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Encyclopedia > Influenza vaccine
Flu
Model of Influenza Virus from NIH
Model of Influenza Virus from NIH

The flu vaccine is a vaccine to protect against the highly variable influenza virus. Image File history File links Physcian_examining_a_child. ... Influenza, commonly known as the flu or the grippe, is a contagious disease of the upper airways and the lungs, caused by an RNA virus of the orthomyxoviridae family. ... Flu season is mostly a colloquial term used to describe the regular outbreak in flu cases, or even cases of the common cold during the late fall or winter. ... This article is about flu treatment in humans for mild human flu, which includes both efforts to reduce symptoms and to battle the flu virus itself. ... This article covers usage of the words used to describe flu in birds. ... The transmission and infection of H5N1 is a concern due to the global spread of H5N1 that constitutes a pandemic threat. ... Flu research includes molecular virology, pathogenesis, host immune responses, and epidemiology. ... Image File history File links Influenza_virus. ... NIH can refer to: National Institutes of Health Norwegian School of Sports Sciences: (Norges idrettshøgskole - NIH) Not Invented Here This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... A vaccine is an antigenic preparation used to produce active immunity to a disease, in order to prevent or ameliorate the effects of infection by any natural or wild strain of the organism. ... Influenza, commonly known as the flu or the grippe, is a contagious disease of the upper airways and the lungs, caused by an RNA virus of the orthomyxoviridae family. ... The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) A bacteriophage virus A virus is a submicroscopic parasitic particle that infects cells in biological organisms. ...


The annual flu kills an estimated 36,000 people in the United States each year. The annually updated trivalent flu vaccine for the 2005-2006 season consists of hemagglutinin (HA) surface glycoprotein components from influenza H3N2, H1N1, and B influenza viruses. [1] Hemagglutinin, as depicted in a simplified molecular model. ... The Hong Kong Flu was a pandemic outbreak of influenza that began in Hong Kong in 1968 and spread to the United States of America that year. ... H1N1 is a subtype of the species Influenza A virus (sometimes called bird flu virus). ... Influenzavirus B is a genus in the virus family Orthomyxoviridae. ...


Each year the influenza virus changes and different strains become dominant. Due to the high mutability of the virus a particular vaccine formulation usually only works for about a year. The World Health Organization co-ordinates the contents of the vaccine each year to contain the most likely strains of the virus to attack the next year. The flu vaccine is usually recommended for anyone in a high-risk group who would be likely to suffer complications from influenza. A vaccine is an antigenic preparation used to produce active immunity to a disease, in order to prevent or ameliorate the effects of infection by any natural or wild strain of the organism. ... WHO emblem The World Health Organization (WHO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations, acting as a coordinating authority on international public health, headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland. ... A vaccine is an antigenic preparation used to produce active immunity to a disease, in order to prevent or ameliorate the effects of infection by any natural or wild strain of the organism. ...

Contents


Who should get it

US navy personnel receiving influenza vaccination
Enlarge
US navy personnel receiving influenza vaccination

Yearly influenza vaccination should be routinely offered to patients at risk of complications of influenza:

  • the elderly (UK recommendation is those aged 65 or above)
  • patients with chronic lung diseases (asthma, COPD, etc.)
  • patients with chronic heart diseases (congenital heart disease, chronic heart failure, ischaemic heart disease)
  • patients with chronic liver diseases (including liver cirrhosis)
  • patients who are immunosuppressed (those with HIV or who are receiving drugs to suppress the immune system such as chemotherapy and long-term steroids) and their household contacts
  • healthcare workers (both to prevent sickness and to prevent spread to patients)[2]

The only contraindication is known anaphylaxis to the vaccine or its component. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is an umbrella term for a group of respiratory tract diseases that are characterised by airflow obstruction or limitation. ... Cross-section of a healthy heart. ... Ischaemic heart disease is a disease characterized by reduced blood supply to the heart. ... Cirrhosis is a chronic disease of the liver in which liver tissue is replaced by connective tissue, resulting in the loss of liver function. ... Human immunodeficiency virus (commonly known as HIV, and formerly known as HTLV-III and lymphadenopathy-associated virus) is a retrovirus that primarily infects vital components of the human immune system such as CD4+ T cells, macrophages and dendritic cells. ... The immune system is the system of specialized cells and organs that protect an organism from outside biological influences. ... In chemistry and biology, Steroids are a type of lipid, characterized by a carbon skeleton with four fused rings. ... In medicine, anaphylaxis is a severe and rapid systemic allergic reaction. ...


Flu vaccine virus selection

Selecting viruses for the vaccine manufacturing process is very difficult.


