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Information is the result of processing, manipulating and organizing data in a way that adds to the knowledge of the receiver. In other words, it is the context in which data is taken.[citation needed] Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Image File history File links WikipediaBinary. ... Image File history File links WikipediaBinary. ... Image:ASCII fullsvg There are 95 printable ASCII characters, numbered 32 to 126. ... The binary numeral system, or base-2 number system, is a numeral system that represents numeric values using two symbols, usually 0 and 1. ... Look up information in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Data (disambiguation). ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ...


Information as a concept bears a diversity of meanings, from everyday usage to technical settings. Generally speaking, the concept of information is closely related to notions of constraint, communication, control, data, form, instruction, knowledge, meaning, mental stimulus, pattern, perception, and representation. A constraint is a limitation of possibilities. ... Communication is a process that allows beings - in particular humans - to exchange information by several methods. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Control theory. ... For other uses, see Data (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles accessible from a disambiguation page. ... Look up instruction in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... In linguistics, meaning is the content carried by the words or signs exchanged by people when communicating through language. ... Stimulation is the irritating action of various agents (stimuli) on muscles, nerves, or a sensory end organ, by which activity is evoked; especially, the nervous impulse produced by various agents on nerves, or a sensory end organ, by which the part connected with the nerve is thrown into a state... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... In psychology and the cognitive sciences, perception is the process of acquiring, interpreting, selecting, and organizing sensory information. ... Knowledge representation is an issue that arises in both cognitive science and artificial intelligence. ...


Many people speak about the Information Age as the advent of the Knowledge Age [citation needed][Who says this?] or knowledge society, the information society, and information technologies, and even though informatics, information science and computer science are often in the spotlight, the word "information" is often used without careful consideration of the various meanings it has acquired. A university computer lab containing many desktop PCs The transition of communication technology: Oral Culture, Manuscript Culture, Print Culture, and Information Age Information Age is a name given to a period after the industrial age and before the Knowledge Economy. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... An information society is a society in which the creation, distribution, diffusion, use, and manipulation of information is a significant economic, political, and cultural activity. ... Information and communication technology spending in 2005 Information technology (IT), as defined by the Information Technology Association of America (ITAA), is the study, design, development, implementation, support or management of computer-based information systems, particularly software applications and computer hardware. ... Informatics includes the science of information, the practice of information processing, and the engineering of information systems. ... The Ancient Library of Alexandria, an early form of information storage and retrieval. ... Computer science, or computing science, is the study of the theoretical foundations of information and computation and their implementation and application in computer systems. ...

Contents

Etymology

According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the earliest historical meaning of the word information in English was the act of informing, or giving form or shape to the mind, as in education, instruction, or training. A quote from 1387: "Five books come down from heaven for information of mankind." It was also used for an item of training, e.g. a particular instruction. "Melibee had heard the great skills and reasons of Dame Prudence, and her wise information and techniques." (1386) The Oxford English Dictionary print set The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is a dictionary published by the Oxford University Press (OUP), and is the most successful dictionary of the English language, (not to be confused with the one-volume Oxford Dictionary of English, formerly New Oxford Dictionary of English, of... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...


The English word was apparently derived by adding the common "noun of action" ending "-ation" (descended through French from Latin "-tio") to the earlier verb to inform, in the sense of to give form to the mind, to discipline, instruct, teach: "Men so wise should go and inform their kings." (1330) Inform itself comes (via French) from the Latin verb informare, to give form to, to form an idea of. Furthermore, Latin itself already even contained the word informatio meaning concept or idea, but the extent to which this may have influenced the development of the word information in English is unclear.


As a final note, the ancient Greek word for form was eidos, and this word was famously used in a technical philosophical sense by Plato (and later Aristotle) to denote the ideal identity or essence of something (see The Forms). "Eidos" can also be associated with thought, proposition or even concept. PLATO was one of the first generalized Computer assisted instruction systems, originally built by the University of Illinois (U of I) and later taken over by Control Data Corporation (CDC), who provided the machines it ran on. ... Plato spoke of forms (sometimes capitalized: The Forms) in formulating his solution to the problem of universals. ... Personification of thought (Greek Εννοια) in Celsus Library in Ephesos, Turkey Thought or thinking is a mental process which allows beings to model the world, and so to deal with it effectively according to their goals, plans, ends and desires. ... This article is about the word proposition as it is used in logic, philosophy, and linguistics. ... For other uses, see Concept (disambiguation). ...


Information as a message

Information is the state of a system of interest. Message is the information materialized.


