air University, U.S. Air Force.

Papers: Other

News articles

United States Department of Defense IO Doctrine


  Results from FactBites:
Information warfare - definition of Information warfare in Encyclopedia (4599 words)
Information warfare is a new kind of warfare where information and attacks on information and its system are used as a tool of warfare.
Information warfare is a means, not an end, in precisely the same manner that air warfare is a means, not an end.
Information warfare may be used as a means to conduct strategic attack and interdiction, for example, just as air warfare may be used to conduct strategic attack and interdiction.
  More results at FactBites »



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