At the U.S.'s FDA's Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research's Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee's 101st meeting of February 16, 2005, an extensive discussion and vote was held concerning next year's flu vaccine virus selection; but began with a summary of the previous year: Motto: E pluribus unum (1789 to 1956) (Latin: Out of Many, One) In God We Trust (1956 to present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at federal level; English de facto Government • President • Vice President Federal republic George... The United States Food and Drug Administration is the government agency responsible for regulating food, dietary supplements, drugs, cosmetics, medical devices, biologics and blood products in the United States. ... The Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER) is one of five main centers for the United Statess Food and Drug Administration (US FDA). ... February 16 is the 47th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Influenza B
"For Influenza B, the question was asked: are there new strains present? And the answer was yes, and in 2004, the majority of the viruses were similar to a strain called B/Shanghai/361/2002, which is from the so-called B/Yamagata/1688 hemagglutinin lineage. That lineage was not the one that was being used in the vaccine that was current last year. In a minority of the strains that were found during the epidemiologic studies were similar to the strain that was in the vaccine for last year, which was B/Hong Kong/330/2001, which belongs to the HA lineage that we represent with the strain B/Victoria/287. In answer to the question were these new viruses spreading, the answer, of course, is definitely yes. The Fujian-like viruses had become widespread around the world and were predominant everywhere, and these B/Shanghai-like strains at the time we were holding this meeting in February were predominant not only in North America and the United States, but also in Asia and Europe."
New viruses
"Were the new viruses that were identified and spreading, were those inhibited by the current vaccines? And this question, as it sometimes is, was not a very definite no or yes. It was a little bit difficult to interpret, but it seemed like man of the A/Fujian-like viruses were not well inhibited by the current vaccines, although some of them were. For the B/Shanghai-like strains, of course, we've known for a long time that these two divergent hemagglutinin lineages are not that well inhibited one by the other, and as time has gone on and antigenic drift has occurred in these strains, that has become truer. Generally we also know that for the B/Yamagata-like strains and the B/Victoria-like strains, that very young children and people who haven't been immunologically primed, exposure to one of these does not seem to immediately give antibodies that cross-react with the other HA lineage."
Manufacturing issues
"So were there strains that were suitable for manufacturing? And the answer was yes. Of course, we all know that for inactivated vaccines and for live attenuated vaccines manufacturing depends on having egg adapted strains, either the wild-type or reassortant, and in the case of the live vaccine, of course, it has to be a reassortant for the attenuation phenotype. But there were A/Fujian-like strains that were available, and there was a high growth reassortant that was being used in manufacturing for the Southern Hemisphere already, the A/Wyoming/3/2003 X 147 reassortant. For the B strain, there were a number of wild-type isolates that seemed to be suitable for manufacturing, including B/Jilin/20/2003 and B/Jiangsu/10/2003, in addition to the B/Shanghai/361 strain itself.
Strains selected
"So based on that, the strains that were selected for this year include A/New Caledonia/20/99-like strain, which in this case really is A/New Caledonia/20/99. For the B/Shanghai/361/2002-like recommendation that was made, there were all three of these strains, B/Shanghai, B/Jilin, and B/Jiangsu. And for the A/Fujian/411/2002-like recommendation that was made and the A/Wyoming/3/2003 strain was chosen or is the one that has become widely used for vaccine preparation. Now, the implications of the strain selection were that preparation of the vaccines was on schedule throughout the year. All of the strains seemed to be typical and easy to adapt for manufacturing purposes, and going into the summer, the supply of vaccine was expected to match the demand predicted by previous years' experiences."
Unexpected difficulties
"But what happened was that we ended up with a vaccine shortage at the end of the summer, and just to try to put that into a little perspective, from January until August, manufacturing had been progressing on schedule even including these two new strains that were recommended for use in vaccines, and it was anticipated there were going to be about 100 million doses of vaccine from all of the manufacturers combined for this year. In August of 2004, Chiron notified regulatory authorities about a sterility issue and indicated that investigation to identify the cause and the implementation of corrections was underway, and at that time Chiron made a public announcement indicating that there would be a possible delay in distribution and possibly a reduction in the amount of vaccine that would be available. You also probably all know that in early October of 2004, the MHRA, the U.K. regulatory authority, announced that they were suspending Chiron's license to manufacture inactivated influenza vaccine for three months, and that was based on the issues that have previously been identified and were in investigation and correction by Chiron. Subsequently, over the next few weeks and certainly by November of 2004, it became clear after consultation between FDA and MHRA that the vaccine that Chiron had planned to make was not going to be available for us in the United States."
Response to unexpected difficulties
"In response to that, there were a number of things that happened within the Public Health Service, and I'll just very briefly indicate some of those. At FDA there was a lot of work done to evaluate manufacturers who were not licensed in the United States to identify whether their vaccines could be used under IND. There was consultation with manufacturers to discuss regulatory mechanisms going forward from this time for getting approval of new products in the United States. That includes accelerated approval, fast track and priority reviews to facilitate those new licenses, and all of these things actually have been continuing." [3]

Flu vaccine manufacturing

Flu vaccines are available both as an injection of killed virus and as nasal spray of live attenuated influenza virus (LAIV) (sold as FluMist). Clinical trials suggest that the live virus may be more effective at preventing infection, but FluMist has not been approved in the United States for use in children younger than 5.[4] Injection has multiple meanings: In mathematics, the term injection refers to an injective function. ... Nasal sprays are used for the nasal delivery of a drug or drugs, generally to alleviate cold or allergy symptoms. ... FluMist is the product name of a nasal spray vaccine against the flu virus. ...


