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Encyclopedia > Information science
Information science

Portal · History Informatics includes the science of information, the practice of information processing, and the engineering of information systems. ... Not to be confused with information technology, information science, or informatics. ... Not to be confused with informatics or information theory. ...

General Aspects

Information architecture · Information retrieval
Information society · Information access
Information management · Philosophy of information
Information seeking Information architecture is the science of expressing a model or concept for information. ... Information retrieval (IR) is the science of searching for information in documents, searching for documents themselves, searching for metadata which describe documents, or searching within databases, whether relational stand-alone databases or hypertextually-networked databases such as the World Wide Web. ... For other uses, see Information society (disambiguation). ... Thomas Jefferson said that Information is the currency of democracy. ... Information management is the cibai collection and lancau management of information from one or more sources and distribution to fuck one or more audiences who have a stake in that information or a right to that information. ... The philosophy of information (PI) is a new area of research, which studies conceptual issues arising at the intersection of computer science, information technology, and philosophy. ... Information seeking is the process or activity of attempting to obtain information in both human and technological contexts. ...

Related fields & subfields

Information technology · Informatics
Classification · Bibliometrics
Preservation · Cultural studies
Categorization · Data modeling
Memory · Computer storage
Intellectual property · Intellectual freedom
Privacy · Censorship
Information and communication technology spending in 2005 Information technology (IT), as defined by the Information Technology Association of America (ITAA), is the study, design, development, implementation, support or management of computer-based information systems, particularly software applications and computer hardware. ... Informatics includes the science of information, the practice of information processing, and the engineering of information systems. ... Classification may refer to: Taxonomic classification See also class (philosophy) Statistical classification Security classification Hint: Language use may refer to a taxonomic classification that is used for statistical purposes also as a statistical classification (like International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems). ... Bibliometrics is a set of methods used to study or measure texts and information. ... National Bureau of Standards preserving the U.S. Declaration of Independence in 1951 Decaying books at the library of Merton College, Oxford. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... For Wikipedias categorization projects, see Wikipedia:Categorization. ... In computer science, data modeling is the process of creating a data model by applying a data model theory to create a data model instance. ... For other uses, see Memory (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For the 2006 film, see Intellectual Property (film). ... Intellectual Freedom is a human right. ... Privacy has no definite boundaries and it has different meanings for different people. ... For other uses, see Censor. ...

Look up Information science in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Information science Portal
University Portal

Information science (also information studies) is an interdisciplinary science primarily concerned with the collection, classification, manipulation, storage, retrieval and dissemination of information.[1] Information science studies the application and usage of knowledge in organizations, and the interaction between people, organizations and information systems. It is often (mistakenly) considered a branch of computer science. It is actually a broad, interdisciplinary field, incorporating not only aspects of computer science, but also library science, cognitive science, and the social sciences. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Inscription regarding Tiberius Claudius Balbilus of Rome (d. ... Information retrieval (IR) is the science of searching for information in documents, searching for documents themselves, searching for metadata which describe documents, or searching within databases, whether relational stand-alone databases or hypertextually-networked databases such as the World Wide Web. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 150 languages. ... Image File history File links Messagebox_info. ... Raphael, The school of Athens (detail) This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Interdisciplinarity is the act of drawing from two or more academic disciplines and integrating their insights to work together in pursuit of a common goal. ... For Wikipedias categorization projects, see Wikipedia:Categorization. ... Information retrieval (IR) is the science of searching for information in documents, searching for documents themselves, searching for metadata which describe documents, or searching within databases, whether relational stand-alone databases or hypertextually-networked databases such as the World Wide Web. ... The ASCII codes for the word Wikipedia represented in binary, the numeral system most commonly used for encoding computer information. ... An organisation (or organization — see spelling differences) is a social arrangement which pursues collective goals, which controls its own performance, and which has a boundary separating it from its environment. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Information systems. ... Computer science, or computing science, is the study of the theoretical foundations of information and computation and their implementation and application in computer systems. ... Library science is an interdisciplinary science incorporating the humanities, law and applied science to study topics related to libraries, the collection, organization, preservation and dissemination of information resources, and the political economy of information. ... Cognitive science is usually defined as the scientific study either of mind or of intelligence (e. ... The social sciences are a group of academic disciplines that study human aspects of the world. ...


Information science focuses on understanding problems from the perspective of the stakeholders involved and then applying information and other technologies as needed. In other words, it tackles systemic problems first rather than individual pieces of technology within that system. In this respect, information science can be seen as a response to technological determinism, the belief that technology "develops by its own laws, that it realizes its own potential, limited only by the material resources available, and must therefore be regarded as an autonomous system controlling and ultimately permeating all other subsystems of society." [2] Within information science, attention has been given in recent years to human–computer interaction, groupware, the semantic web, value sensitive design, iterative design processes and to the ways people generate, use and find information. Today this field is called the Field of Information, and there are a growing number of Schools and Colleges of Information. Problem solving forms part of thinking. ... By the mid 20th century humans had achieved a mastery of technology sufficient to leave the surface of the Earth for the first time and explore space. ... Technological is a reductionist doctrine that a societys technology determines its cultural values, social structure, or history. ... // Human–computer interaction (HCI), alternatively man-machine interaction (MMI) or computer–human interaction (CHI), is the study of interaction between people (users) and computers. ... Collaborative software, also known as groupware, is application software that integrates work on a single project by several concurrent users at separated workstations (see also Computer supported cooperative work). ... The semantic web is an evolving extension of the World Wide Web in which web content can be expressed not only in natural language, but also in a form that can be read and used by software agents, thus permitting them to find, share and integrate information more easily. ... Iterative design is a design methodology based on a cyclic process of prototyping, testing, analyzing, and refining a work in progress. ...


Information science should not be confused with information theory, the study of a particular mathematical concept of information, or with library science, a field related to libraries which uses some of the principles of information science. Not to be confused with information technology, information science, or informatics. ... Library science is an interdisciplinary science incorporating the humanities, law and applied science to study topics related to libraries, the collection, organization, preservation and dissemination of information resources, and the political economy of information. ... Alternative meanings: Library (computer science), Library (biology) Modern-style library In its traditional sense, a library is a collection of books and periodicals. ...

Contents

Definitions of information science

Some authors treat informatics as a synonym for information science. Because of the rapidly evolving, interdisciplinary nature of informatics, a precise meaning of the term "informatics" is presently difficult to pin down. Regional differences and international terminology complicate the problem. Some people note that much of what is called "Informatics" today was once called "Information Science" at least in fields such as Medical Informatics. However when library scientists began also to use the phrase "Information Science" to refer to their work, the term informatics emerged in the United States as a response by computer scientists to distinguish their work from that of library science, and in Britain as a term for a science of information that studies natural, as well as artificial or engineered, information-processing systems.[citation needed] Informatics includes the science of information, the practice of information processing, and the engineering of information systems. ... Interdisciplinarity is the act of drawing from two or more academic disciplines and integrating their insights to work together in pursuit of a common goal. ...


