FACTOID # 5: Minnesota and Connecticut are both in the top 5 in saving money and total tax burden per capita.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Informatician

Informatics includes the science of information, the practice of information processing, and the engineering of information systems. Informatics studies the structure, behavior, and interactions of natural and artificial systems that store, process and communicate information. It also develops its own conceptual and theoretical foundations. Since computers, individuals and organizations all process information, informatics has computational, cognitive and social aspects. The ASCII codes for the word Wikipedia represented in binary, the numeral system most commonly used for encoding computer information. ... In general, information processing is the changing (processing) of information in any manner detectable by an observer. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Information system. ...


Used as a compound, in conjunction with the name of a discipline, as in medical informatics, bioinformatics, etc., it denotes the specialization of informatics to the management and processing of data, information and knowledge in the named discipline, and the incorporation of informatic concepts and theories to enrich the other discipline; it has a similar relationship to library science. Electronic patient chart of a HIS Medical Informatics is the name given to the discipline that exists at the intersection of information technology and medicine. ... Map of the human X chromosome (from the NCBI website). ... Library science or library and information science (abbreviated LIS) is the study of issues related to libraries and the information fields. ...


Informatics is broader in scope than: information theory—the study of a particular mathematical concept of information; information science—a field primarily concerned with the collection, classification, manipulation, storage, retrieval and dissemination of information in human society; artificial intelligence—the study and engineering of intelligent behavior, learning, and adaptation, in machines; or computer science—the study of the storage, processing, and communication of information using engineered computing devices. A bundle of optical fiber. ... Information science (also information studies) is an interdisciplinary science primarily concerned with the collection, classification, manipulation, storage, retrieval and dissemination of information. ... Hondas humanoid robot AI redirects here. ... Computer science, or computing science, is the study of the theoretical foundations of information and computation and their implementation and application in computer systems. ...

Contents

Etymology

In 1957 the German computer scientist Karl Steinbuch published a paper called Informatik: Automatische Informationsverarbeitung (i.e. "Informatics: automatic information processing"). Today the word "Informatik" is used in German as a synonym of "Computerwissenschaft" (i.e. computer science). Year 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Computer science, or computing science, is the study of the theoretical foundations of information and computation and their implementation and application in computer systems. ...


The French term informatique, was coined in 1962 by Philippe Dreyfus[1] together with various translations—informatics (English), also proposed independently and simultaneously by Walter F.Bauer who co-founded the company named Informatics General Inc., and informatica (Italian, Spanish, Portuguese), referring to the application of computers to store and process information. 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar). ...


The term was coined as a combination of "information" and "automation", to describe the science of automatic information processing. The morphology—informat-ion + -ics—uses "the accepted form for names of sciences, as conics, linguistics, optics, or matters of practice, as economics, politics, tactics",[2] and so, linguistically, the meaning extends easily to encompass both the science of information and the practice of information processing.


This new term was adopted across Western Europe, and, except in English, developed a meaning roughly translated by the English ‘computer science’, or ‘computing science’. Mikhailov et al. advocated the Russian term informatika (1966), and the English informatics (1967), as names for the theory of scientific information, and argued for a broader meaning, including study of the use of information technology in various communities (for example, scientific) and of the interaction of technology and human organizational structures.

Informatics is the discipline of science which investigates the structure and properties (not specific content) of scientific information, as well as the regularities of scientific information activity, its theory, history, methodology and organization.[3]

Usage has since modified this definition in three ways. First, the restriction to scientific information is removed, as in business informatics or legal informatics. Second, since most information is now digitally stored, computation is now central to informatics. Third, the representation, processing and communication of information are added as objects of investigation, since they have been recognized as fundamental to any scientific account of information. Taking information as the central focus of study, then distinguishes informatics—which includes study of biological and social mechanisms of information processing, from computer science—where digital computation plays a distinguished central rôle. Similarly, in the study of representation and communication, informatics is indifferent to the substrate that carries information. For example, it encompasses the study of communication using gesture, speech and language, as well as digital communications and networking. Computer science, or computing science, is the study of the theoretical foundations of information and computation and their implementation and application in computer systems. ...