Flu vaccine is usually grown in fertilized chicken eggs. Both types of flu vaccines are contraindicated for those with severe allergies to egg proteins and people with a history of Guillain-Barré syndrome. [5] Trinomial name Gallus gallus domesticus A chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) is a type of domesticated bird which is often raised as a type of poultry. ... An allergy can refer to several kinds of immune reactions including Type I hypersensitivity in which a persons body is hypersensitised and develops IgE type antibodies to typical proteins. ... Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), is an acquired immune-mediated inflammatory disorder of the peripheral nervous system (i. ...


On October 5, 2004, Chiron Corporation, a corporation contracted to deliver half of the expected flu vaccine for the United States and a significant portion to the UK, issued a press release [6] that stated it was unable to dispense its stock for the 2004-2005 season, due to suspension of the corporation's license to produce the vaccine by the Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency. However, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention took action to enlist the help of other companies such as MedImmune and Aventis Pasteur to supply vaccine in high-risk populations in the United States. October 5 is the 278th day of the year (279th in Leap years). ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Chiron Corporation (NASDAQ: CHIR) is a biotechnology firm based in Emeryville, California. ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (abbreviated MHRA) is a statutory body in the United Kingdom that seeks to find and eliminate harm in a medicinal product or medical device at any stage of its development or use thereby permitting graded (i. ... The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta, Georgia, is recognized as the leading United States agency for protecting the public health and safety of people. ... MedImmune is a Maryland-based biotechnology company. ... A vaccine is an antigenic preparation used to produce active immunity to a disease, in order to prevent or ameliorate the effects of infection by any natural or wild strain of the organism. ...


H5N1

H5N1

WHO pandemic phases Image File history File links Colorized_transmission_electron_micrograph_of_Avian_influenza_A_H5N1_viruses. ... Influenza A virus subtype H5N1, also known as A(H5N1) or H5N1, is a subtype of the Influenza A virus that is capable of causing illness in many species, including humans. ... The H5N1 genetic structure is the structure of the H5N1 virus. ... Influenzavirus A is a genus of a family of viruses called Orthomyxoviridae in virus classification. ... The transmission and infection of H5N1 is a concern due to the global spread of H5N1 that constitutes a pandemic threat. ... The global spread of H5N1 in birds is considered a significant pandemic threat. ... An influenza pandemic is a large scale epidemic of the influenza virus, such as the 1918 Spanish flu. ... H5N1 impact is the effect or influence of H5N1 in human society; especially the financial, political, social and personal responses to both actual and predicted deaths in birds, humans, and other animals. ... An influenza pandemic is a large scale epidemic of the influenza virus, such as the 1918 Spanish flu. ...

  1. Low risk
  2. New virus
  3. Self limiting
  4. Person to person
  5. Epidemic exists
  6. Pandemic exists
Main article: Flu research

There are several H5N1 vaccines for several of the avian H5N1 varieties. H5N1 continually mutates rendering them, so far for humans, of little use. While there can be some cross-protection against related flu strains, the best protection would be from a vaccine specifically produced for any future pandemic flu virus strain. Dr. Daniel Lucey, co-director of the Biohazardous Threats and Emerging Diseases graduate program at Georgetown University has made this point, "There is no H5N1 pandemic so there can be no pandemic vaccine." However, "pre-pandemic vaccines" have been created; are being refined and tested; and do have some promise both in furthering research and preparedness for the next pandemic. Vaccine manufacturing companies are being encouraged to increase capacity so that if a pandemic vaccine is needed, facilities will be available for rapid production of large amounts of a vaccine specific to a new pandemic strain. Flu research includes molecular virology, pathogenesis, host immune responses, and epidemiology. ... Influenza A virus subtype H5N1, also known as A(H5N1) or H5N1, is a subtype of the Influenza A virus that is capable of causing illness in many species, including humans. ... A vaccine is an antigenic preparation used to produce active immunity to a disease, in order to prevent or ameliorate the effects of infection by any natural or wild strain of the organism. ... Influenza A virus subtype H5N1, also known as A(H5N1) or H5N1, is a subtype of the Influenza A virus that is capable of causing illness in many species, including humans. ... A pandemic (from Greek pan all + demos people) is an epidemic (an outbreak of an infectious disease) that spreads worldwide, or at least across a large region. ... A vaccine is an antigenic preparation used to produce active immunity to a disease, in order to prevent or ameliorate the effects of infection by any natural or wild strain of the organism. ...


Problems with H5N1 vaccine production include: Influenza A virus subtype H5N1, also known as A(H5N1) or H5N1, is a subtype of the Influenza A virus that is capable of causing illness in many species, including humans. ...

  • lack of overall production capacity
  • lack of surge production capacity (it is impractical to develop a system that depends on hundreds of millions of 11-day old specialized eggs on a standby basis)
  • the pandemic H5N1 might be lethal to chickens

Cell culture (cell-based) manufacturing technology can be applied to influenza vaccines as they are with most viral vaccines and thereby solve the problems associated with creating flu vaccines using chicken eggs as is currently done. Researchers at the University of Pittsburgh have had success with a genetically engineered vaccine that took only a month to make and completely protected chickens from the highly pathogenic H5N1 virus. [7] Epithelial cells in culture, stained for keratin (red) and DNA (green) Cell culture is the term applied when cells are grown in a synthetic environment. ... Influenza A virus subtype H5N1, also known as A(H5N1) or H5N1, is a subtype of the Influenza A virus that is capable of causing illness in many species, including humans. ...