History

Early beginnings

Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz, a philosopher who made significant contributions to what we now call "information science"
Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz, a philosopher who made significant contributions to what we now call "information science"

Information science, in studying the collection, classification, manipulation, storage, retrieval and dissemination of information has origins in the common stock of human knowledge. Information analysis has been carried out by scholars at least as early as the time of the Abyssinian Empire with the emergence of cultural depositories, what is today known as libraries and archives.[3] Institutionally, information science emerged in the 19th Century along with many other social science disciplines. As a science, however, it finds its institutional roots in the history of science, beginning with publication of the first issues of ‘‘Philosophical Transactions,’’ generally considered the first scientific journal, in 1665 by the Royal Society (London). Image File history File links Gottfried_Wilhelm_von_Leibniz. ... Image File history File links Gottfried_Wilhelm_von_Leibniz. ... Gottfried Leibniz Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz (July 1, 1646 in Leipzig - November 14, 1716 in Hannover) was a German philosopher, scientist, mathematician, diplomat, librarian, and lawyer of Sorb descent. ... For Wikipedias categorization projects, see Wikipedia:Categorization. ... Information retrieval (IR) is the science of searching for information in documents, searching for documents themselves, searching for metadata which describe documents, or searching within databases, whether relational stand-alone databases or hypertextually-networked databases such as the World Wide Web. ... The ASCII codes for the word Wikipedia represented in binary, the numeral system most commonly used for encoding computer information. ... Ethiopia is the oldest independent country in Africa and one of the oldest in the world. ... Science is a body of empirical, theoretical, and practical knowledge about the natural world, produced by a global community of researchers making use of a body of techniques known as scientific methods, emphasizing the observation, experimentation and scientific explanation of real world phenomena. ... The Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, or , is the oldest scientific journal printed in the English-speaking world, and was only three months shy of being the oldest in the world. ... Year 1665 (MDCLXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ...


The institutionalization of science occurred throughout the 18th Century. In 1731, Benjamin Franklin established the Library Company of Philadelphia, the first “public” library, which quickly expanded beyond the realm of books and became a center of scientific experiment, and which hosted public exhibitions of scientific experiments.[4] Academie de Chirurgia (Paris) published ‘‘Memoires pour les Chirurgiens,’’ generally considered to be the first medical journal, in 1736. The American Philosophical Society, patterned on the Royal Society (London), was founded in Philadelphia in 1743. As numerous other scientific journals and societies are founded, Alois Senefelder develops the concept of lithography for use in mass printing work in Germany in 1796. Events 10 Downing Street becomes the official residence of the United Kingdoms Prime Minister when Robert Walpole moves in. ... Benjamin Franklin (January 17 [O.S. January 6] 1706 – April 17, 1790) was one of the most well known Founding Fathers of the United States. ... The Library Company of Philadelphia is a non-profit institution that has accumulated one of the United States richest collections of manuscript and printed materials. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... Events January 26 - Stanislaus I of Poland abdicates his throne. ... The American Philosophical Society is a discussion group founded as the Junto in 1743 by Benjamin Franklin. ... For other uses, see Royal Society (disambiguation). ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... // Events February 14 - Henry Pelham becomes British Prime Minister February 21 - - The premiere in London of George Frideric Handels oratorio, Samson. ... Year 1796 (MDCCXCVI) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ...


19th century

By the 19th Century the first signs of information science emerged as separate and distinct from other sciences and social sciences but in conjunction with communication and computation. In 1801, Joseph Marie Jacquard invented a punched card system to control operations of the cloth weaving loom in France. It was the first use of "memory storage of patterns" system.[5] As chemistry journals emerged throughout the 1820s and 1830s,[6] Charles Babbage developed his "difference engine," the first step towards the modern computer, in 1822 and his "analytical engine” by 1834. By 1843 Richard Hoe developed the rotary press, and in 1844 Samuel Morse sent the first public telegraph message. By 1848 William F. Poole begins the ‘‘Index to Periodical Literature,’’ the first general periodical literature index in the US. Download high resolution version (829x912, 72 KB) This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Download high resolution version (829x912, 72 KB) This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Union Jack, flag of the newly formed United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Babbage redirects here. ... 1822 (MDCCCXXII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1834 (MDCCCXXXIV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1843 (MDCCCXLIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... ... Jan. ... Portrait of Samuel F. B. Morse by Mathew Brady, between 1855 and 1865 Samuel Finley Breese Morse (April 27, 1791 – April 2, 1872) was an American inventor, and painter of portraits and historic scenes; he is most famous for inventing the electric telegraph and Morse code. ... Year 1848 (MDCCCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


In 1854 George Boole published ‘‘An Investigation into Laws of Thought...,’’ which lays the foundations for Boolean algebra, which is later used in information retrieval.[7] In 1860 a congress is held at Karlsruhe Technische Hochschule to discuss the feasibility of establishing a systematic and rational nomenclature for chemistry. The congress does not reach any conclusive results, but several key participants return home with Stanislao Cannizzaro's outline (1858), which ultimately convinces them of the validity of his scheme for calculating atomic weights.[8] 1854 (MDCCCLIV) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... George Boole [], (November 2, 1815 – December 8, 1864) was a British mathematician and philosopher. ... Boolean algebra is the finitary algebra of two values. ... Information retrieval (IR) is the science of searching for information in documents, searching for documents themselves, searching for metadata which describe documents, or searching within databases, whether relational stand-alone databases or hypertextually-networked databases such as the World Wide Web. ... 1860 is the leap year starting on Sunday. ... Year 1858 (MDCCCLVIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


By 1865 the Smithsonian Institution began a catalog of current scientific papers, which became the ‘‘International Catalogue of Scientific Papers’’ in 1902.[9] The following year the Royal Society began publication of its ‘‘Catalogue of Papers’’ in London. In 1866 Christopher Sholes, Carlos Glidden, and S. W. Soule produced the first practical typewriter. By 1872 Lord Kelvin devised an analogue computer to predict the tides, and by 1875 Frank Baldwin was granted the first US patent for a practical calculating machine that performs four arithmetic functions.[10] Alexander Graham Bell and Thomas Edison invented the phonograph and telephone in 1876 and 1877 respectively, and the American Library Association was founded in Philadelphia. In 1879 ‘‘Index Medicus’’ was first issued by the Library of the Surgeon General, U.S. Army, with John Shaw Billings as librarian, and later the library issues ‘‘Index Catalogue,’’ which achieved an international reputation as the most complete catalog of medical literature.[11] 1865 (MDCCCLXV) is a common year starting on Sunday. ... The Smithsonian Institution Building or Castle on the National Mall serves as the Institutions headquarters. ... Year 1902 (MCMII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... 1866 (MDCCCLXVI) is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... Year 1872 (MDCCCLXXII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... 1875 (MDCCCLXXV) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Frank Dwight Baldwin, (26 June 1842 – 22 April 1923) a native of Constantine, Michigan, and born in Manchester, Michigan, is one of only 19 servicemen to be awarded the Medal of Honor twice. ... Alexander Graham Bell (3 March 1847 - 2 August 1922) was a Scottish-born American scientist, inventor and innovator. ... “Edison” redirects here. ... Year 1876 Pick up Sticks(MDCCCLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... 1877 (MDCCCLXXVII) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... ALA Logo The American Library Association (ALA) is a group based in the United States that promotes libraries and library education internationally. ... Year 1879 (MDCCCLXXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... John Shaw Billings (April 12, 1838 – March 11, 1913) was a librarian and surgeon and the moderniser of the Library of the Surgeon Generals Office of the Army and as the creator of the New York Public Library. ...