A broad interpretation of informatics, as "the study of the structure, behaviour, and interactions of natural and artificial computational systems," was introduced by the University of Edinburgh in 1994 when it formed the grouping that is now its School of Informatics. This meaning is now (2006) increasingly used in the United Kingdom.[4] It encompasses the study of systems that represent, process, and communicate information, including all computational, cognitive and social aspects. The central notion is the transformation of information — whether by computation or communication, whether by organisms or artifacts. In this sense, informatics can be considered as encompassing computer science, cognitive science, artificial intelligence, information science and related fields, and as extending the scope of computer science to encompass computation in natural, as well as engineered, computational systems. Arizona State University adopted this broader definition at the launch of its School of Computing and Informatics in September 2006. The University of Edinburgh, founded in 1582,[4] is a renowned centre for teaching and research in Edinburgh, Scotland. ... The University of Edinburghs School of Informatics was created in 1998 from the former Department of Artificial Intelligence, the Centre for Cognitive Science and the Department of Computer Science, along with the Artificial Intelligence Applications Institute and the Human Communication Research Centre. ... Knowledge representation is an issue that arises in both cognitive science and artificial intelligence. ... In general, information processing is the changing (processing) of information in any manner detectable by an observer. ... Look up Communication in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Computer science, or computing science, is the study of the theoretical foundations of information and computation and their implementation and application in computer systems. ... Cognitive science is usually defined as the scientific study either of mind or of intelligence (e. ... Hondas humanoid robot AI redirects here. ... Information science (also information studies) is an interdisciplinary science primarily concerned with the collection, classification, manipulation, storage, retrieval and dissemination of information. ... Arizona State University (ASU) is a public institution of higher education and research with several campuses located in the Phoenix Metropolitan Area. ...


At the Indiana University School of Informatics, informatics is defined as "the art, science and human dimensions of information technology" and "the study, application, and social consequences of technology." These definitions are widely accepted in the United States, and differ from British usage in omitting the study of natural computation. Indiana University, founded in 1820, is a nine-campus university system in the state of Indiana. ...


In the English-speaking world the term informatics was first widely used in the compound, ‘medical informatics’, taken to include "the cognitive, information processing, and communication tasks of medical practice, education, and research, including information science and the technology to support these tasks".[5] Many such compounds are now in use; they can be viewed as different areas of applied informatics.


A practitioner of informatics may be called an informatician.


Trivia

Informatics was registered as a trademark[6] in the United States by Informatics Inc.[7], which traded from 1966 to 1985. This fact prevented the Association for Computing Machinery from becoming the Society for Informatics. As of October, 2006, a search of the United States Patent and Trademark database reveals no live trademarks on the word "informatics" alone (although many combinations including that word do appear). The Association for Computing Machinery, or ACM, was founded in 1947 as the worlds first scientific and educational computing society. ...


Contributing disciplines

Hondas humanoid robot AI redirects here. ... Computer science, or computing science, is the study of the theoretical foundations of information and computation and their implementation and application in computer systems. ... Cognitive science is usually defined as the scientific study either of mind or of intelligence (e. ... Information science (also information studies) is an interdisciplinary science primarily concerned with the collection, classification, manipulation, storage, retrieval and dissemination of information. ...

See also

Map of the human X chromosome (from the NCBI website). ... Category: ... Biomedical informatics is a discipline related to Bioinformatics and has its roots in medical informatics or healthcare informatics. ... Ecoinformatics is the science of information (Informatics) in Ecology and Environmental science. ... Cheminformatics (also known as chemoinformatics and chemical informatics) is the use of computer and informational techniques, applied to a range of problems in the field of chemistry. ... Community informatics, also known as community networking, electronic community networking, community-based technologies or community technology refers to an emerging set of principles and practices concerned with the use of information and communication technology (ICT) for personal, social, cultural or economic development within communities. ... Geoinformatics is a science which develops and uses information science infrastructure to address the problems of geosciences and related branches of engineering. ... Electronic patient chart of a health information system Health informatics or medical informatics is the intersection of information science, medicine and health care. ... It has been suggested that Scientific_Computing_&_Instrumentation be merged into this article or section. ... Computational neuroscience is an interdisciplinary field which draws on neuroscience, computer science and applied mathematics. ... Social informatics is the study of information and communication tools in the context of culturology, or in the context of a specific institution. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Dreyfus, Phillipe. L’informatique. Gestion, Paris, Jun 1962, pp. 240–41
  2. ^ Oxford English Dictionary 1989
  3. ^ Mikhailov, A.I., Chernyl, A.I., and Gilyarevskii, R.S. (1966) "Informatika – novoe nazvanie teorii naučnoj informacii." Naučno tehničeskaja informacija, 12, pp. 35–39.
  4. ^ For example, at Sussex, City University, Ulster, Bradford, Manchester and Newcastle
  5. ^ Greenes, R.A. and Shortliffe, E.H. (1990) "Medical Informatics: An emerging discipline with academic and institutional perspectives." Journal of the American Medical Association, 263(8) pp. 1114–20.
  6. ^ http://www.priorartdatabase.com/IPCOM/000129939/
  7. ^ http://www.softwarehistory.org/history/informatics.html

The Oxford English Dictionary print set The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is a dictionary published by the Oxford University Press (OUP), and is generally regarded as the most comprehensive and scholarly dictionary of the English language. ... JAMA, published continuously since in 1883, is an international peer-reviewed general medical journal published 48 times per year. ...

External links


 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m