According to the United States Department of Health & Human Services: The United States Department of Health and Human Services, often abbreviated HHS, is a Cabinet department of the United States government with the goal of protecting the health of all Americans and providing essential human services. ...

In addition to supporting basic research on cell-based influenza vaccine development, HHS is currently supporting a number of vaccine manufacturers in the advanced development of cell-based influenza vaccines with the goal of developing U.S.-licensed cell-based influenza vaccines produced in the United States. Dose-sparing technologies. Current U.S.-licensed vaccines stimulate an immune response based on the quantity of HA (hemagglutinin) antigen included in the dose. Methods to stimulate a strong immune response using less HA antigen are being studied in H5N1 and H9N2 vaccine trials. These include changing the mode of delivery from intramuscular to intradermal and the addition of immune-enhancing adjuvant to the vaccine formulation. Additionally, HHS is soliciting contract proposals from manufacturers of vaccines, adjuvants, and medical devices for the development and licensure of influenza vaccines that will provide dose-sparing alternative strategies. [8]

Chiron Corporation is now recertified and under contract with the National Institutes of Health to produce 8,000-10,000 investigational doses of Avian Flu (H5N1) vaccine. MedImmune and Aventis Pasteur are under similar contracts.[9] The United States government hopes to obtain enough vaccine in 2006 to treat 4 million people. However, it is unclear whether this vaccine would be effective against a hypothetical mutated strain that would be easily transmitted through human populations, and the shelflife of stockpiled doses has yet to be determined. [10] A vaccine is an antigenic preparation used to produce active immunity to a disease, in order to prevent or ameliorate the effects of infection by any natural or wild strain of the organism. ... Hemagglutinin, as depicted in a simplified molecular model. ... An antigen is a substance that stimulates an immune response, especially the production of antibodies. ... Influenza A virus subtype H5N1, also known as A(H5N1) or H5N1, is a subtype of the Influenza A virus that is capable of causing illness in many species, including humans. ... In medicine, adjuvants are agents which modify the effect of other agents while having few if any direct effects when given by themselves. ... A vaccine is an antigenic preparation used to produce active immunity to a disease, in order to prevent or ameliorate the effects of infection by any natural or wild strain of the organism. ... In medicine, adjuvants are agents which modify the effect of other agents while having few if any direct effects when given by themselves. ... Chiron Corporation (NASDAQ: CHIR) is a biotechnology firm based in Emeryville, California. ... The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is the primary agency of the United States government responsible for medical research. ... Influenza A virus subtype H5N1, also known as A(H5N1) or H5N1, is a subtype of the Influenza A virus that is capable of causing illness in many species, including humans. ... MedImmune is a Maryland-based biotechnology company. ... A vaccine is an antigenic preparation used to produce active immunity to a disease, in order to prevent or ameliorate the effects of infection by any natural or wild strain of the organism. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The New England Journal of Medicine reported on March 30, 2006 on one of dozens of vaccine studies currently being conducted. The Treanor et al. study was on vaccine produced from the human isolate (A/Vietnam/1203/2004 H5N1) of a virulent clade 1 influenza A (H5N1) virus with the use of a plasmid rescue system, with only the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes expressed and administered without adjuvant. "The rest of the genes were derived from an avirulent egg-adapted influenza A/PR/8/34 strain. The hemagglutinin gene was further modified to replace six basic amino acids associated with high pathogenicity in birds at the cleavage site between hemagglutinin 1 and hemagglutinin 2. Immunogenicity was assessed by microneutralization and hemagglutination-inhibition assays with the use of the vaccine virus, although a subgroup of samples were tested with the use of the wild-type influenza A/Vietnam/1203/2004 (H5N1) virus." The results of this study combined with others scheduled to be completed by Spring 2007 is hoped will provide a highly immunogenic vaccine that is cross-protective against heterologous influenza strains. [11] The New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM) is a peer-reviewed medical journal published by the Massachusetts Medical Society with the highest impact factor for a general medical journal. ... Influenza A virus subtype H5N1, also known as A(H5N1) or H5N1, is a subtype of the Influenza A virus that is capable of causing illness in many species, including humans. ...


2003-2004 Season

The production of flu vaccine requires a lead time of about six months before the season. It is possible that by flu season a strain becomes common for which the vaccine does not provide protection. In the 2003-2004 season the vaccine was produced to protect against A/Panama, A/New Caledonia, and B/Hong Kong. A new strain, A/Fujian, was discovered after production of the vaccine started and vaccination gave only partial protection against this strain. A vaccine is an antigenic preparation used to produce active immunity to a disease, in order to prevent or ameliorate the effects of infection by any natural or wild strain of the organism. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... A vaccine is an antigenic preparation used to produce active immunity to a disease, in order to prevent or ameliorate the effects of infection by any natural or wild strain of the organism. ...