European documentation

Paul Otlet, a founder of modern information science
Paul Otlet, a founder of modern information science

The discipline of European Documentation, which marks the earliest theoretical foundations of modern information science, emerged in the late part of the 19th Century together with several more scientific indexes whose purpose was to organize scholarly literature. Most information science historians cite Paul Otlet and Henri La Fontaine as the fathers of information science with the founding of the International Institute of Bibliography (IIB) in 1895.[12] However, “information science” as a term is not popularly used in academia until after World War II.[13] Image File history File links Otlet. ... Image File history File links Otlet. ... Paul Otlet Paul Otlet (b. ... Paul Otlet Paul Otlet (b. ... Henri La Fontaine, (22 April 1854 – 14 May 1943) was a Belgian international lawyer and president of the International Peace Bureau from 1907 to 1943 who received the Nobel Prize for Peace in 1913. ... Year 1895 (MDCCCXCV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


Documentalists emphasized the utilitarian integration of technology and technique toward specific social goals. According to Ronald Day, “As an organized system of techniques and technologies, documentation was understood as a player in the historical development of global organization in modernity – indeed, a major player inasmuch as that organization was dependent on the organization and transmission of information.”[14] Otlet and Lafontaine (who won the Nobel Prize in 1913) not only envisioned later technical innovations but also projected a global vision for information and information technologies that speaks directly to postwar visions of a global “information society.” Otlet and Lafontaine established numerous organizations dedicated to standardization, bibliography, international associations, and consequently, international cooperation. These organizations were fundamental for ensuring international production in commerce, information, communication and modern economic development, and they later found their global form in such institutions as the League of Nations and the United Nations. Otlet designed the Universal Decimal Classification, based on Melville Dewey’s decimal classification system. [15] The Nobel Prizes (Swedish: ), as designated in Alfred Nobels will in 1895, are awarded for physics, chemistry, physiology or medicine, literature, and peace. ... Year 1913 (MCMXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The League of Nations was an international organization founded as a result of the Paris Peace Conference in 1919–1920. ... UN and U.N. redirect here. ... The Universal Decimal Classification is a system of library classification developed by the Belgian bibliographers Paul Otlet and Henri la Fontaine at the end of the 19th century. ... Melvil Dewey (December 10, 1851–December 26, 1931) was the inventor of the Dewey Decimal Classification system for library classification. ...


Although he lived decades before computers and networks emerged, what he discussed prefigured what ultimately became the World Wide Web. His vision of a great network of knowledge was centered on documents and included the notions of hyperlinks, search engines, remote access, and social networks. (Obviously these notions were described by different names.) WWWs historical logo designed by Robert Cailliau The World Wide Web (commonly shortened to the Web) is a system of interlinked, hypertext documents accessed via the Internet. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... For the similarly-named Surrealist journal, see Documents (journal). ... // A hyperlink (often referred to as simply link), is a reference or navigation element in a document to another section of the same document, another document, or a specified section of another document, that automatically brings the referred information to the user when the navigation element is selected by the... This article is about search engines. ... Not to be confused with social network services such as MySpace, etc. ...


Otlet not only imagined that all the world's knowledge should be interlinked and made available remotely to anyone (what he called an International Network for Universal Documentation), he also proceeded to build a structured document collection that involved standardized paper sheets and cards filed in custom-designed cabinets according to an ever-expanding ontology, an indexing staff which culled information worldwide from as diverse sources as possible, and a commercial information retrieval service which answered written requests by copying relevant information from index cards. Users of this service were even warned if their query was likely to produce more than 50 results per search.[16] By 1937 documentation had formally been institutionalized, as evidenced by the founding of the American Documentation Institute (ADI), later called the American Society for Information Science and Technology. In both computer science and information science, an ontology is a data model that represents a set of concepts within a domain and the relationships between those concepts. ... Year 1937 (MCMXXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The American Society for Information Science and Technology (also referred to as ASIST or ASIS&T) is a professional organization of information professionals. ...


Transition to modern information science

Vannevar Bush, a famous information scientist, ca. 1940-44
Vannevar Bush, a famous information scientist, ca. 1940-44

With the 1950's came increasing awareness of the potential of automatic devices for literature searching and information storage and retrieval. As these concepts grew in magnitude and potential, so did the variety of information science interests. By the 1960s and 70s, there was a move from batch processing to online modes, from mainframe to mini and micro computers. Additionally, traditional boundaries among disciplines began to fade and many information science scholars joined with library programs. They further made themselves multidisciplinary by incorporating disciplines in the sciences, humanities and social sciences, as well as other professional programs, such as law and medicine in their curriculum. By the 1980's, large databases, such as Grateful Med at the National Library of Medicine, and user-oriented services such as Dialog and Compuserve, were for the first time accessible by individuals from their personal computers. The 1980s also saw the emergence of numerous Special Interest Groups to respond to the changes. By the end of the decade, Special Interest Groups were available involving non-print media, social sciences, energy and the environment, and community information systems. Today, information science largely examines technical bases, social consequences, and theoretical understanding of online databases, widespread use of databases in government, industry, and education, and the development of the Internet and World Wide Web. [17] Image File history File links Vannevar_Bush_portrait. ... Image File history File links Vannevar_Bush_portrait. ... Vannevar Bush (March 11, 1890 – June 30, 1974) was an American engineer and science administrator, known for his political role in the development of the atomic bomb, and the idea of the memex—seen as a pioneering concept for the World Wide Web. ... For other uses, see Law (disambiguation). ... For the chemical substances known as medicines, see medication. ... The United States National Library of Medicine (NLM), operated by the United States federal government, is the worlds largest medical library. ... Dialog is an online-based information service. ... CompuServe, (in full, CompuServe Information Services, or CIS), was the first major commercial online service in the United States. ...

Important historical figures

Sir Tim Berners-Lee Sir Tim (Timothy John) Berners-Lee, KBE (TimBL or TBL) (b. ... John Shaw Billings (April 12, 1838 – March 11, 1913) was a librarian and surgeon and the moderniser of the Library of the Surgeon Generals Office of the Army and as the creator of the New York Public Library. ... George Boole [], (November 2, 1815 – December 8, 1864) was a British mathematician and philosopher. ... Michael Buckland is an Emeritus Professor at the UC Berkeley School of Information and Co-Director of the Electronic Cultural Atlas Initiative. ... Vannevar Bush (March 11, 1890 – June 30, 1974) was an American engineer and science administrator, known for his political role in the development of the atomic bomb, and the idea of the memex—seen as a pioneering concept for the World Wide Web. ... Melvil Dewey (December 10, 1851–December 26, 1931) was the inventor of the Dewey Decimal Classification system for library classification. ... Luciano Floridi (Laurea, Universita degli Studi di Roma La Sapienza, M.Phil. ... Henri La Fontaine, (22 April 1854 – 14 May 1943) was a Belgian international lawyer and president of the International Peace Bureau from 1907 to 1943 who received the Nobel Prize for Peace in 1913. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Leibniz redirects here. ... According to a press release from the University of Ottawa, Pierre Lévy is a Professor in the Department of Communications at the University of Ottawa. ... Shiyali Ramamrita Ranganathan (Tamil: ,  [?]; August 9, 1892, Sirkali, Tamil Nadu - September 27, 1972, Bangalore) was an innovative mathematician and librarian from India. ... Seymour Lubetzky (April 28, 1898-April 5, 2003) was a major cataloging theorist and a prominent librarian. ... Friedrich Wilhelm Ostwald (commonly just Wilhelm Ostwald) (September 2, 1853 - April 4, 1932) was a German chemist. ... Paul Otlet Paul Otlet (b. ... Jesse Hauk Shera (1903 - 1982) was an American librarian and information scientist who pioneered the use of information technology in libraries and played a role in the expansion of its use in other areas throughout the 1950s, 60s, and 70s. ...