Information is a quality of a message from a sender to one or more receivers. Information is always about something (size of a parameter, occurrence of an event, etc). Viewed in this manner, information does not have to be accurate. It may be a truth or a lie, or just the sound of a kiss. Even a disruptive noise used to inhibit the flow of communication and create misunderstanding would in this view be a form of information. However, generally speaking, if the amount of information in the received message increases, the message is more accurate. Message in its most general meaning is an object of communication. ... A sender was a circuit in a 20th century electromechanical telephone exchange which sent telephone numbers and other information to another exchange. ...


This model assumes there is a definite sender and at least one receiver. Many refinements of the model assume the existence of a common language understood by the sender and at least one of the receivers. An important variation identifies information as that which would be communicated by a message if it were sent from a sender to a receiver capable of understanding the message. However, in requiring the existence of a definite sender, the "information as a message" model does not attach any significance to the idea that information is something that can be extracted from an environment, e.g., through observation, reading or measurement. A sender was a circuit in a 20th century electromechanical telephone exchange which sent telephone numbers and other information to another exchange. ...


Information is a term with many meanings depending on context, but is as a rule closely related to such concepts as meaning, knowledge, instruction, communication, representation, and mental stimulus. Simply stated, information is a message received and understood. In terms of data, it can be defined as a collection of facts from which conclusions may be drawn. There are many other aspects of information since it is the knowledge acquired through study or experience or instruction. But overall, information is the result of processing, manipulating and organizing data in a way that adds to the knowledge of the person receiving it.


Communication theory is a numerical measure of the uncertainty of an outcome. For example, we can say that "the signal contained thousands of bits of information". Communication theory tends to use the concept of information entropy, generally attributed to C.E. Shannon (see below). There is much discussion in the academic world of communication as to what actually constitutes communication. ... Claude Shannon In information theory, the Shannon entropy or information entropy is a measure of the uncertainty associated with a random variable. ... ...


Another form of information is Fisher information, a concept of R.A. Fisher. This is used in application of statistics to estimation theory and to science in general. Fisher information is thought of as the amount of information that a message carries about an unobservable parameter. It can be computed from knowledge of the likelihood function defining the system. For example, with a normal likelihood function, the Fisher information is the reciprocal of the variance of the law. In the absence of knowledge of the likelihood law, the Fisher information may be computed from normally distributed score data as the reciprocal of their second moment. In statistics and information theory, the Fisher information (denoted ) is the variance of the score. ... Sir Ronald Fisher Sir Ronald Aylmer Fisher, FRS (February 17, 1890–July 29, 1962) was an extraordinarily talented evolutionary biologist, geneticist and statistician. ... Estimation theory is a branch of statistics and signal processing that deals with estimating the values of parameters based on measured/empirical data. ... Look up likelihood in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Even though information and data are often used interchangeably, they are actually very different. Data is a set of unrelated information, and as such is of no use until it is properly evaluated. Upon evaluation, once there is some significant relation between data, and they show some relevance, then they are converted into information. Now this same data can be used for different purposes. Thus, till the data convey some information, they are not useful.


Measuring information entropy

The view of information as a message came into prominence with the publication in 1948 of an influential paper by Claude Shannon, "A Mathematical Theory of Communication." This paper provides the foundations of information theory and endows the word information not only with a technical meaning but also a measure. If the sending device is equally likely to send any one of a set of N messages, then the preferred measure of "the information produced when one message is chosen from the set" is the base two logarithm of N (This measure is called self-information). In this paper, Shannon continues: Claude Shannon Claude Elwood Shannon (April 30, 1916 – February 24, 2001), an American electrical engineer and mathematician, has been called the father of information theory,[1] and was the founder of practical digital circuit design theory. ... A Mathematical Theory of Communication, published in 1948 by mathematician and computer scientist Claude Shannon, was one of the founding works of the field of information theory. ... A bundle of optical fiber. ... Logarithms to various bases: is to base e, is to base 10, and is to base 1. ... In information theory, self-information is measure of the information content associated with the outcome of a random variable. ...

The choice of a logarithmic base corresponds to the choice of a unit for measuring information. If the base 2 is used the resulting units may be called binary digits, or more briefly bits, a word suggested by J. W. Tukey. A device with two stable positions, such as a relay or a flip-flop circuit, can store one bit of information. N such devices can store N bits…[1] Choice consists of the mental process of thinking involved with the process of judging the merits of multiple options and selecting one of them for action. ... This article is about the unit of information. ... John Wilder Tukey (June 16, 1915 - July 26, 2000) was a statistician. ...

