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Encyclopedia > Information systems
Information System (example)

An Information System (IS) is the system of persons, data records and activities that process the data and information in a given organization, including manual processes or automated processes. Usually the term is used erroneously as a synonym for computer-based information systems, which is only the Information technologies component of an Information System. The computer-based information systems are the field of study for Information technologies (IT); however these should hardly be treated apart from the bigger Information System that they are always involved in. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... For other uses, see System (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Data (disambiguation). ... Illustration of a physical process: a geyser in action. Process (lat. ... The ASCII codes for the word Wikipedia represented in binary, the numeral system most commonly used for encoding computer information. ... Look up manual in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Automation (ancient Greek: = self dictated) or Industrial Automation is the use of computers to control industrial machinery and processes, replacing human operators. ... Category: Information technology ... Category: Information technology ...

Contents

Overview

The term information system has different meanings:

  • In computer security, an information system is described by three objects (Aceituno, 2004):
    • Structure:
      • Repositories, which hold data permanent or temporarily, such as buffers, RAM, hard disks, cache, etc.
      • Interfaces, which exchange information with the non-digital world, such as keyboards, speakers, scanners, printers, etc.
    • Channels, which connect repositories, such as buses, cables, wireless links, etc. A Network is a set of logical or physical channels.
    • Behavior:
      • Services, which provide value to users or to other services via messages interchange.
      • Messages, which carries a meaning to users or services.
  • In geography and cartography, a geographic information system (GIS) is used to integrate, store, edit, analyze, share, and display georeferenced information. There are many applications of GIS, ranging from ecology and geology, to the social sciences.
  • In knowledge representation, an information system consists of three components: human, technology, organization. In this view, information is defined in terms of the three levels of semiotics. Data which can be automatically processed by the application system corresponds to the syntax-level. In the context of an individual who interprets the data they become information, which correspond to the semantic-level. Information becomes knowledge when an individual knows (understands) and evaluates the information (e.g., for a specific task). This corresponds to the pragmatic-level.
  • In mathematics in the area of domain theory, a Scott information system (after its inventor Dana Scott) is a mathematical structure that provides an alternative representation of Scott domains and, as a special case, algebraic lattices.
  • In mathematics rough set theory, an information system is an attribute-value system.
  • In sociology information systems are also social systems whose behavior is heavily influenced by the goals, values and beliefs of individuals and groups, as well as the performance of the technology.[1]
  • In systems theory, an information system is a system, automated or manual, that comprises people, machines, and/or methods organized to collect, process, transmit, and disseminate data that represent user information.
  • In telecommunications, an information system is any telecommunications and/or computer related equipment or interconnected system or subsystems of equipment that is used in the acquisition, storage, manipulation, management, movement, control, display, switching, interchange, transmission, or reception of voice and/or data, and includes software, firmware, and hardware.[2]

This article describes how security can be achieved through design and engineering. ... Cartography or mapmaking (in Greek chartis = map and graphein = write) is the study and practice of making maps or globes. ... GIS redirects here. ... To georeference something is used to define its existence in physical space. ... For the journal, see Ecology (journal). ... This article includes a list of works cited but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... The social sciences are a group of academic disciplines that study human aspects of the world. ... Knowledge representation is an issue that arises in both cognitive science and artificial intelligence. ... Semiotics, semiotic studies, or semiology is the study of signs and symbols, both individually and grouped into sign systems. ... For other uses, see Syntax (disambiguation). ... In general, semantics (from the Greek semantikos, or significant meaning, derived from sema, sign) is the study of meaning, in some sense of that term. ... For other uses, see Knowledge (disambiguation). ... Pragmatism is a school of philosophy which originated in the United States in the late 1800s. ... For other meanings of mathematics or uses of math and maths, see Mathematics (disambiguation) and Math (disambiguation). ... Domain theory is a branch of mathematics that studies special kinds of partially ordered sets commonly called domains. ... In Domain Theory, a Scott Information System is a primitive kind of logical deductive system often used as an alternative way of presenting Scott domains. ... Dana Stewart Scott (born 1932) is the emeritus Hillman University Professor of Computer Science, Philosophy, and Mathematical Logic at Carnegie Mellon University; he is now retired and lives in Berkeley, California. ... In the mathematical fields of order and domain theory, a Scott domain is an algebraic, bounded complete cpo. ... In the mathematical area of order theory, the compact or finite elements of a partially ordered set are those elements that cannot be subsumed by a supremum of any directed set that does not already contain members above the compact element. ... For other meanings of mathematics or uses of math and maths, see Mathematics (disambiguation) and Math (disambiguation). ... Cover of Rough Sets: Theoretical Aspects of Reasoning about Data by Zdzisław Pawlak (Kluwer 1991). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Sociology (from Latin: socius, companion; and the suffix -ology, the study of, from Greek λόγος, lógos, knowledge [1]) is the systematic and scientific study of society, including patterns of social relationships, social action, and culture[2]. Areas studied in sociology can range from the analysis of brief contacts between anonymous... Social structure is a term frequently used in sociology and more specifically in social theory — yet rarely defined or clearly conceptualised (Jary and Jary 1991, Abercrombie et al 2000). ... Systems theory is an interdisciplinary field of science. ... For other uses, see Data entry clerk. ... For other uses, see Data (disambiguation). ... User information is information transferred across the functional interface between a source user and a telecommunications system for delivery to a destination user. ... Telecommunication involves the transmission of signals over a distance for the purpose of communication. ... This article is about the machine. ... Look up storage in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A merchandise management system (MMS) is an automated information system to keep track of the inventory in a warehouse or store. ... // Switching technologies are crucial to the new network design. ... In telecommunications, transmission is the act of transmitting electrical messages (and the associated phenomena of radiant energy that passes through media). ... Computer software (or simply software) refers to one or more computer programs and data held in the storage of a computer for some purpose. ... A microcontroller, like this PIC18F8720 is controlled by firmware stored inside on FLASH memory In computing, firmware is a computer program that is embedded in a hardware device, for example a microcontroller. ... For other uses, see Hardware (disambiguation). ...