Topics in information science

"Knowledge Map of Information Science" from Zins,Chaim, Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 17 January 2007

Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (809x1172, 226 KB) Knowledge Map of Information Science, Zins,Chaim. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (809x1172, 226 KB) Knowledge Map of Information Science, Zins,Chaim. ...

Bibliometrics

Bibliometrics is a set of quantitative methods used to study or measure texts and information and is one of the largest research areas within information science. Bibliometrics is a set of methods used to study or measure texts and information. ...


Bibliometric methods include the journal Impact Factor, a relatively crude but useful method of estimating the impact of the research published within a journal, in comparison to other journals in the same field. Bibliometrics is often used to evaluate or compare the impact of groups of researchers within a field. In addition it is also used to describe the development of fields, particularly new areas of research. The Impact factor, often abbreviated IF, is a measure of the citations to science and social science journals. ...


Data modeling

Data modeling is the process of creating a data model by applying a data model theory to create a data model instance. A data model theory is a formal data model description. See database model for a list of current data model theories. In computer science, data modeling is the process of creating a data model by applying a data model theory to create a data model instance. ... A data model is a model that describes how data are represented and used in an abstract way. ... A data model is a model that describes how data are represented and used in an abstract way. ... A data model is a model that describes how data are represented and used in an abstract way. ... A database model is a theory or specification describing how a database is structured and used. ...


When data modelling, we are structuring and organizing data. These data structures are then typically implemented in a database management system. In addition to defining and organizing the data, data modeling will impose (implicitly or explicitly) constraints or limitations on the data placed within the structure. A database management system (DBMS) is computer software designed for the purpose of managing databases. ...


Managing large quantities of structured and unstructured data is a primary function of information systems. Data models describe structured data for storage in data management systems such as relational databases. They typically do not describe unstructured data, such as word processing documents, email messages, pictures, digital audio, and video. A word processor (also more formally known as a document preparation system) is a computer application used for the production (including composition, editing, formatting, and possibly printing) of any sort of viewable or printed material. ... E-mail, or email, is short for electronic mail and is a method of composing, sending, and receiving messages over electronic communication systems. ...


Document management

Document management and engineering is a computer system (or set of computer programs) used to track and store electronic documents and/or images of paper documents. Document management systems have some overlap with Content Management Systems, Enterprise Content Management Systems, Digital Asset Management, Document imaging, Workflow systems and Records Management systems. Originally, a document management system was a computer program (or set of programs) used to track and store images of paper documents. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Electronic document means any computer data (other than programs or system files) that are intended to be used in their computerized form, without being printed (although printing is usually possible). ... A digital image is a representation of a two-dimensional image as a finite set of digital values, called picture elements or pixels. ... A Content Management System (CMS) is a software system used for content management. ... Enterprise Content Management (ECM) is any of the strategies and technologies employed in the information technology industry for managing the capture, storage, security, revision control, retrieval, distribution, preservation and destruction of documents and content. ... Digital asset management consists of tasks and decisions surrounding ingesting, annotating, cataloguing, storage and retrieval of digital assets, such as digital photographs, animations, videos and music. ... Document Imaging is an information technology category for systems capable of replicating documents commonly used in business. ... A workflow is a reliably repeatable pattern of activity enabled by a systematic organization of resources, defined roles and mass, energy and information flows, into a work process that can be documented and learned. ... Records Management is the practice of identifying, classifying, archiving, preserving, and destroying records. ...


Groupware

Groupware is software designed to help people involved in a common task achieve their goals. Collaborative software is the basis for computer supported cooperative work. Collaborative software, also known as groupware, is application software that integrates work on a single project by several concurrent users at separated workstations (see also Computer supported cooperative work). ... The term computer supported cooperative work (CSCW) was first coined by Greif and Cashman in 1984, at a workshop attended by individuals interested in using technology to support people in their work (Grudin 1994). ...


Such software systems as email, calendaring, text chat, wiki belong in this category. It has been suggested that Metcalfe's law — the more people who use something, the more valuable it becomes — applies to such software. Synchronous conferencing is the formal term used in science, in particular in computer-mediated communication, collaboration and learning, to describe text chat technologies. ... Look up Wiki in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Metcalfes law states that the value of a telecommunications network is proportional to the square of the number of users of the system (n2). ...


The more general term social software applies to systems used outside the workplace, for example, online dating services and social networks like Friendster. The study of computer-supported collaboration includes the study of this software and social phenomena associated with it. It has been suggested that History of social software be merged into this article or section. ... A Net dating service, also known as online dating or Internet dating, is an example of a dating system and allows individuals, couples and groups to meet online and possibly develop a romantic or sexual relationship. ... Not to be confused with social network services such as MySpace, etc. ... Friendster is an Internet social network service. ... Computer-supported collaboration (CSC) research focuses on technology that affect groups, organizations communities and societies, e. ...


Human-computer interaction

Human-computer interaction (HCI), alternatively man-machine interaction (MMI) or computer–human interaction (CHI), is the study of interaction between people (users) and computers. It is an interdisciplinary subject, relating computer science with many other fields of study and research. Interaction between users and computers occurs at the user interface (or simply interface), which includes both software and hardware, for example, general purpose computer peripherals and large-scale mechanical systems such as aircraft and power plants. // Human–computer interaction (HCI), alternatively man–machine interaction (MMI) or computer–human interaction (CHI)This interactive computer allows the user to intergrate a reaction towards oneself and the primary source that is the http server, the port and Ip address show as the user connects to the imb harddrive , is... This article is about the machine. ... Computer science, or computing science, is the study of the theoretical foundations of information and computation and their implementation and application in computer systems. ... This is a list of topics in human-computer interaction. ... The user interface is the part of a system exposed to users. ... The user interface is the part of a system exposed to users. ... Computer software (or simply software) refers to one or more computer programs and data held in the storage of a computer for some purpose. ... It has been suggested that Peripheral be merged into this article or section. ... For an account of the words periphery and peripheral as they are used in biology, sociology, politics, computer hardware, and other fields, see the periphery disambiguation page. ...


Information architecture

Information architecture is the practice of structuring information (knowledge or data) for a purpose. These are often structured according to their context in user interactions or larger databases. The term is most commonly applied to Web development, but also applies to disciplines outside of a strict Web context, such as programming and technical writing. Information architecture is considered an element of user experience design. Information architecture is the science of expressing a model or concept for information. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... For other uses, see Data (disambiguation). ... Computer programming (often simply programming) is the craft of implementing one or more interrelated abstract algorithms using a particular programming language to produce a concrete computer program. ... Technical writing, a subset of technical communication, is used in fields as diverse as computer hardware and software, chemistry, the aerospace industry, robotics, finance, consumer electronics, and biotechnology. ... User experience design is a subset of the field of experience design which pertains to the creation of the architecture and interaction models which impact a users perception of a device or system. ...


The term information architecture describes a specialized skill set which relates to the management of information and employment of informational tools. It has a significant degree of association with the library sciences. Many library schools now teach information architecture. Library and information science (LIS) is the study of issues related to libraries and the information fields. ... A library school is a type of institution, specializing in the training of librarians. ...