A complementary way of measuring information is provided by algorithmic information theory. In brief, this measures the information content of a list of symbols based on how predictable they are, or more specifically how easy it is to compute the list through a program: the information content of a sequence is the number of bits of the shortest program that computes it. The sequence below would have a very low algorithmic information measurement since it is a very predictable pattern, and as the pattern continues the measurement would not change. Shannon information would give the same information measurement for each symbol, since they are statistically random, and each new symbol would increase the measurement. This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Originally, the word computing was synonymous with counting and calculating, and a computer was a person who computes. ... Program or Programme may refer to: Computer program Radio programming Television program(me), Webcast Program (management) 12-step program Program (The Animatrix), a short film in The Animatrix series Event programme British tabloid form of comic book, called prog in short. ... A numeric sequence is said to be statistically random when it contains no recognizable patterns or regularities; sequences such as the results of an ideal die roll, or the digits of Pi (as far as we can tell) exhibit statistical randomness. ...

123456789101112131415161718192021

It is important to recognize the limitations of traditional information theory and algorithmic information theory from the perspective of human meaning. For example, when referring to the meaning content of a message Shannon noted “Frequently the messages have meaning… these semantic aspects of communication are irrelevant to the engineering problem. The significant aspect is that the actual message is one selected from a set of possible messages” (emphasis in original).


In information theory signals are part of a process, not a substance; they do something, they do not contain any specific meaning. Combining algorithmic information theory and information theory we can conclude that the most random signal contains the most information as it can be interpreted in any way and cannot be compressed.[citation needed]


Micheal Reddy noted that "'signals' of the mathematical theory are 'patterns that can be exchanged'. There is no message contained in the signal, the signals convey the ability to select from a set of possible messages." In information theory "the system must be designed to operate for each possible selection, not just the one which will actually be chosen since this is unknown at the time of design". In mathematics, theory is used informally to refer to a body of knowledge about mathematics. ...


Information as a pattern

Information is any represented pattern. This view assumes neither accuracy nor directly communicating parties, but instead assumes a separation between an object and its representation, as well as the involvement of someone capable of understanding this relationship. This view seems therefore to require a conscious mind. Consider the following example: economic statistics represent an economy, however inaccurately. What are commonly referred to as data in computing, statistics, and other fields, are forms of information in this sense. The electro-magnetic patterns in a computer network and connected devices are related to something other than the pattern itself, such as text characters to be displayed and keyboard input. Signals, signs, and symbols are also in this category. On the other hand, according to semiotics, data is symbols with certain syntax and information is data with a certain semantic. Painting and drawing contain information to the extent that they represent something such as an assortment of objects on a table, a profile, or a landscape. In other words, when a pattern of something is transposed to a pattern of something else, the latter is information. This type of information still assumes some involvement of conscious mind, of either the entity constructing the representation, or the entity interpreting it. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Mind (disambiguation). ... Econometrics literally means economic measurement. It is the branch of economics that applies statistical methods to the empirical study of economic theories and relationships. ... RAM (Random Access Memory) Look up computing in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A graph of a normal bell curve showing statistics used in educational assessment and comparing various grading methods. ... Electromagnetism is the physics of the electromagnetic field: a field which exerts a force on particles that possess the property of electric charge, and is in turn affected by the presence and motion of those particles. ... “Computer Networks” redirects here. ... In computer hardware, a peripheral device is any device attached to a computer in order to expand its functionality. ... In computer and machine-based telecommunications terminology, a character is a unit of information that roughly corresponds to a grapheme or a grapheme-like unit or symbol, such as in an alphabet or syllabary in the written form of a natural language. ... It has been suggested that Keystroke be merged into this article or section. ... In information theory, a signal is the sequence of states of a communications channel that encodes a message. ... In general linguistics Ferdinand de Saussure described a sign as a combination of a concept and a sound-image. ... Semiotics, semiotic studies, or semiology is the study of signs and symbols, both individually and grouped into sign systems. ... For building painting, see painter and decorator. ... Drawing is a visual art which makes use of any number of drawing instruments to mark a two-dimensional medium. ... Look up profile in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ...


But if information can be defined merely as a pattern, does that mean that neither utility nor meaning are necessary components of information? Arguably a distinction must be made between raw unprocessed data and information which possesses utility, value or some quantum of meaning. On this view, information may indeed be characterized as a pattern; but this is a necessary condition, not a sufficient one. In economics, utility is a measure of the relative happiness or satisfaction (gratification) gained. ... In general, the economic value of something is how much a product or service is worth to someone relative to other things (often measured in money). ... Look up necessary in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In logic, the words necessary and sufficient describe relations that hold between propositions or states of affairs, if one is conditional on the other. ...