History of information systems

The study of information systems, originated as a sub-discipline of computer science, in an attempt to understand and rationalize the management of technology within organizations. It has matured into a major field of management, that is increasingly being emphasized as an important area of research in management studies, and is taught at all major universities and business schools in the world.


Today, Information and Information technology have become the fifth major resource available to executives for shaping an organization, alongside people, money, material and machines.[3] Many companies have created a position of Chief Information Officer (CIO) that sits on the executive board with the Chief Executive Officer (CEO), Chief Financial Officer (CFO), Chief Operating Officer (COO) and Chief Technical Officer (CTO).The CTO may also serve as CIO, and vice versa “Chief executive” redirects here. ... “CFO” redirects here. ... A Chief Operating Officer (COO) is a corporate officer responsible for managing the day-to-day activities of the corporation. ... A chief technical officer or chief technology officer (abbreviated as CTO) is an executive position whose holder is focused on scientific and technical issues within a company. ...


Study of information systems

Ciborra (2002) defined the study of information systems as the study, that deals with the deployment of information technology in organizations, institutions, and society at large.[4]


Many colleges and universities, such as the Carnegie Mellon University, the University of California - Berkeley, the University of Michigan, University of Colorado, Syracuse University, George Mason University, University of Washington, George Washington University, New York University, Claremont Graduate University, the University of Toronto, Multimedia University, University of Idaho, and the University of Limerick currently offer undergraduate and graduate degrees in information systems and closely related fields. Carnegie Mellon University is a private research university in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States. ... The University of California, Berkeley (also known as Cal, UC Berkeley, UCB, or simply Berkeley) is a prestigious, public, coeducational university situated in the foothills of Berkeley, California to the east of San Francisco Bay, overlooking the Golden Gate and its bridge. ... The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor (U of M, UM or simply Michigan) is a coeducational public research university in the state of Michigan. ... The University of Colorado (CU) System consists of five campuses: University of Colorado at Boulder University of Colorado at Colorado Springs University of Colorado at Denver University of Colorado Health Sciences Center Fitzsimons campus of the University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, scheduled to open in 2007 in Aurora, Colorado... Crouse College, a 19th-century Romanesque building which houses the universitys visual arts and music programs Syracuse University (SU) is a private research university located in Syracuse, New York, United States the geographic center of the state, about 250 miles northwest of New York City. ... George Mason University, also known as GMU or simply Mason, is a public university in the United States. ... The University of Washington, founded in 1861, is a public research university in Seattle, Washington. ... The George Washington University (GW), is a private, coeducational university located in the Foggy Bottom neighborhood of Washington, D.C. The school was founded in 1821 as The Columbian College in the District of Columbia by Baptist ministers using funds bequeathed by George Washington. ... New York University (NYU) is a private, nonsectarian, coeducational research university in New York City. ... {{Infobox_University |name = Claremont Graduate University |image = [[Image:]] |motto = |established = 1925 |type = Private |president = |city = Claremont |state = [[California |country = USA |grad = 2,033 |campus = Urban, 19 acres/ ha |mascot = |website= www. ... The University of Toronto (U of T) is a public research university in the city of Toronto, Ontario, Canada. ... Multimedia Universitys Melaka Campus Multimedia University is Malaysias first private university. ... The University of Idaho is the states prominent institution of higher learning, located in the rural city of Moscow in Latah County. ... The University of Limerick (UL) was established in 1972 as the National Institute for Higher Education, Limerick and became a university by statute in 1989 in accordance with the University of Limerick Act 1989. ...


Applications of information systems

Information systems deal with the development, use and management of an organization's IT infrastructure.


In the post-industrial, information age, the focus of companies has shifted from being product oriented to knowledge oriented, in a sense that market operators today compete on process and innovation rather than product : the emphasis has shifted from the quality and quantity of production, to the production process itself, and the services that accompany the production process.