An alternate definition of information architecture exists within the context of information system design, in which information architecture refers to data modeling and the analysis and design of the information in the system, concentrating on entities and their interdependencies. Data modeling depends on abstraction; the relationships between the pieces of data is of more interest than the particulars of individual records, though cataloging possible values is a common technique. The usability of human-facing systems, and standards compliance of internal ones, are paramount. abstraction in general. ... Usability is a term used to denote the ease with which people can employ a particular tool or other human-made object in order to achieve a particular goal. ...


Information ethics

Information ethics is the field that investigates the ethical issues arising from the development and application of information technologies. It provides a critical framework for considering moral issues concerning informational privacy, moral agency (e.g. whether artificial agents may be moral), new environmental issues (especially how agents should one behave in the infosphere), problems arising from the life-cycle (creation, collection, recording, distribution, processing, etc.) of information (especially ownership and copyright, digital divide). Information Ethics is therefore strictly related to the fields of computer ethics (Floridi, 1999) and the philosophy of information. Information ethics is the field that applies ethical principles within the context of information provision, control, and use. ... Privacy has no definite boundaries and it has different meanings for different people. ... Infosphere is a term used since the 1990s to speculate about the common evolution of internet, society and culture. ... The term digital divide refers to the gap between those with regular, effective access to digital and information technology, and those without it. ... Computer ethics is a branch of practical philosophy which deals with how computing professionals should make decisions regarding professional and social conduct. ... Luciano Floridi (Laurea, Universita degli Studi di Roma La Sapienza, M.Phil. ... The philosophy of information (PI) is a new area of research, which studies conceptual issues arising at the intersection of computer science, information technology, and philosophy. ...


Dilemmas regarding the life of information are becoming increasingly important in a society that is defined as "the information society". Information transmission and literacy are essential concerns in establishing an ethical foundation that promotes fair, equitable, and responsible practices. Information ethics broadly examines issues related to, among other things, ownership, access, privacy, security, and community. For other uses, see Information society (disambiguation). ...


Information technology affects fundamental rights involving copyright protection, intellectual freedom, accountability, and security.


Professional codes offer a basis for making ethical decisions and applying ethical solutions to situations involving information provision and use which reflect an organization’s commitment to responsible information service. Evolving information formats and needs require continual reconsideration of ethical principles and how these codes are applied. Considerations regarding information ethics influence personal decisions, professional practice, and public policy. Public policy is a course of action or inaction chosen by public authorities to address a problem. ...


Information retrieval

Information retrieval (IR), often studied in conjunction with information storage, is the science of searching for information in documents, searching for documents themselves, searching for metadata which describe documents, or searching within databases, whether relational stand-alone databases or hypertextually-networked databases such as the World Wide Web. There is a common confusion, however, between data retrieval, document retrieval, information retrieval, and text retrieval, and each of these has its own bodies of literature, theory, praxis and technologies. IR is, like most nascent fields, interdisciplinary, based on computer science, mathematics, library science, information science, cognitive psychology, linguistics, statistics, physics. Information retrieval (IR) is the science of searching for information in documents, searching for documents themselves, searching for metadata which describe documents, or searching within databases, whether relational stand-alone databases or hypertextually-networked databases such as the World Wide Web. ... The ASCII codes for the word Wikipedia represented in binary, the numeral system most commonly used for encoding computer information. ... Metadata is data about data. ... This article is about computing. ... A relational database is a database that conforms to the relational model, and refers to a databases data and schema (the databases structure of how that data is arranged). ... In computing, hypertext is a user interface paradigm for displaying documents which, according to an early definition (Nelson 1970), branch or perform on request. ... WWWs historical logo designed by Robert Cailliau The World Wide Web (commonly shortened to the Web) is a system of interlinked, hypertext documents accessed via the Internet. ... Document retrieval is defined as the matching of some stated user query against useful parts of free-text records. ... Text retrieval is a branch of computerised information retrieval where the information is stored primarily in the form of text. ... Interdisciplinary work is that which integrates concepts across different disciplines. ... Computer science, or computing science, is the study of the theoretical foundations of information and computation and their implementation and application in computer systems. ... For other meanings of mathematics or uses of math and maths, see Mathematics (disambiguation) and Math (disambiguation). ... Library science is an interdisciplinary science incorporating the humanities, law and applied science to study topics related to libraries, the collection, organization, preservation and dissemination of information resources, and the political economy of information. ... Cognitive Psychology is the school of psychology that examines internal mental processes such as problem solving, memory, and language. ... Linguistics is the scientific study of language, which can be theoretical or applied. ... This article is about the field of statistics. ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ...


Automated IR systems are used to reduce information overload. Many universities and public libraries use IR systems to provide access to books, journals, and other documents. IR systems are often related to object and query. Queries are formal statements of information needs that are put to an IR system by the user. An object is an entity which keeps or stores information in a database. User queries are matched to objects stored in the database. A document is, therefore, a data object. Often the documents themselves are not kept or stored directly in the IR system, but are instead represented in the system by document surrogates. Information overload (aka information flood) is a term that is usually used in conjunction with various forms of Computer-mediated communication such as Electronic mail. ... Librarians and patrons in a typical larger urban public library. ...


Information society

Information society is a society in which the creation, distribution, diffusion, use, and manipulation of information is a significant economic, political, and cultural activity. The knowledge economy is its economic counterpart whereby wealth is created through the economic exploitation of understanding. For other uses, see Information society (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Society (disambiguation). ... The ASCII codes for the word Wikipedia represented in binary, the numeral system most commonly used for encoding computer information. ... A knowledge economy is either economy of knowledge focused on the economy of the producing and management of knowledge, or a knowledge-based economy. ...


Specific to this kind of society is the central position information technology has for production, economy, and society at large. Information society is seen as the successor to industrial society. Closely related concepts are the post-industrial society (Daniel Bell), post-fordism, post-modern society, knowledge society, Telematic Society, Information Revolution, and network society (Manuel Castells). Information and communication technology spending in 2005 Information technology (IT), as defined by the Information Technology Association of America (ITAA), is the study, design, development, implementation, support or management of computer-based information systems, particularly software applications and computer hardware. ... In sociology, industrial society refers to a society with a modern societal structure. ... A post-industrial society is a society in which an economic transition has occurred from a manufacturing based economy to a service based economy, a diffusion of national and global capital, and mass privatization. ... Daniel Bell Daniel Bell (born 10 May 1919) is a sociologist and professor emeritus at Harvard University. ... Post-fordism is the mode of production increasingly found in most industrialized countries today, which can be contrasted with fordism, the productive method typified by Henry Fords car plants, in which workers work on a production line, performing specialised tasks repetetively. ... Postmodernity (also called post-modernity or the postmodern condition) is a term used to describe the social and cultural implications of postmodernism. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... The term Network Society was coined by Jan van Dijk in his Dutch book De Netwerkmaatschappij (1991) -translation: The Network Society (1999, 2006)- and by Manuel Castells in the first part of his trilogy The Information Age (1996). ... Manuel Castells (full Spanish name: Manuel Castells Oliván[1]; born 1942 in Hellín, Albacete, Spain) is a sociologist, particularly associated with research into the information society and communications. ...