Nature magazine reported that the Influenza Genome Sequencing Project, using phylogenetic analysis of 156 H3N2 genomes, "explains the appearance, during the 2003–2004 season, of the 'Fujian/411/2002'-like strain, for which the existing vaccine had limited effectiveness" as due to an epidemiologically significant reassortment. "Through a reassortment event, a minor clade provided the haemagglutinin gene that later became part of the dominant strain after the 20022003 season. Two of our samples, A/New York/269/2003 (H3N2) and A/New York/32/2003 (H3N2), show that this minor clade continued to circulate in the 20032004 season, when most other isolates were reassortants." [12] The Influenza Genome Sequencing Project is funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) which is a component of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), which is an agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services. ... The Hong Kong Flu was a pandemic outbreak of influenza that began in Hong Kong in 1968 and spread to the United States of America that year. ... Reassortment is the exchange of DNA between viruses inside a host cell. ... Reassortment is the exchange of DNA between viruses inside a host cell. ... Hemagglutinin (HA) is an antigenic glycoprotein found on the surface of the Influenza virus and is responsible for binding the virus to the cell that is being infected. ... For the Cusco album, see 2002 (album). ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Hong Kong Flu was a pandemic outbreak of influenza that began in Hong Kong in 1968 and spread to the United States of America that year. ... The Hong Kong Flu was a pandemic outbreak of influenza that began in Hong Kong in 1968 and spread to the United States of America that year. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


According to the CDC: CDC is an acronym which can mean any of the following: California Department of Corrections Canadian Dairy Commission Career Development Course Cell Division Cycle Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Century Date Change in reference to the Y2K bug. ...

During the 2003-2004 influenza season, influenza A (H1), A (H3N2), and B viruses co-circulated worldwide, and influenza A (H3N2) viruses predominated. Several Asian countries reported widespread outbreaks of avian influenza A (H5N1) among poultry. In Vietnam and Thailand, these outbreaks were associated with severe illnesses and deaths among humans. In the United States, the 2003-2004 influenza season began earlier than most seasons, peaked in December, was moderately severe in terms of its impact on mortality, and was associated predominantly with influenza A (H3N2) viruses.[13]

Flu season is mostly a colloquial term used to describe the regular outbreak in flu cases, or even cases of the common cold during the late fall or winter. ... Influenzavirus A is a genus of a family of viruses called Orthomyxoviridae in virus classification. ... The Hong Kong Flu was a pandemic outbreak of influenza that began in Hong Kong in 1968 and spread to the United States of America that year. ... Influenzavirus B is a genus in the virus family Orthomyxoviridae. ... The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) A bacteriophage virus A virus is a submicroscopic parasitic particle that infects cells in biological organisms. ... Influenza A virus subtype H5N1, also known as A(H5N1) or H5N1, is a subtype of the Influenza A virus that is capable of causing illness in many species, including humans. ...

Viral Surveillance

During September 28, 2003 - May 22, 2004, WHO and NREVSS collaborating laboratories in the United States tested 130,577 respiratory specimens for influenza viruses; 24,649 (18.9%) were positive. Of these, 24,393 (99.0%) were influenza A viruses, and 249 (1.0%) were influenza B viruses. Among the influenza A viruses, 7,191 (29.5%) were subtyped; 7,189 (99.9%) were influenza A (H3N2) viruses, and two (0.1%) were influenza A (H1) viruses. The proportion of specimens testing positive for influenza first increased to >10% during the week ending October 25, 2003 (week 43), peaked at 35.2% during the week ending November 29 (week 48), and declined to <10% during the week ending January 17, 2004 (week 2). The peak percentage of specimens testing positive for influenza during the previous four seasons had ranged from 23% to 31% and peaked during late December to late February.[13] Who can refer to: WHO, World Health Organization The Who, a British rock band The Guess Who, a Canadian rock band who (pronoun), an English language interrogative pronoun. ...


As of June 15, 2004, CDC had antigenically characterized 1,024 influenza viruses collected by U.S. laboratories since October 1, 2003: 949 influenza A (H3N2) viruses, three influenza A (H1) viruses, one influenza A (H7N2) virus, and 71 influenza B viruses. Of the 949 influenza A (H3N2) isolates characterized, 106 (11.2%) were similar antigenically to the vaccine strain A/Panama/2007/99 (H3N2), and 843 (88.8%) were similar to the drift variant, A/Fujian/411/2002 (H3N2). Of the three A (H1) isolates that were characterized, two were H1N1 viruses, and one was an H1N2 virus. The hemagglutinin proteins of the influenza A (H1) viruses were similar antigenically to the hemagglutinin of the vaccine strain A/New Caledonia/20/99. Of the 71 influenza B isolates that were characterized, 66 (93%) belonged to the B/Yamagata/16/88 lineage and were similar antigenically to B/Sichuan/379/99, and five (7%) belonged to the B/Victoria/2/87 lineage and were similar antigenically to the corresponding vaccine strain B/Hong Kong/330/2001.[13] The Hong Kong Flu was a pandemic outbreak of influenza that began in Hong Kong in 1968 and spread to the United States of America that year. ... H7N2 is a subtype of the species avian influenza virus (bird flu virus). ... H1N2 is a subtype of the species avian influenza virus (bird flu virus) currently endemic in both human and pig populations. ...