An individual entry in a telephone book, which follows a specific pattern formed by name, address and telephone number, does not become "informative" in some sense unless and until it possesses some degree of utility, value or meaning. For example, someone might look up a girlfriend's number, might order a take away etc. The vast majority of numbers will never be construed as "information" in any meaningful sense. The gap between data and information is only closed by a behavioral bridge whereby some value, utility or meaning is added to transform mere data or pattern into information.


When one constructs a representation of an object, one can selectively extract from the object (sampling) or use a system of signs to replace (encoding), or both. The sampling and encoding result in representation. An example of the former is a "sample" of a product; an example of the latter is "verbal description" of a product. Both contain information of the product, however inaccurate. When one interprets representation, one can predict a broader pattern from a limited number of observations (inference) or understand the relation between patterns of two different things (decoding). One example of the former is to sip a soup to know if it is spoiled; an example of the latter is examining footprints to determine the animal and its condition. In both cases, information sources are not constructed or presented by some "sender" of information. To repeat, information in this sense does not assume direct communication, but it assumes involvement of some conscious mind. A common misunderstanding about case study research is that one cannot generalize from a case study. ... System (from Latin systēma, in turn from Greek systēma) is a set of entities, real or abstract, comprising a whole where each component interacts with or is related to at least one other component and they all serve a common objective. ... For other senses of the word code, see code (disambiguation). ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Soup is usually a savoury liquid food that is made by combining ingredients, such as meat, vegetables and beans in stock or hot water, until the flavor is extracted, forming a broth. ...


Regardless, information is dependent upon, but usually unrelated to and separate from, the medium or media used to express it. In other words, the position of a theoretical series of bits, or even the output once interpreted by a computer or similar device, is unimportant, except when someone or something is present to interpret the information. Therefore, a quantity of information is totally distinct from its medium. The NASA Columbia Supercomputer. ...


Information as sensory input

Often information is viewed as a type of input to an organism or designed device. Inputs are of two kinds. Some inputs are important to the function of the organism (for example, food) or device (energy) by themselves. In his book Sensory Ecology, Dusenbery called these causal inputs. Other inputs (information) are important only because they are associated with causal inputs and can be used to predict the occurrence of a causal input at a later time (and perhaps another place). Some information is important because of association with other information but eventually there must be a connection to a causal input. In practice, information is usually carried by weak stimuli that must be detected by specialized sensory systems and amplified by energy inputs before they can be functional to the organism or device. For example, light is often a causal input to plants but provides information to animals. The colored light reflected from a flower is too weak to do much photosynthetic work but the visual system of the bee detects it and the bee's nervous system uses the information to guide the bee to the flower, where the bee often finds nectar or pollen, which are causal inputs, serving a nutritional function. Input is the term denoting either an entrance or changes which are inserted into a system and which activate/modify a process. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ...


Information is any type of sensory input. When an organism with a nervous system receives an input, it transforms the input into an electrical signal. This is regarded information by some. The idea of representation is still relevant, but in a slightly different manner. That is, while abstract painting does not represent anything concretely, when the viewer sees the painting, it is nevertheless transformed into electrical signals that create a representation of the painting. Defined this way, information does not have to be related to truth, communication, or representation of an object. Entertainment in general is not intended to be informative. Music, the performing arts, amusement parks, works of fiction and so on are thus forms of information in this sense, but they are not necessarily forms of information according to some definitions given above. Consider another example: food supplies both nutrition and taste for those who eat it. If information is equated to sensory input, then nutrition is not information but taste is. The Human Nervous System A human being coordinates its nervous system, the activity of the muscles, monitors the organs, constructs and also stops input from the senses, and initiates actions. ... One of Kandiskys most famous paintings Yellow Red Blue (Kandinsky 1925) Abstract art is now generally understood to mean art that does not depict objects in the natural world, but instead uses shapes and colours in a non-representational or non-objective way. ... A stilt-walker entertaining shoppers at a shopping centre in Swindon, England Entertainment is an event, performance, or activity designed to give pleasure or relaxation to an audience (although, for example, in the case of a computer game the audience may be only one person). ... // Music is an art form consisting of sound and silence expressed through time. ... The performing arts are those forms of art which differ from the plastic arts insofar as the former uses the artists own body, face and presence as a medium, and the latter uses materials such as clay, metal or paint which can be molded or transformed to create some... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ...