Information systems

Information systems is the discipline concerned with the development, use, application and influence of information technologies. An information system is a technologically implemented medium for recording, storing, and disseminating linguistic expressions, as well as for drawing conclusions from such expressions. Information System (example) An Information System (IS) is the system of persons, data records and activities that process the data and information in a given organization, including manual processes or automated processes. ...


The technology used for implementing information systems by no means has to be computer technology. A notebook in which one lists certain items of interest is, according to that definition, an information system. Likewise, there are computer applications that do not comply with this definition of information systems. Embedded systems are an example. A computer application that is integrated into clothing or even the human body does not generally deal with linguistic expressions. One could, however, try to generalize Langefors' definition so as to cover more recent developments. By the mid 20th century humans had achieved a mastery of technology sufficient to leave the surface of the Earth for the first time and explore space. ... The tower of a personal computer (specifically a Power Mac G5). ... A spiral-bound notebook with pen A notebook (also notepad, writing pad, legal pad etc. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A router, an example of an embedded system. ...


Intellectual property

Intellectual property (IP) is a disputed umbrella term for various legal entitlements which attach to certain names, written and recorded media, and inventions. The holders of these legal entitlements are generally entitled to exercise various exclusive rights in relation to the subject matter of the IP. The term intellectual property links the idea that this subject matter is the product of the mind or the intellect together with the political and economical notion of property. The close linking of these two ideas is a matter of some controversy. It is criticised as "a fad" by Mark Lemley of Stanford Law School and by Richard Stallman of the Free Software Foundation as an "overgeneralization" and "at best a catch-all to lump together disparate laws".[18] For the 2006 film, see Intellectual Property (film). ... An umbrella term is a word that provides a superset or grouping of related concepts, also called a hypernym. ... Entitlement is the guarantee for access to benefits because of rights, or by agreement through law. ... In law, an exclusive right is the power or right to perform an action in relation to an object or other thing which others cannnot perform. ... For other uses, see Mind (disambiguation). ... Intelligence is a general mental capability that involves the ability to reason, plan, solve problems, think abstractly, comprehend ideas and language, and learn. ... For other uses, see Politics (disambiguation). ... Face-to-face trading interactions on the New York Stock Exchange trading floor. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Stanford Law School is a graduate school at Stanford University located near Palo Alto, California in Silicon Valley. ... Richard Matthew Stallman (born March 16, 1953), often abbreviated rms,[1] is a software freedom activist, hacker,[2] and software developer. ... The Free Software Foundation (FSF) is a non-profit corporation founded in October 1985 by Richard Stallman to support the free software movement (free as in freedom), and in particular the GNU project. ...


Intellectual property laws and enforcement vary widely from jurisdiction to jurisdiction. There are inter-governmental efforts to harmonise them through international treaties such as the 1994 World Trade Organization (WTO) Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPs), while other treaties may facilitate registration in more than one jurisdiction at a time. Enforcement of copyright, disagreements over medical and software patents, and the dispute regarding the nature of "intellectual property" as a cohesive notion[18] have so far prevented the emergence of a cohesive international system. In international law, harmonisation refers to the process by which different states adopt the same laws. ... It has been suggested that Protocol (treaty) be merged into this article or section. ... “WTO” redirects here. ... The Agreement on Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPs) is a treaty administered by the World Trade Organization (WTO) which sets down minimum standards for forms of intellectual property (IP) regulation. ...


Knowledge management

Knowledge management comprises a range of practices used by organisations to identify, create, represent, and distribute knowledge for reuse, awareness, and learning across the organisations. Knowledge Management (KM) comprises a range of practices used by organisations to identify, create, represent, and distribute knowledge for reuse, awareness and learning. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ...


Knowledge Management programs are typically tied to organisational objectives and are intended to lead to the achievement of specific outcomes, such as shared intelligence, improved performance, competitive advantage, or higher levels of innovation.


Knowledge transfer (one aspect of Knowledge Management) has always existed in one form or another. Examples include on-the-job peer discussions, formal apprenticeship, corporate libraries, professional training, and mentoring programs. However, since the late twentieth century, additional technology has been applied to this task, such as......... Knowledge transfer in the fields of Organizational development and organizational learning, is the practical problem of getting a packet of knowledge from one part of the organization to another (or all other) parts of the organization. ...


Knowledge engineering

Knowledge engineering (KE), often studied in conjunction with knowledge management, refers to the building, maintaining and development of knowledge-based systems. It has a great deal in common with software engineering, and is related to many computer science domains such as artificial intelligence, databases, data mining, expert systems, decision support systems and geographic information systems. Knowledge engineering is also related to mathematical logic, as well as strongly involved in cognitive science and socio-cognitive engineering where the knowledge is produced by socio-cognitive aggregates (mainly humans) and is structured according to our understanding of how human reasoning and logic works. The process of building knowledge-based systems is called knowledge engineering (KE). ... According to FOLDOC, a knowledge-based system is a program for extending and/or querying a knowledge base. ... Software engineering is the application of a systematic, disciplined, quantifiable approach to the development, operation, and maintenance of software. ... Computer science, or computing science, is the study of the theoretical foundations of information and computation and their implementation and application in computer systems. ... AI redirects here. ... This article is about computing. ... Data mining has been defined as the nontrivial extraction of implicit, previously unknown, and potentially useful information from data [1] and the science of extracting useful information from large data sets or databases [2]. Data mining involves sorting through large amounts of data and picking out relevant information. ... An expert system, also known as a knowledge based system, is a computer program that contains some of the subject-specific knowledge, and contains the knowledge and analytical skills of one or more human experts. ... Decision support systems are a class of computer-based information systems including knowledge based systems that support decision making activities. ... GIS redirects here. ... Logic (from Classical Greek λόγος logos; meaning word, thought, idea, argument, account, reason, or principle) is the study of the principles and criteria of valid inference and demonstration. ... Cognitive science is usually defined as the scientific study either of mind or of intelligence (e. ... Socio-cognitive may relate to systems, processes, functions, models, as well as can indicate the branch of science, engineering or technology, such as socio-cognitive research, socio-cognitive interactions. ... Look up Aggregate in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Semantic web

Semantic Web is an evolving extension of the World Wide Web in which web content can be expressed not only in natural language, but also in a form that can be understood, interpreted and used by software agents, thus permitting them to find, share and integrate information more easily.[19] It derives from W3C director Tim Berners-Lee's vision of the Web as a universal medium for data, information, and knowledge exchange. The semantic web is an evolving extension of the World Wide Web in which web content can be expressed not only in natural language, but also in a form that can be read and used by software agents, thus permitting them to find, share and integrate information more easily. ... WWWs historical logo designed by Robert Cailliau The World Wide Web (commonly shortened to the Web) is a system of interlinked, hypertext documents accessed via the Internet. ... I just want to try This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... The term natural language is used to distinguish languages spoken and signed (by hand signals and facial expressions) by humans for general-purpose communication from constructs such as writing, computer-programming languages or the languages used in the study of formal logic, especially mathematical logic. ... In computer science, a software agent is an abstraction, a logical model that describes software that acts for a user or other program in a relationship of agency. ... Digital integration is the idea that data or information on any given electronic device can be read or manipulated by another device using a standard format. ... It has been suggested that W3C Markup Validation Service be merged into this article or section. ... Sir Tim Berners-Lee Sir Tim (Timothy John) Berners-Lee, KBE (TimBL or TBL) (b. ... For other uses, see Data (disambiguation). ... The ASCII codes for the word Wikipedia represented in binary, the numeral system most commonly used for encoding computer information. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ...