Human Infections with Avian Influenza Viruses
H9N2

In December 2003, one confirmed case of avian influenza A (H9N2) virus infection was reported in a child aged 5 years in Hong Kong. The child had fever, cough, and nasal discharge in late November, was hospitalized for 2 days, and fully recovered. The source of this child's H9N2 infection is unknown.[13] H9N2 is a subtype of the species avian influenza virus (bird flu virus). ...

H5N1

During January--March 2004, a total of 34 confirmed human cases of avian influenza A (H5N1) virus infection were reported in Vietnam and Thailand. The cases were associated with severe respiratory illness requiring hospitalization and a case-fatality proportion of 68% (Vietnam: 22 cases, 15 deaths; Thailand: 12 cases, eight deaths). A substantial proportion of the cases were among children and young adults (i.e., persons aged 5--24 years). These cases were associated with widespread outbreaks of highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza among domestic poultry.[13] Influenza A virus subtype H5N1, also known as A(H5N1) or H5N1, is a subtype of the Influenza A virus that is capable of causing illness in many species, including humans. ...

H7N3

During March 2004, health authorities in Canada reported two confirmed cases of avian influenza A (H7N3) virus infection in poultry workers who were involved in culling of poultry during outbreaks of highly pathogenic H7N3 on farms in the Fraser River Valley, British Columbia. One patient had unilateral conjunctivitis and nasal discharge, and the other had unilateral conjunctivitis and headache. Both illnesses resolved without hospitalization.[13] H7N3 is a subtype of the species avian influenza virus (bird flu virus). ...

H7N2

During the 2003-2004 influenza season, a case of avian influenza A (H7N2) virus infection was detected in an adult male from New York, who was hospitalized for upper and lower respiratory tract illness in November 2003. Influenza A (H7N2) virus was isolated from a respiratory specimen from the patient, whose acute symptoms resolved. The source of this person's infection is unknown.[13] H7N2 is a subtype of the species avian influenza virus (bird flu virus). ...


2004-2005 Season

According to the CDC: CDC is an acronym which can mean any of the following: California Department of Corrections Canadian Dairy Commission Career Development Course Cell Division Cycle Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Century Date Change in reference to the Y2K bug. ...

On the basis of antigenic analyses of recently isolated influenza viruses, epidemiologic data, and postvaccination serologic studies in humans, the Food and Drug Administration's Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee (VRBPAC) recommended that the 2004--05 trivalent influenza vaccine for the United States contain A/New Caledonia/20/99-like (H1N1), A/Fujian/411/2002-like (H3N2), and B/Shanghai/361/2002-like viruses. Because of the growth properties of the A/Wyoming/3/2003 and B/Jiangsu/10/2003 viruses, U.S. vaccine manufacturers are using these antigenically equivalent strains in the vaccine as the H3N2 and B components, respectively. The A/New Caledonia/20/99 virus will be retained as the H1N1 component of the vaccine.

[13]


2005-2006 Season

The vaccines produced for the 2005-2006 season use: A vaccine is an antigenic preparation used to produce active immunity to a disease, in order to prevent or ameliorate the effects of infection by any natural or wild strain of the organism. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

  • an A/New Caledonia/20/1999-like(H1N1);
  • an A/California/7/2004-like(H3N2) (or the antigenically equivalent strain A/New York/55/2004);
  • a B/Jiangsu/10/2003-like viruses.

In people in the US, overall flu and pneumonia deaths were below those of a typical flu season with 84% Influenzavirus A and the rest Influenzavirus B. Of the patients who had Type A viruses, 80% had viruses identical or similar to the A bugs in the vaccine. 70% of the people testing positive for a B virus had Type B Victoria, a version not found in the vaccine.[14] 1999 (MCMXCIX) was a common year starting on Friday, and was designated the International Year of Older Persons by the United Nations. ... H1N1 is a subtype of the species Influenza A virus (sometimes called bird flu virus). ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Hong Kong Flu was a pandemic outbreak of influenza that began in Hong Kong in 1968 and spread to the United States of America that year. ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Respiratory disease properly named influenza(say: in-floo-en-zah ). Some specific varities of influenza with a vaccination available are: A-New Caledonia, A-California, B-Shanghai. ... Pneumonia is an illness of the lungs and respiratory system in which the microscopic, air-filled sacs (alveoli) responsible for absorbing oxygen from the atmosphere become inflamed and flooded with fluid. ... Flu season is mostly a colloquial term used to describe the regular outbreak in flu cases, or even cases of the common cold during the late fall or winter. ... Influenzavirus A is a genus of a family of viruses called Orthomyxoviridae in virus classification. ... Influenzavirus B is a genus in the virus family Orthomyxoviridae. ...


