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Encyclopedia > Influenza
Influenza
Classification & external resources
TEM of negatively stained influenza virons, magnified approximately 100,000 times
ICD-10 J10., J11.
ICD-9 487
DiseasesDB 6791
MedlinePlus 000080
eMedicine med/1170  ped/3006
MeSH D007251

Influenza, commonly known as flu, is an infectious disease of birds and mammals caused by RNA viruses of the family Orthomyxoviridae (the influenza viruses). The name influenza comes from the Italian: influenza, meaning "influence", (Latin: influentia). In humans, common symptoms of the disease are the chills, then fever, sore throat, muscle pains, severe headache, coughing, weakness and general discomfort.[1] In more serious cases, influenza causes pneumonia, which can be fatal, particularly in young children and the elderly. Although it is sometimes confused with the common cold, influenza is a much more severe disease and is caused by a different type of virus.[2] Influenza can produce nausea and vomiting, especially in children,[1] but these symptoms are more characteristic of the unrelated gastroenteritis, which is sometimes called "stomach flu" or "24-hour flu."[3] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (700x743, 81 KB) CDC, CDC Public Health Image Library (PHIL), http://phil. ... A section of a cell of Bacillus subtilis, taken with a Tecnai T-12 TEM. The scale bar is 200nm. ... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (most commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify diseases and a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or disease. ... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 10th Revision (ICD-10) is a coding of diseases and signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or diseases, as classified by the World Health Organization (WHO). ... // J00-J99 - Diseases of the respiratory system (J00-J06) Acute upper respiratory infections (J00) Acute nasopharyngitis (common cold) (J01) Acute sinusitis (J02) Acute pharyngitis (J03) Acute tonsillitis (J04) Acute laryngitis and tracheitis (J05) Acute obstructive laryngitis (croup) and epiglottitis (J050) Acute obstructive laryngitis (croup) (J051) Acute epiglottitis (J06) Acute upper... // J00-J99 - Diseases of the respiratory system (J00-J06) Acute upper respiratory infections (J00) Acute nasopharyngitis (common cold) (J01) Acute sinusitis (J02) Acute pharyngitis (J03) Acute tonsillitis (J04) Acute laryngitis and tracheitis (J05) Acute obstructive laryngitis (croup) and epiglottitis (J050) Acute obstructive laryngitis (croup) (J051) Acute epiglottitis (J06) Acute upper... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (most commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify diseases and a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or disease. ... The following is a list of codes for International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. ... The Disease Bold textDatabase is a free website that provides information about the relationships between medical conditions, symptoms, and medications. ... MedlinePlus (medlineplus. ... eMedicine is an online clinical medical knowledge base that was founded in 1996. ... Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) is a huge controlled vocabulary (or metadata system) for the purpose of indexing journal articles and books in the life sciences. ... This false-colored electron micrograph shows a malaria sporozoite migrating through the midgut epithelia. ... For other uses, see Bird (disambiguation). ... Subclasses & Infraclasses Subclass †Allotheria* Subclass Prototheria Subclass Theria Infraclass †Trituberculata Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria Mammals (class Mammalia) are warm-blooded, vertebrate animals characterized by the presence of sweat glands, including milk producing sweat glands, and by the presence of: hair, three middle ear bones used in hearing, and a neocortex... An RNA virus is a virus that either uses RNA as its genetic material, or whose genetic material passes through an RNA intermediate during replication. ... Scientific classification or biological classification refers to how biologists group and categorize extinct and living species of organisms. ... Genera Influenzavirus A Influenzavirus B Influenzavirus C Isavirus Thogotovirus The Orthomyxoviridae are a family of RNA viruses which infect vertebrates. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... An analogue medical thermometer showing the temperature of 38. ... ώ:For the noisegrind band, see Sore Throat. ... Myalgia means muscle pain and is a symptom of many diseases and disorders. ... A headache (cephalgia in medical terminology) is a condition of pain in the head; sometimes neck or upper back pain may also be interpreted as a headache. ... Exhaustion redirects here. ... Malaise is a feeling of general discomfort or uneasiness, an out of sorts feeling, often the first indication of an infection or other disease. ... This article is about human pneumonia. ... Acute viral nasopharyngitis, or acute coryza, usually known as the common cold, is a highly contagious, viral infectious disease of the upper respiratory system, primarily caused by picornaviruses or coronaviruses. ... For other uses, see Nausea (disambiguation). ... Emesis redirects here. ... See also Bacterial gastroenteritis and Diarrhea Gastroenteritis is a general term referring to inflammation or infection of the gastrointestinal tract, primarily the stomach and intestines. ...