Information as an influence which leads to a transformation

Information is any type of pattern that influences the formation or transformation of other patterns. In this sense, there is no need for a conscious mind to perceive, much less appreciate, the pattern. Consider, for example, DNA. The sequence of nucleotides is a pattern that influences the formation and development of an organism without any need for a conscious mind. Systems theory at times seems to refer to information in this sense, assuming information does not necessarily involve any conscious mind, and patterns circulating (due to feedback) in the system can be called information. In other words, it can be said that information in this sense is something potentially perceived as representation, though not created or presented for that purpose. The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a nucleic acid molecule that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. ... A nucleotide is a chemical compound that consists of a heterocyclic base, a sugar, and one or more phosphate groups. ... This article cites its sources but does not provide page references. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Feedback loop. ...


When Marshall McLuhan speaks of media and their effects on human cultures, he refers to the structure of artifacts that in turn shape our behaviors and mindsets. Also, pheromones are often said to be "information" in this sense. “McLuhan” redirects here. ... A cultural artifact is an man-made object which gives information about the culture of its creator and users. ... Fanning honeybee exposes Nasonov gland (white-at tip of abdomen) releasing pheromone to entice swarm into an empty hive A pheromone is a chemical that triggers an innate behavioural response in another member of the same species. ...


(See also Gregory Bateson.) Gregory Bateson (9 May 1904–4 July 1980) was a British anthropologist, social scientist, linguist and cyberneticist whose work intersected that of many other fields. ...


Information as a property in physics

Main article: Physical information

In 2003, J. D. Bekenstein claimed there is a growing trend in physics to define the physical world as being made of information itself (and thus information is defined in this way). Information has a well defined meaning in physics. Examples of this include the phenomenon of quantum entanglement where particles can interact without reference to their separation or the speed of light. Information itself cannot travel faster than light even if the information is transmitted indirectly. This could lead to the fact that all attempts at physically observing a particle with an "entangled" relationship to another are slowed down, even though the particles are not connected in any other way other than by the information they carry. Physical information refers generally to the information that is contained in a physical system. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... It has been suggested that Quantum coherence be merged into this article or section. ...


Another link is demonstrated by the Maxwell's demon thought experiment. In this experiment, a direct relationship between information and another physical property, entropy, is demonstrated. A consequence is that it is impossible to destroy information without increasing the entropy of a system; in practical terms this often means generating heat. Thus, in the study of logic gates, the theoretical lower bound of thermal energy released by an AND gate is higher than for the NOT gate (because information is destroyed in an AND gate and simply converted in a NOT gate). Physical information is of particular importance in the theory of quantum computers. Maxwells demon is an 1867 thought experiment by the Scottish physicist James Clerk Maxwell, meant to raise questions about the possibility of violating the second law of thermodynamics. ... Ice melting - classic example of entropy increasing[1] described in 1862 by Rudolf Clausius as an increase in the disgregation of the molecules of the body of ice. ... A logic gate is an arrangement of electronically-controlled switches used to calculate operations in Boolean algebra. ... Molecule of alanine used in NMR implementation of error correction. ...


Information as records

Records are a specialized form of information. Essentially, records are information produced consciously or as by-products of business activities or transactions and retained because of their value. Primarily their value is as evidence of the activities of the organization but they may also be retained for their informational value. Sound records management ensures that the integrity of records is preserved for as long as they are required. Records Management is the practice of identifying, classifying, archiving, preserving, and destroying records. ...


The international standard on records management, ISO 15489, defines records as "information created, received, and maintained as evidence and information by an organization or person, in pursuance of legal obligations or in the transaction of business". The International Committee on Archives (ICA) Committee on electronic records defined a record as, "a specific piece of recorded information generated, collected or received in the initiation, conduct or completion of an activity and that comprises sufficient content, context and structure to provide proof or evidence of that activity".


Records may be retained because of their business value, as part of the corporate memory of the organization or to meet legal, fiscal or accountability requirements imposed on the organization. Willis (2005) expressed the view that sound management of business records and information delivered "…six key requirements for good corporate governance…transparency; accountability; due process; compliance; meeting statutory and common law requirements; and security of personal and corporate information." Corporate Memory (CM) can be defined as the total body of data, information and knowledge required to deliver the strategic aims and objectives of an organization. ... Corporate governance is the set of processes, customs, policies, laws and institutions affecting the way a corporation is directed, administered or controlled. ...


Trivia

Sesame Street is an American educational childrens television series for preschoolers and is a pioneer of the contemporary educational television standard, combining both education and entertainment. ... Cookie Monster (right) and his mother in a season 33 Letter of the Day segment, 2002. ...