At its core, the Semantic Web comprises a philosophy,[20] a set of design principles,[21] collaborative working groups, and a variety of enabling technologies. Some elements of the Semantic Web are expressed as prospective future possibilities that have yet to be implemented or realized.[22] Other elements of the Semantic Web are expressed in formal specifications.[23] Some of these include Resource Description Framework (RDF), a variety of data interchange formats (e.g RDF/XML, N3, Turtle, and notations such as RDF Schema (RDFS) and the Web Ontology Language (OWL). All of which are intended to formally describe concepts, terms, and relationships within a given problem domain. A working group (WG) is an interdisciplinary collaboration of researchers working on new research activities that would be difficult to develop under traditional funding mechanisms (e. ... Resource Description Framework (RDF) is a family of World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) specifications originally designed as a metadata model but which has come to be used as a general method of modeling information, through a variety of syntax formats. ... Resource Description Framework (RDF) is a family of World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) specifications originally designed as a metadata model but which has come to be used as a general method of modeling information, through a variety of syntax formats. ... Notation 3, or N3 as it is more commonly known, is a shorthand non-XML serialization of Resource Description Framework models, designed with human-readability in mind: N3 is much more compact and readable than XML RDF notation. ... This article, image, template or category should belong in one or more categories. ... RDF Schema is a language for describing vocabularies in RDF. RDF Schema is a semantic extension of RDF. It provides mechanisms for describing groups of related resources and the relationships between these resources. ... The Web Ontology Language (OWL) is a language for defining and instantiating Web ontologies. ... Description logics (DL) are a family of knowledge representation languages which can be used to represent the terminological knowledge of an application domain in a structured and formally well-understood way. ... For other uses, see Concept (disambiguation). ... The word term refers to either a word unit or a time unit with specified boundaries or limits. ... Causality or causation denotes the relationship between one event (called cause) and another event (called effect) which is the consequence (result) of the first. ...


Usability engineering

Usability engineering is a subset of human factors that is specific to computer science and is concerned with the question of how to design software that is easy to use. It is closely related to the field of human-computer interaction and industrial design. The term "usability engineering" (UE) (in contrast to other names of the discipline, like interaction design or user experience design) tends to describe a pragmatic approach to user interface design which emphasizes empirical methods and operational definitions of user requirements for tools. Extending as far as International Standards Organization-approved definitions usability is considered a context-dependent agreement of the effectiveness, efficiency and satisfaction with which specific users should be able to perform tasks. Advocates of this approach engage in task analysis, then prototype interface designs and conduct usability tests. On the basis of such tests, the technology is (ideally) re-designed or (occasionally) the operational targets for user performance are revised. Usability engineering is a subset of human factors that is specific to computer science and is concerned with the question of how to design software that is easy to use. ... Human factors is an umbrella term for several areas of research that include human performance, technology, design, and human-computer interaction. ... Computer science, or computing science, is the study of the theoretical foundations of information and computation and their implementation and application in computer systems. ... Computer software (or simply software) refers to one or more computer programs and data held in the storage of a computer for some purpose. ... Usability is a term used to denote the ease with which people can employ a particular tool or other human-made object in order to achieve a particular goal. ... // Human–computer interaction (HCI), alternatively man–machine interaction (MMI) or computer–human interaction (CHI)This interactive computer allows the user to intergrate a reaction towards oneself and the primary source that is the http server, the port and Ip address show as the user connects to the imb harddrive , is... Industrial design is an applied art whereby the aesthetics and usability of products may be improved for marketability and production. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... User experience design is a subset of the field of experience design which pertains to the creation of the architecture and interaction models which impact a users perception of a device or system. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... A central concept in science and the scientific method is that all evidence must be empirical, or empirically based, that is, dependent on evidence or consequences that are observable by the senses. ... The user requirements document (URD) is used in software engineering. ... Logo of the International Organization for Standardization The International Organization for Standardization (ISO or Iso) is an international standard-setting body made up of representatives from national standards bodies. ... Usability is a term used to denote the ease with which people can employ a particular tool or other human-made object in order to achieve a particular goal. ... Task analysis is the analysis or a breakdown of exactly how a task is accomplished, such as what sub-tasks are required. ... Software prototyping is the process of creating an incomplete model of the future full-featured software program, which can be used to let the users have a first idea of the completed program or allow the clients to evaluate the program. ... Usability testing is a means for measuring how well people can use some human-made object (such as a web page, a computer interface, a document, or a device) for its intended purpose, i. ...


User-centered design

User-centered design is a design philosophy and a process in which the needs, wants, and limitations of the end user of an interface or document are given extensive attention at each stage of the design process. User-centered design can be characterized as a multi-stage problem solving process that not only requires designers to analyze and foresee how users are likely to use an interface, but to test the validity of their assumptions with regards to user behaviour in real world tests with actual users. Such testing is necessary as it is often very difficult for the designers of an interface to understand intuitively what a first-time user of their design experiences, and what each user's learning curve may look like. It has been suggested that User Centered Design be merged into this article or section. ... A design philosophy is a guide to help make choices when designing. ... The user interface is the part of a system exposed to users. ... For the similarly-named Surrealist journal, see Documents (journal). ... The learning curve refers to a relationship between the duration of learning or experience and the resulting progress. ...


The chief difference from other interface design philosophies is that user-centered design tries to optimize the user interface around how people can, want, or need to work, rather than forcing the users to change how they work to accommodate the system or function.


XML

XML is a W3C-recommended general-purpose markup language that supports a wide variety of applications. XML languages or 'dialects' may be designed by anyone and may be processed by conforming software. XML is also designed to be reasonably human-legible, and to this end, terseness was not considered essential in its structure. XML is a simplified subset of Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML). Its primary purpose is to facilitate the sharing of data across different information systems, particularly systems connected via the Internet[24]. Formally defined languages based on XML (such as RSS, MathML, GraphML, XHTML, Scalable Vector Graphics, MusicXML and thousands of other examples) allow diverse software to reliably understand information formatted and passed in these languages. The Extensible Markup Language (XML) is a general-purpose markup language. ... It has been suggested that W3C Markup Validation Service be merged into this article or section. ... A specialized markup language using SGML is used to write the electronic version of the Oxford English Dictionary. ... The Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML) is a metalanguage in which one can define markup languages for documents. ... For RSS feeds from Wikipedia, see Wikipedia:Syndication. ... Mathematical Markup Language (MathML) is an application of XML for describing mathematical notation and capturing both its structure and content. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... The Extensible HyperText Markup Language, or XHTML, is a markup language that has the same depth of expression as HTML, but also conforms to XML syntax. ... SVG redirects here. ... MusicXML is an open, XML-based music notation file format. ...


Research

Many universities have entire schools or departments devoted to the study of information science, while numerous information science scholars can be found in disciplines such as communication, law, sociology, computer science, and library science (see List of I-Schools). Communication is a process that allows organisms to exchange information by several methods. ... For other uses, see Law (disambiguation). ... Sociology (from Latin: socius, companion; and the suffix -ology, the study of, from Greek λόγος, lógos, knowledge) is an academic and applied discipline that studies society and human social interaction. ... Computer science, or computing science, is the study of the theoretical foundations of information and computation and their implementation and application in computer systems. ... Library science is an interdisciplinary science incorporating the humanities, law and applied science to study topics related to libraries, the collection, organization, preservation and dissemination of information resources, and the political economy of information. ... Below are the list of I-Schools (aka Information Schools or Information Science Programs) in North America that are part of the I-Schools Caucus. ...