The biggest asset of companies today, is their information, represented in people, experience, know-how, innovations (patents, copyrights, trade secrets), and for a market operator to be able to compete, he/she must have a strong information infrastructure, at the heart of which, lies the information technology infrastructure. Thus, the study of information systems, focuses on why and how technology can be put into best use to serve the information flow within an organization.


Areas of work

Information Systems has a number of different areas of work:

  • Information Systems Strategy
  • Information Systems Management
  • Information Systems Development

Each of which branches out into a number of sub disciplines, that overlap with other science and managerial disciplines such as computer science, pure and engineering sciences, social and behavioral sciences, and business management.


Information technology development

The IT Department partly governs the information technology development, use, application and influence on a business or corporation. A computer based information system, following a definition of Langefors[5], is:

  • a technologically implemented medium for recording, storing, and disseminating linguistic expressions,
  • as well as for drawing conclusions from such expressions.

which can be formulated as a generalized information systems design mathematical program.


See also

Business informatics (BI) is a discipline combining information technology (IT) – or informatics – with management concepts. ... In data processing, a Data Processor or Data Processing System is a system which processes information after it has been encoded into data. ... A Data Architect is a job title associated with a person within an organization responsible for making sure the organizations strategic goals are optimized through the use of enterprise data standards. ... In computer science, data modeling is the process of creating a data model by applying a data model theory to create a data model instance. ... The Data Reference Model (DRM) is one of the five reference models of the Federal Enterprise Architecture (FEA). ... This article is about computing. ... The Environmental Modeling Center (EMC), improves numerical weather, marine and climate predictions at the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP), through a broad program of research in data assimilation and modeling. ... The ERCIS – European Research Center for Information Systems – is a network of scientists that conduct cooperative research in the field of integrated information systems development and organizational design. ... INFORMS is The Institute for Operations Research and the Management Sciences. ... An information processor or information processing system, as its name suggests, is a system (be it electrical, mechanical or biological) which takes information (a sequence of enumerated states) in one form and processes (transforms) it into another form, e. ... Management Information Systems (MIS), are information systems, typically computer based, that are used within an organization. ... Metadata is data about data. ... The Data Mining Group (DMG) is an independent, vendor led group which develops data mining standards, such as the Predictive Model Markup Language (PMML). ... Semantic translation is the process of using semantic information to aid in the translation of data in one representation or data model to another representation or data model. ...

References

  1. ^ Angell, I.O. and Smithson S. (1991) Information Systems Management: Opportunities and Risks
  2. ^ Federal Standard 1037C, MIL-STD-188, and National Information Systems Security Glossary
  3. ^ Rockart et. Al (1996) Eight imperatives for the new IT organization Sloan Management review.
  4. ^ Ciborra, C. (2002) Labyrinths of Information, Oxford, Oxford University Press
  5. ^ Langefors, Börje (1973). Theoretical Analysis of Information Systems. Auerbach. ISBN 0-87769-151-7. 

Federal Standard 1037C, entitled Telecommunications: Glossary of Telecommunication Terms is a United States Federal Standard, issued by the General Services Administration pursuant to the Federal Property and Administrative Services Act of 1949, as amended. ... MIL-STD-188 is a series of U.S. military standards relating to telecommunications. ... The National Information Systems Security Glossary, published by the National Security Telecommunications and Information Systems Security Committee of the United States federal government, is an unclassified glossary of Information Systems Security (INFOSEC) terms intended to provide a common vocabulary for discussing INFOSEC. External links Online copy in Adobe Acrobat format...

Further reading

  • Aceituno, Vicente (2004). "Seguridad de la Informacion". ISBN 84-933336-7-0. 
  • Volle, Michel (2006). De l'Informatique : Savoir vivre avec l'automate. Economica. ISBN 2717852190. 
  • Lindsay, John (2000). Information Systems – Fundamentals and Issues. Kingston University, School of Information Systems. 

External links

  • Information Systems and Innovation Group, Department of Management , London School of Economics
  • Index of Information Systems Journals
  • Center for Information Systems Research - Massachusetts Institute of Technology

  Results from FactBites:
 
Information system - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (350 words)
In general systems theory, an information system is a system, automated or manual, that comprises people, machines, and/or methods organized to collect, process, transmit, and disseminate data that represent user information.
In telecommunications, an information system is any telecommunications and/or computer related equipment or interconnected system or subsystems of equipment that is used in the acquisition, storage, manipulation, management, movement, control, display, switching, interchange, transmission, or reception of voice and/or data, and includes software, firmware, and hardware.
In the mathematical area of domain theory, a Scott information system (after its inventor Dana Scott) is a mathematical structure that provides an alternative representation of Scott domains and, as a special case, algebraic lattices.
Information System Criteria; District and System Accreditation Criteria. (558 words)
The information system must ensure the availability of information that is comprehensive and current and that is designed to assess performance of the system, schools, classrooms and students as well as providing comparisons required for analysis of results.
The information system must have the capacity to disaggregate student performance data to identify and monitor subgroups of students and support continual improvement activities.
The System Assessment criteria examine whether the system has established and maintains an assessment system that is broad in scope and appropriate to document system, school, classroom and individual student progress.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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