References

  1. ^ The Bell System Technical Journal, Vol. 27, p. 379, (July 1948).

Further readings

  • Bekenstein, Jacob D. (2003, August). Information in the holographic universe. Scientific American. Retrieved from http://www.referencenter.com
  • Luciano Floridi, (2005). 'Is Information Meaningful Data?', Philosophy and Phenomenological Research, 70 (2), pp. 351 - 370. Available online at http://www.wolfson.ox.ac.uk/~floridi/pdf/iimd.pdf

The holographic principle is a speculative conjecture about quantum gravity theories, proposed by Gerard t Hooft and improved and promoted by Leonard Susskind, claiming that all of the information contained in a volume of space can be represented by a theory which lives in the boundary of that region. ... Luciano Floridi (Laurea, Universita degli Studi di Roma La Sapienza, M.Phil. ... Luciano Floridi (Laurea, Universita degli Studi di Roma La Sapienza, M.Phil. ...

See also

Informatics includes the science of information, the practice of information processing, and the engineering of information systems. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Information Broker An Information Broker is someone who buys and sells information based on the needs of a client. ... Claude Shannon In information theory, the Shannon entropy or information entropy is a measure of the uncertainty associated with a random variable. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... The adolescent Internet. ... The information ladder is a diagram created by education professor Norman Longworth to describe the stages in human learning. ... Information mapping is a technique of dividing and labeling information for easy comprehension, use and recall. ... Information overload (aka information flood) is a term that is usually used in conjunction with various forms of Computer-mediated communication such as Electronic mail. ... In general, information processing is the changing (processing) of information in any manner detectable by an observer. ... An information processor or information processing system, as its name suggests, is a system (be it electrical, mechanical or biological) which takes information (a sequence of enumerated states) in one form and processes (transforms) it into another form, e. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... The Ancient Library of Alexandria, an early form of information storage and retrieval. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Information systems. ... Information and communication technology spending in 2005 Information technology (IT), as defined by the Information Technology Association of America (ITAA), is the study, design, development, implementation, support or management of computer-based information systems, particularly software applications and computer hardware. ... A bundle of optical fiber. ... Infosphere neologism coined by Luciano Floridi on the basis of biosphere, a term referring to that limited region on our planet that supports life. ... In the fields of science, engineering, industry and statistics, accuracy is the degree of conformity of a measured or calculated quantity to its actual (true) value. ... abstraction in general. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... It has been suggested that Information sensitivity be merged into this article or section. ... Complexity in general usage is the opposite of simplicity. ... There are many definitions of complexity, therefore many natural, artificial and abstract objects or networks can be considered to be complex systems, and their study (complexity science) is highly interdisciplinary. ... Complex adaptive systems are special cases of complex systems. ... Cybernetics is the study of feedback and derived concepts such as communication and control in living organisms, machines and organisations. ... An abbreviated form of explicitly discarded information. ... In statistics and information theory, the Fisher information (denoted ) is the variance of the score. ... Free Information Infrastructure is a term used primarily in Europe mirroring the official US term National Information Infrastructure, introduced in early nineties by a U.S. Patent Office paper [1]. The terms global information infrastructure and information highway were also used as a governmental term for the Net. ... Freedom of information can mean: whether a particular piece of information can be freely created, read, modified, copied and distributed; see free content (as well as free culture and free software) freedom to express ones opinions or ideas, generally, within a society; see freedom of speech the accessibility of... This page is a candidate to be moved to Wiktionary. ... Library and information science (LIS) is the study of issues related to libraries and the information fields. ... A recording medium is a physical material that holds information expressed in any of the existing recording formats. ... The simplest definition of metadata is that it is data about data - more specifically information (data) about a particular content (data). ... Observation is an activity of a sapient or sentient living being (e. ... The philosophy of information (PI) is a new area of research, which studies conceptual issues arising at the intersection of computer science, information technology, and philosophy. ... Physical information refers generally to the information that is contained in a physical system. ... A prediction is a statement or claim that a particular event will occur in the future in more certain terms than a forecast. ... The propaganda model is a theory advanced by Edward S. Herman and Noam Chomsky that alleges systemic biases in the mass media and seeks to explain them in terms of structural economic causes. ... Relevance is a term used to describe how pertinent, connected, or applicable some information is to a given matter. ... ROC curve of three epitope predictors. ... // Economics In economics, satisficing is a behaviour which attempts to achieve at least some minimum level of a particular variable, but which does not strive to achieve its maximum possible value. ... In information theory, the