Research methods

Information science has similar research methods to other social sciences: Research is an active, diligent, and systematic process of inquiry in order to discover, interpret or revise facts, events, behaviours, or theories, or to make practical applications with the help of such facts, laws, or theories. ... The social sciences are a group of academic disciplines that study human aspects of the world. ...

Archival research
Facts or factual evidences from a variety of records are compiled.
Content analysis
The contents of books and mass media are analyzed to study how people communicate and the messages people talk or write about.
Case study
A specific set of circumstances or a group (the 'case') is analyzed according to a specific goal of study. Generally, case studies are used to characterize a trend or development; they have weak generalizability.
Historical method
This involves a continuous and systematic search for the information and knowledge about past events related to the life of a person, a group, society, or the world.
Interviews
The researcher obtains data by interviewing people. If the interview is non-structured, the researcher leaves it to the interviewee (also referred to as the respondent or the informant) to guide the conversation.
Life history
This is the study of the personal life of a person. Through a series of interviews, the researcher can probe into the decisive moments in their life or the various influences on their life.
Longitudinal study
This is an extensive examination of a specific group over a long period of time.
Observation
Using data form the senses, one records information about social phenomenon or behavior. Qualitative research relies heavily on observation, although it is in a highly disciplined form.
Participant observation
As the name implies, the researcher goes to the field (usually a community), lives with the people for some time, and participates in their activities in order to know and feel their culture.

Content analysis (also called: textual analysis) is a standard methodology in the social sciences on the subject of communication content. ... Case studies involve a particular method of research. ... The historical method comprises the techniques and guidelines by which historians use primary sources and other evidence to research and then to write history. ... interview An interview is a conversation between two or more people where questions are asked to obtain information about the interviewee. ... Life history refers to a variety of methods and techniques that are used for conducting qualitative interviews. ... Longitudinal studies form a class of research methods that involve observations of the same items over a longer time. ... For other uses, see Observation (disambiguation). ... Participant observation is a major research strategy which aims to gain a close and intimate familiarity with a given group of individuals (such as a religious, occupational, or deviant group) and their practices through an intensive involvement with people in their natural environment. ...

See also

Informatics includes the science of information, the practice of information processing, and the engineering of information systems. ... Information and communication technology spending in 2005 Information technology (IT), as defined by the Information Technology Association of America (ITAA), is the study, design, development, implementation, support or management of computer-based information systems, particularly software applications and computer hardware. ... Enterprise Content Management (ECM) is any of the strategies and technologies employed in the information technology industry for managing the capture, storage, security, revision control, retrieval, distribution, preservation and destruction of documents and content. ... The International Federation for Information Processing, usually known as IFIP, is an umbrella organization for national societies working in the field of information technology. ... The philosophy of information (PI) is a new area of research, which studies conceptual issues arising at the intersection of computer science, information technology, and philosophy. ...

References

  1. ^ Merriam-Webster and American Herritage Dictionary.
  2. ^ Web Dictionary of Cybernetics and Systems
  3. ^ Clark, John Willis. The Care Of Books: An Essay On The Development Of Libraries And Their Fittings, From The Earliest Times To The End Of The Eighteenth Century. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1901
  4. ^ Korty, Margaret Barton. “Benjamin Franklin and Eighteenth Century American Libraries.” ‘‘Transactions of the American Philosophical Society’’ December vol. 55.9 (1965)
  5. ^ Reichman, F. (1961). Notched Cards. In R. Shaw (Ed.), The state of the library art (Volume 4, Part 1, pp. 11-55). New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers, The State University, Graduate School of Library Service
  6. ^ Emard, J. P. (1976). An information science chronology in perspective. Bulletin of the American Society for Information Science , 2(8), 51-56
  7. ^ Smith, E. S. (1993). On the shoulders of giants: From Boole to Shannon to Taube: The origins and development of computerized information from the mid-19th century to the present. Information Technology and Libraries , 12(2), 217-226
  8. ^ Skolnik, H. (1976). Milestones in chemical information science: Award symposium on contributions of the Division of Chemical Literature (Information) to the Chemical Society. Journal of Chemical Information and Computer Science , 16(4), 187-193
  9. ^ Adkinson, B. W. (1976). Federal government’s support of information activities: A historical sketch. Bulletin of the American Society for Information Science, 2(8), 24-26
  10. ^ Emard, J. P. (1976). An information science chronology in perspective. Bulletin of the American Society for Information Science , 2(8), 51-56
  11. ^ Schullian, D. M., & Rogers, F. B. (1958). The National Library of Medicine. I. Library Quarterly, 28(1), 1-17
  12. ^ Rayward, W. B. (1994). International federation for information and documentation. In W. A. Wiegand, & D. G. David Jr. (Eds.), The encyclopedia of library history (pp. 290-294). New York: Garland Publishing, Inc.
  13. ^ Day, Ronald. ‘‘Modern Invention of Information.’’ Carbondale, Il.: Southern Illinois University Press, 2001: 7
  14. ^ Day, Ronald. ‘‘Modern Invention of Information.’’ Carbondale, Il.: Southern Illinois University Press, 2001: 7
  15. ^ Day, Ronald. ‘‘Modern Invention of Information.’’ Carbondale, Il.: Southern Illinois University Press, 2001:
  16. ^ Day, Ronald. ‘‘Modern Invention of Information.’’ Carbondale, Il.: Southern Illinois University Press, 2001:
  17. ^ ASIST History
  18. ^ a b Stallman, Richard (2004). Did You Say "Intellectual Property"? It's a Seductive Mirage. Retrieved on 2007-04-17.
  19. ^ http://www.w3.org/2001/sw/SW-FAQ#What1
  20. ^ http://www.w3.org/2001/sw/Activity
  21. ^ http://www.w3.org/DesignIssues/
  22. ^ http://www.w3.org/2001/sw/SW-FAQ#What3
  23. ^ http://www.w3.org/2001/sw/#spec
  24. ^ Bray, Tim; Jean Paoli, C. M. Sperberg-McQueen, Eve Maler, François Yergeau (September 2006). Extensible Markup Language (XML) 1.0 (Fourth Edition) - Origin and Goals. World Wide Web Consortium. Retrieved on October 29, 2006.

Richard Matthew Stallman (born March 16, 1953), often abbreviated rms,[1] is a software freedom activist, hacker,[2] and software developer. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 107th day of the year (108th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 302nd day of the year (303rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further reading

  • Khosrow-Pour, Mehdi (2005-03-22). Encyclopedia of Information Science and Technology. Idea Group Reference. ISBN 159140553X. 

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Library science - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (757 words)
Library science or library and information science (abbreviated LIS) is the study of issues related to libraries and the information fields.
LIS should not be confused with information theory, the mathematical study of the concept of information, or information science a field related to computer science and cognitive science.
The study of librarianship for public libraries covers issues such as cataloging, collection development for a diverse community, information literacy, community standards, public services-focused librarianship, serving a diverse community of adults and children, Intellectual freedom, Censorship and legal and budgeting issues.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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