2006-2007 Season

The 2006-07 influenza vaccine composition recommended by the World Health Organization on February 15, 2006 and the US FDA's Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee (VRBPAC) on February 17, 2006 use:

  • an A/New Caledonia/20/99 (H1N1)-like virus;
  • an A/Wisconsin/67/2005 (H3N2)-like virus (A/Wisconsin/67/2005 and A/Hiroshima/52/2005 strains);
  • a B/Malaysia/2506/2004-like virus from B/Malaysia/2506/2004 and B/Ohio/1/2005 strains which are of B/Victoria/2/87 lineage. [15]

Flu vaccine for nonhumans

Horses with horse flu can run a fever, have a dry hacking cough, have a runny nose, and become depressed and reluctant to eat or drink for several days but usually recover in 2 to 3 weeks. "Vaccination schedules generally require a primary course of 2 doses, 3-6 weeks apart, followed by boosters at 6-12 month intervals. It is generally recognised that in many cases such schedules may not maintain protective levels of antibody and more frequent administration is advised in high-risk situations." [16] Horse flu (or Equine influenza) refers to varieties of influenzavirus A that are endemic in horses. ...


"[P]oultry vaccines, made on the cheap, are not filtered and purified [like human vaccines] to remove bits of bacteria or other viruses. They usually contain whole virus, not just the hemagglutin spike that attaches to cells. Purification is far more expensive than the work in eggs, Dr. Stöhr said; a modest factory for human vaccine costs $100 million, and no veterinary manufacturer is ready to build one. Also, poultry vaccines are "adjuvated" — boosted — with mineral oil, which induces a strong immune reaction but can cause inflammation and abscesses. Chicken vaccinators who have accidentally jabbed themselves have developed painful swollen fingers or even lost thumbs, doctors said. Effectiveness may also be limited. Chicken vaccines are often only vaguely similar to circulating flu strains — some contain an H5N2 strain isolated in Mexico years ago. 'With a chicken, if you use a vaccine that's only 85 percent related, you'll get protection,' Dr. Cardona said. 'In humans, you can get a single point mutation, and a vaccine that's 99.99 percent related won't protect you.' And they are weaker [than human vaccines]. 'Chickens are smaller and you only need to protect them for six weeks, because that's how long they live till you eat them,' said Dr. John J. Treanor, a vaccine expert at the University of Rochester. Human seasonal flu vaccines contain about 45 micrograms of antigen, while an experimental A(H5N1) vaccine contains 180. Chicken vaccines may contain less than 1 microgram. 'You have to be careful about extrapolating data from poultry to humans,' warned Dr. David E. Swayne, director of the agriculture department's Southeast Poultry Research Laboratory. 'Birds are more closely related to dinosaurs.'"[17] H5N2 is a strain of avian influenza virus. ... Influenza A virus subtype H5N1, also known as A(H5N1) or H5N1, is a subtype of the Influenza A virus that is capable of causing illness in many species, including humans. ... Orders & Suborders Saurischia Sauropodomorpha Theropoda Ornithischia Thyreophora Ornithopoda Marginocephalia Dinosaurs were vertebrate animals that dominated the terrestrial ecosystem for over 160 million years, first appearing approximately 230 million years ago. ...


See also

  • Vaccine for information valid about all vaccines, not just flu vaccines.
  • Vaccine controversy for the pros and cons of being vaccinated.
  • Thimerosal is a controversial mercury-containing organic compound used as an antiseptic and antifungal agent in vaccines.

A vaccine is an antigenic preparation used to produce active immunity to a disease, in order to prevent or ameliorate the effects of infection by any natural or wild strain of the organism. ... The vaccine controversy encompasses many concerns over the use and lack of use of vaccines - whether vaccination in general or mass vaccination in particular is beneficial to the health of individuals and the population. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... A vaccine is an antigenic preparation used to produce active immunity to a disease, in order to prevent or ameliorate the effects of infection by any natural or wild strain of the organism. ...

Sources and notes

  1. ^ CDC
  2. ^ Thomas RE, Jefferson TO, Demicheli V, Rivetti D (2006). "Influenza vaccination for health-care workers who work with elderly people in institutions: a systematic review". Lancet Infect Dis 6: 273–79.
  3. ^ (transcript of U.S. FDA Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee's 101st meeting of February 16, 2005 is here: origin.www.fda.gov in .DOC format in Google provided HTML format)
  4. ^ Yahoo News
  5. ^ CDC
  6. ^ Chiron
  7. ^ Wired News JVI
  8. ^ Department of Health & Human Services
  9. ^ NAID - 2004 News NAID - 2005 News
  10. ^ NPR
  11. ^ New England Journal of MedicineVolume 354:1411-1413 - March 30, 2006 - Number 13 - Vaccines against Avian Influenza — A Race against Time
  12. ^ Nature
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h CDC article Update: Influenza Activity --- United States and Worldwide, 2003--04 Season, and Composition of the 2004--05 Influenza Vaccine published July 2, 2004
  14. ^ Yahoo News Associated Press article CDC: Milder Than Normal Flu Season Ending published April 27, 2006
  15. ^ CDC fluwatch B/Victoria/2/87 lineage
  16. ^ equiflunet_vaccines
  17. ^ New York Times article Turning to Chickens in Fight With Bird Flu published May 2, 2006

Associated Press logo The Associated Press, or AP, is an American news agency, the worlds largest such organization. ...