Shannon–Hartley theorem is an application of the noisy channel coding theorem to the archetypal case of a continuous-time analog communications channel subject to Gaussian noise. ... Claude Shannon Claude Elwood Shannon (April 30, 1916 – February 24, 2001), an American electrical engineer and mathematician, has been called the father of information theory,[1] and was the founder of practical digital circuit design theory. ... Ralph Vinton Lyon Hartley (November 30, 1888 - May 1, 1970) was an electronics researcher. ... This article cites its sources but does not provide page references. ... By the mid 20th century humans had achieved a mastery of technology sufficient to leave the surface of the Earth for the first time and explore space. ... For the song by 311, see Grassroots Applied science is the exact science of applying knowledge from one or more natural scientific fields to practical problems. ... Garry Kasparov playing against Deep Blue, the first machine to win a chess game against a reigning world champion. ... Ceramic engineering is the technology of manufacturing and usage of ceramic materials. ... A processors core Computing is a very broad topic that has become pandemic to modern uses of technology. ... Electronics is the study of the flow of charge through various materials and devices such as, semiconductors, resistors, inductors, capacitors, nano-structures, and vacuum tubes. ... Energy storage is the storing of some form of energy that can be drawn upon at a later time to perform some useful operation. ... Engineering physics (EP) is an academic degree, usually at the level of Bachelor of Science. ... Environmental technology or green technology is the application of the environmental sciences to conserve the natural environment and resources, and by curbing the negative impacts of human involvement. ... The Materials Science Tetrahedron, which often also includes Characterization at the center Materials science is an interdisciplinary field involving the properties of matter and its applications to various areas of science and engineering. ... Microtechnology is technology with features near one micrometre (one millionth of a metre, or 10-6 metre, or 1μm). ... Buckminsterfullerene C60, also known as the buckyball, is the simplest of the carbon structures known as fullerenes. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Optical engineering is the field of study which focuses on applications of optics. ... Communication is a process that allows beings - in particular humans - to exchange information by several methods. ... Communication is a process that allows beings - in particular humans - to exchange information by several methods. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Music Technology is a term that refers to all forms of technology involved with the musical arts, in particular the use of electronic devices and computer software to facilitate playback, recording, composition, storage, performance, search and retrieval. ... Speech recognition (in many contexts also known as automatic speech recognition, computer speech recognition or erroneously as Voice Recognition) is the process of converting a speech signal to a sequence of words, by means of an algorithm implemented as a computer program. ... Visual technology is the engineering discipline dealing with visual representation. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Computational finance (also known as financial engineering) is a cross-disciplinary field which relies on mathematical finance, numerical methods and computer simulations to make trading, hedging and investment decisions, as well as facilitating the risk management of those decisions. ... Manufacturing (from Latin manu factura, making by hand) is the use of tools and labor to make things for use or sale. ... Wind turbines The scientific definition of a machine is any device that transmits or modifies energy. ... Chuquicamata, the second largest open pit copper mine in the world, Chile. ... The Massive Ordnance Air Blast (MOAB) bomb produced in the United States. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Boxes of ammunition clog a warehouse in Baghdad Ammunition is a generic military term meaning (the assembly of) a projectile and its propellant. ... This article lists military technology items, devices and methods. ... Marine Engineers are the officers of a ship which operate and maintain the propulsion and electrical generation systems onboard a ship. ... Look up home in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A major appliance is a large machine which accomplishes some routine housekeeping task, which includes purposes such as cooking, food preservation, or cleaning, whether in a household, institutional, commercial or industrial setting. ... Domestic technology is the incorporation of applied science into the home. ... Educational technology is the use of technology in education to improve learning and teaching. ... The food technology room at Marling School in Stroud, Gloucestershire. ... Engineering is the design, analysis, and/or construction of works for practical purposes. ... Aerospace engineering is the branch of engineering that concerns aircraft, spacecraft, and related topics. ... An architectural engineer applies the skills of many engineering disciplines to the design, construction, operation, maintenance, and renovation of buildings while paying attention to their impacts on the surrounding environment. ... Biological engineering (also biosystems engineering and bioengineering) is a broad-based engineering discipline that deals with bio-molecular and molecular processes, product design, sustainability and analysis of biological systems. ... Unser Nachbar hat ein neues Auto. ... The AbioCor artificial heart, an example of a biomedical engineering application of mechanical engineering with biocompatible materials for Cardiothoracic Surgery using an artificial organ. ... Ceramic engineering is the technology of manufacturing and usage of ceramic materials. ... Chemical engineering is the branch of engineering that deals with the application of physical science (e. