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Encyclopedia > Information processing
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In general, information processing is the changing (processing) of information in any manner detectable by an observer. As such, it is a process which describes everything which happens (changes) in the universe, from the falling of a rock (a change in position) to the printing of a text file from a digital computer system. In the latter case, an information processor is changing the form of presentation of that text file. Jump to: navigation, search Information is a word which has many different meanings in everyday usage and in specialized contexts, but as a rule, the concept is closely related to others such as data, instruction, knowledge, meaning, communication, representation, and mental stimulus. ... Possible meanings: In general, an observer is any system which receives information from an object. ... Process (lat. ... An information processor or information processing system, as its name suggests, is a system (be it electrical, mechanical or biological) which takes information (a sequence of enumerated states) in one form and processes (transforms) it into another form, e. ...


Information processing can more specifically be defined in terms by Claude E. Shannon as the conversion of latent information into manifest information. Latent and manifest information is defined through the terms of equivocation (remaining uncertainty, what value the sender has actually chosen), dissipation (uncertainty of the sender what the receiver has actually received) and transformation (saved effort of questioning - equivocation minus dissipation). Claude Elwood Shannon (April 30, 1916 - February 24, 2001) has been called the father of information theory, and was the founder of practical digital circuit design theory. ...


In cognitive psychology, information processing is an approach to the goal of understanding human thinking. It arose in the 1940s and 1950s. The essence of the approach is to see cognition as being essentially computational in nature, with mind being the software and the brain being the hardware. The information processing approach in psychology is closely allied to cognitivism in psychology and functionalism in philosophy although the terms are not quite synonymous. james woolford is gay by jake tolton Information processing can be sequential or parallel, which can both be either centralized or decentralized (distributed). The parallel distributed processing in mid-1980s became popular under the name connectionism. In early 1950s Friedrich Hayek was ahead of his time when he posited the idea of spontaneous order in the brain arising out of decentralized networks of simple units (neurons). However, Hayek is rarely cited in the literature of connectionism. Cognitive psychology is the psychological science which studies cognition, the mental processes that are hypothesised to underlie behavior. ... Jump to: navigation, search // Events and trends The 1940s were seen as a transition period between the radical 1930s and the conservative 1950s, which also leads the period to be divided in two halves: The first half of the decade was dominated by World War II, the widest and most... Jump to: navigation, search // Events and trends The 1950s in Western society was marked with a sharp rise in the economy for the first time in almost 30 years and return to the 1920s-type consumer society built on credit and boom-times, as well as the height of the... Jump to: navigation, search Look up Cognition on Wiktionary, the free dictionary The term cognition is used in several different loosely related ways. ... The tower of a personal computer. ... The word cognitivism is used in several ways: In ethics, cognitivism is the philosophical view that ethical sentences express propositions, and hence are capable of being true or false. ... Functionalism is a term with several senses: For functionalism in sociology, see Functionalism (sociology). ... Decentralisation (or decentralization) is any of various means of more widely distributing decision-making to bring it closer to the point of service or action. ... Connectionism today generally refers to an approach in the fields of cognitive psychology, cognitive science and philosophy of mind which models mental or behavioral phenomena with neural networks, and is associated with a certain set of arguments for why this is a good idea. ... Connectionism is an approach in the fields of cognitive science, neuroscience, psychology and philosophy of mind. ... Neurons (also called nerve cells) are the primary cells of the nervous system. ... Friedrich Hayek Friedrich August von Hayek (May 8, 1899 – March 23, 1992) was an economist and social scientist of the Austrian School, noted for his defense of free-market capitalism against a rising tide of socialist thought in the mid-20th century. ... Connectionism is an approach in the fields of cognitive science, neuroscience, psychology and philosophy of mind. ...


See also:


Information Processing Languages (IPL), by Newell, Shaw and Simon Information Processing Language (IPL) was a programming language developed by Allen Newell, Cliff Shaw and Herbert Simon at RAND Corporation and the Carnegie Institute of Technology from about 1956. ... Allen Newell Allen Newell (March 19, 1927 - July 19, 1992) was a researcher in computer science and cognitive psychology at the RAND corporation and at Carnegie-Mellon’s School of Computer Science. ... J.C. (Cliff) Shaw was a systems programmer at the RAND Corporation. ... Jump to: navigation, search Herbert Alexander Simon (June 15, 1916 – February 9, 2001) was a researcher in the fields of cognitive psychology, computer science, public administration, economics and philosophy (sometimes described as a polymath). ...


Information Processor An information processor or information processing system, as its name suggests, is a system (be it electrical, mechanical or biological) which takes information (a sequence of enumerated states) in one form and processes (transforms) it into another form, e. ...


Reference

  • Allen Newell, Unified Theories of Cognition, Harvard University Press (1990).

External links

  • Herbert Simon's sketch of Allen Newell's lifetime accomplishments: [1].
  • The Basic Period of Individual Mental Speed, Underlying IQ

  Results from FactBites:
 
Information processing - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (330 words)
As such, it is a process which describes everything which happens (changes) in the universe, from the falling of a rock (a change in position) to the printing of a text file from a digital computer system.
Information processing can more specifically be defined in terms by Claude E. Shannon as the conversion of latent information into manifest information.
The information processing approach in psychology is closely allied to cognitivism in psychology and functionalism in philosophy although the terms are not quite synonymous.
Educational Psychology Interactive: The Information Processing Approach (2406 words)
In this theory, information is thought to be processed in a serial, discontinuous manner as it moves from one stage to the next.
The parallel-distributed processing model states that information is processed simultaneously by several different parts of the memory system, rather than sequentially as hypothesized by Atkinson-Shiffrin as well as Craik and Lockhart.
The two processes most likely to move information into long-term memory are elaboration and distributed practice (referred to as periodic review in the direct instruction model).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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