Further reading

Vaccination/Vaccine (and Immunization, Inoculation. See also List of vaccine topics and Epidemiology)
Development: Models - Timeline - Toxoid - Trial

Administration: ACIP - GAVI - VAERS - Vaccination schedule - VSD Vaccination is the process of administering live, albeit weakened, microbes to patients, with the intent of conferring immunity against a targeted form of a related disease agent. ... A vaccine is an antigenic preparation used to produce active immunity to a disease, in order to prevent or ameliorate the effects of infection by any natural or wild strain of the organism. ... Immunization, or immunisation, is the process by which an individual is exposed to an agent that is designed to fortify his or her immune system against that agent. ... Inoculation, originally Variolation, is a method of purposefully infecting a person with smallpox (Variola) in a controlled manner so as to minimise the severity of the infection and also to induce immunity against further infection. ... Vaccine topics 2000 Simpsonwood CDC conference AIDS vaccine Andrew Wakefield Edward Jenner Edward Yazbak Generation Rescue Genetics Immunization Immunology Inoculation MMR vaccine Safe Minds Timeline of vaccines Vaccination Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System Vaccine controversy Vaccines and Fetal Tissue ... Epidemiologic studies are generally categorized as descriptive, analytic (aiming to examine associations, commonly hypothesized causal relationships), and experimental (a term often equated with clinical or community trials of treatments and other interventions). ... It is possible to model mathematically the progress of most infectious diseases to discover the likely outcome of an epidemic or to help manage them by vaccination. ... Timeline of vaccines This is a timeline of the development of prophylactic vaccines. ... A toxoid is a bacterial toxin whose toxicity as been weakened or supressed while other properties, typically immunogenicity, are maintained. ... I am an elf. ... The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) consists of fifteen advisors to the Centers for Disease Control (CDC), selected by the Secretary of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, to provide advice and guidance on the most effective means to prevent diseases through nation-wide vaccination campaigns. ... The Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization is an alliance between various UN organizations, national governments, private foundations, NGOs and the pharmaceutical industry. ... The Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System is a United States program for vaccine safety, co-sponsored by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). ... Over the past two decades, the recommended vaccination schedule in the United States and elsewhere has grown rapidly and become more complicated as many new vaccines have been developed and marketed. ... The Vaccine Safety Datalink Project (VSD) was established, in 1990, by the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) for the study of adverse side effects of vaccines. ...


Specific vaccines: Anthrax - BCG - Cancer - DPT - Flu - HIV - HPV - MMR - Pneumonia - Polio - Smallpox Bacillus of Calmette and Guérin (BCG) is a vaccine against tuberculosis that is prepared from a strain of the attenuated (weakened) live bovine tuberculosis bacillus, Mycobacterium bovis that has lost its virulence in humans by specially culturing in artificial medium for years. ... The term cancer vaccine is often used to describe a process whereby a persons immune system is coaxed into recognizing and destroying malignant cells without harming normal cells. ... DPT, (sometimes DTP) is a mixture of three vaccines, to immunize against diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus. ... An HIV vaccine is a hypothetical vaccine against HIV, the etiological agent of AIDS. As there is no known cure for AIDS, the search for a vaccine has become part of the struggle against the disease. ... Human papillomavirus vaccine research focuses on the prevention of cervical cancer, particularly in developing countries, where regular cervical examinations are uncommon. ... The MMR vaccine is a mixture of live but attenuated viruses, administered via injection for immunization against measles, mumps and rubella. ... This is a vaccine used for Pneumonia, it is usually used for people 65 and older ... Two polio vaccines are used throughout the world to combat polio. ... The smallpox vaccine is the only effective preventive treatment for the deadly smallpox disease. ...


Controversy: A-CHAMP - Anti-vaccinationists - NCVIA - Pox party - Safe Minds - Simpsonwood - Thimerosal controversy - Vaccine injury The vaccine controversy encompasses many concerns over the use and lack of use of vaccines - whether vaccination in general or mass vaccination in particular is beneficial to the health of individuals and the population. ... Advocates for Childrens Health Affected by Mercury Poisoning (A-CHAMP), is a United States political activism group, founded by parents, which advocates on behalf of children who were injured by mercury in thimerosal-containing vaccines, and other toxins. ... Anti-vaccinationists are those who oppose the practice of vaccination. ... The National Childhood Vaccine Injury Act (NCVIA) of 1986 (42 U.S.C. §§ 300aa-1 to 300aa-34) was enacted in the United States to reduce the liability of vaccine makers, thereby ensuring a stable market supply, and to provide cost-effective arbitration in cases of possible vaccine injury. ... A pox party is a normal party for children organised by parents whose kids have the chicken pox. ... The Coalition for Safe Minds (Sensible Action For Ending Mercury-Induced Neurological Disorders) is a nonprofit organization dedicated to investigating the risks of exposure to mercury from medical products. ... The 2000 Simpsonwood CDC conference was a meeting convened in June, 2000, by the Centers for Disease Control, held at the isolated Simpsonwood Methodist retreat and conference center in Norcross, Georgia. ... // Thimerosal controversy In recent years, it has been suggested that thimerosal in childhood vaccines could contribute to or cause neurodevelopmental disorders in children (most notably autism, but also other disorders on the PDD spectrum, such as ADHD). ... Vaccine injury is a term used in both medicine and law to designate alleged injuries sustained by individuals subsequent to having been vaccinated. ...


 
 

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