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Computer engineering (also called electronic and computer engineering) is a discipline that combines elements of both electrical engineering and computer science. ... Construction engineering concerns the planning and management of the construction of structures such as highways, bridges, airports, railroads, buildings, dams, and reservoirs. ... Cryogenics is a branch of physics (or engineering) that studies the production of very low temperatures (below –150 °C, –238 °F or 123 K) and the behavior of materials at those temperatures. ... Electrical Engineers design power systems… … and complex electronic circuits. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Environmental engineering[1][2] is the application of science and engineering principles to improve the environment (air, water, and/or land resources), to provide healthy water, air, and land for human habitation and for other organisms, and to remediate polluted sites. ... Materials engineering is a discipline related to materials science which focusses on materials design, processing techniques (casting, rolling, welding, ion implantation, crystal growth, thin film deposition, sintering, glassblowing, etc. ... Mechanical engineering is an engineering discipline that involves the application of principles of physics for analysis, design, manufacturing, and maintenance of mechanical systems. ... Mechatronics is the synergistic combination of mechanical engineering (mecha for mechanisms, i. ... Metallurgical engineering- Designing, creating, or producing metals by various methods, for various applications, from metallic elements described on the Chemical Periodic Table of the Elements. ... Mining Engineering is a field that involves many of the other engineering disciplines as applied to extracting and processing minerals from a naturally occurring environment. ... Steamer New York in c. ... Nuclear engineering is the practical application of the atomic nucleus gleaned from principles of nuclear physics and the interaction and maintenance of nuclear fission systems and components, specifically, nuclear reactors, nuclear power plants and/or nuclear weapons. ... Petroleum Engineering is involved in the exploration and production activities of petroleum as an upstream end of the energy sector. ... Software engineering is the application of a systematic, disciplined, quantifiable approach to the development, operation, and maintenance of software. ... Taipei 101, the worlds tallest building as of 2004. ... Systems engineering techniques are used in complex projects: from spacecrafts to chip design, from robotics to creating large software products to building bridges, Systems engineering uses a host of tools that include modeling & simulation, requirements analysis, and scheduling to manage complexity Systems Engineering (SE) is an interdisciplinary approach and means... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Tissue engineering is the use of a combination of cells, engineering or tissue-matrix materials, and suitable biochemical factors to improve or replace biological functions. ... Warning signs, such as this one, can improve safety awareness. ... The AbioCor artificial heart, an example of a biomedical engineering application of mechanical engineering with biocompatible materials for Cardiothoracic Surgery using an artificial organ. ... Map of the human X chromosome (from the NCBI website). ... The structure of insulin Biological technology is technology based on biology, especially when used in agriculture, food science, and medicine. ... Cheminformatics (also known as chemoinformatics and chemical informatics) is the use of computer and informational techniques, applied to a range of problems in the field of chemistry. ... Fire protection is the prevention and reduction of the hazards associated with fires. ... Health Sciences are the group of disciplines of applied science dealing with human and animal health. ... Pharmacology (in Greek: pharmakon (φάρμακον) meaning drug, and lego (λέγω) to tell (about)) is the study of how substances interact with living organisms to produce a change in function. ... Safety engineering is an applied science strongly related to systems engineering. ... Sanitary engineering is the application of scientific or mathematical principles with to the field of sanitation, especially in regards to its affect on public health. ... Look up aerospace in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Aerospace engineering is the branch of engineering that concerns aircraft, spacecraft, and related topics. ... The Engine room of Argonaute, a French supply vessel. ... Space technology is a term that is often treated as a category. ...

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Look up Information in
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Information - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3293 words)
Information is a term with many meanings depending on context, but is as a rule closely related to such concepts as meaning, knowledge, instruction, communication, representation, and mental stimulus.
Information may indeed be characterised as a pattern; it is a necessary condition, but not sufficient.
Information is usually thought of as, in a strict sense, a subset of data.
Information theory - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2982 words)
Information theory, however, does not involve message importance or meaning, as these are matters of the quality of data rather than the quantity of data, the latter of which is determined solely by probabilities.
Information theory is generally considered to have been founded in 1948 by Claude Shannon in his seminal work, "A Mathematical Theory of Communication." The central paradigm of classic information theory is the engineering problem of the transmission of information over a noisy channel.
Information theory is a broad and deep mathematical theory, with equally broad and deep applications, amongst which is the vital field of coding theory.
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