Typically influenza is transmitted from infected mammals through the air by coughs or sneezes, creating aerosols containing the virus, and from infected birds through their droppings. Influenza can also be transmitted by saliva, nasal secretions, faeces and blood. Infections also occur through contact with these body fluids or with contaminated surfaces. Flu viruses can remain infectious for about one week at human body temperature, over 30 days at 0 °C (32 °F), and for much longer periods at very low temperatures.[4][5] Most influenza strains can be inactivated easily by disinfectants and detergents.[6][7][8] Particulates, alternatively referred to as particulate matter (PM), aerosols or fine particles, are tiny particles of solid or liquid suspended in a gas. ... Horse feces Feces, faeces, or fæces (see spelling differences) is a waste product from an animals digestive tract expelled through the anus (or cloaca) during defecation. ... For the band, see Saliva (band). ... Mucus cells. ... Rabbit feces are usually 0. ... For other uses, see Blood (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Celsius (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fahrenheit (disambiguation). ... This is an article about antimicrobial agents. ... Laundry detergents are just one of many possible uses for detergents Detergent is a compound, or a mixture of compounds, intended to assist cleaning. ...


Flu spreads around the world in seasonal epidemics, killing millions of people in pandemic years and hundreds of thousands in non-pandemic years. Three influenza pandemics occurred in the 20th century and killed tens of millions of people, with each of these pandemics being caused by the appearance of a new strain of the virus in humans. Often, these new strains result from the spread of an existing flu virus to humans from other animal species. A deadly avian strain named H5N1 has posed the greatest risk for a new influenza pandemic since it first killed humans in Asia in the 1990s. Fortunately, this virus has not mutated to a form that spreads easily between people.[9] In epidemiology, an epidemic (from [[Latin language] epi- upon + demos people) is a disease that appears as new cases in a given human population, during a given period, at a rate that substantially exceeds what is expected, based on recent experience (the number of new cases in the population during... For other uses, see Pandemic (disambiguation). ... In biology, Strain can be used two ways. ... For other uses, see Species (disambiguation). ... Influenza A virus subtype H5N1, also known as A(H5N1) or simply H5N1, is a subtype of the Influenza A virus which can cause illness in humans and many other animal species. ... An influenza pandemic is a large scale epidemic of the influenza virus, such as the 1918 Spanish flu. ... For linguistic mutation, see Apophony. ...


Vaccinations against influenza are usually given to people in developed countries with a high risk of contracting the disease,[10] and to farmed poultry.[11] The most common human vaccine is the trivalent influenza vaccine that contains purified and inactivated material from three viral strains. Typically this vaccine includes material from two influenza A virus subtypes and one influenza B virus strain.[12] A vaccine formulated for one year may be ineffective in the following year, since the influenza virus changes rapidly over time and different strains become dominant. Antiviral drugs can be used to treat influenza, with neuraminidase inhibitors being particularly effective. A vial of the vaccine against influenza. ... World map indicating Human Development Index (as of 2004). ... Model of Influenza Virus from NIH The flu vaccine is a vaccine to protect against the highly variable influenza virus. ... Genera Influenzavirus A Influenzavirus B Influenzavirus C Isavirus Thogotovirus Influenzavirus A is a genus of the Orthomyxoviridae family of viruses. ... Influenzavirus B is a genus in the virus family Orthomyxoviridae. ... Antiviral drugs are a class of medication used specifically for treating viral infections. ... Neuraminidase inhibitors are a class of antiviral drugs, whose mode of action relies on blocking the function of viral neuraminidase protein, thus preventing the virus from budding from the host cell. ...

Flu

Contents

Image File history File links Flu_und_legende_color_c. ... Genera Influenzavirus A Influenzavirus B Influenzavirus C Isavirus Thogotovirus The Orthomyxoviridae are a family of RNA viruses which infect vertebrates. ... For the H5N1 subtype of Avian influenza see H5N1. ... Flu season is mostly a colloquial term used to describe the regular outbreak in flu cases, or even cases of the common cold during the late fall or winter. ... Flu research includes molecular virology, pathogenesis, host immune responses, genomics, and epidemiology. ... Model of Influenza Virus from NIH The flu vaccine is a vaccine to protect against the highly variable influenza virus. ... This article is about flu treatment in humans for mild human flu, which includes both efforts to reduce symptoms and treatments for the flu virus itself. ... The Influenza Genome Sequencing Project is funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) which is a component of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), which is an agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services. ... Influenza A virus subtype H5N1, also known as A(H5N1) or simply H5N1, is a subtype of the Influenza A virus which can cause illness in humans and many other animal species. ...

Etymology

The term influenza has its origins in 14th-century Italy, where the cause of the disease was ascribed to unfavourable astrological influences. Evolution in medical thought led to its modification to influenza del freddo, meaning "influence of the cold." The word "influenza" was first used in English in 1743 when it was borrowed during an outbreak of the disease in Europe.[13] Archaic terms for influenza include epidemic catarrh, grippe (from the French.), sweating sickness, and Spanish fever (particularly for the 1918 pandemic strain).[14] Hand-coloured version of the anonymous Flammarion woodcut (1888). ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... The 1918 flu pandemic (commonly referred to as the Spanish flu) was a category 5 influenza pandemic caused by an unusually severe and deadly Influenza A virus strain of subtype H1N1. ...


History

Further information: Influenza pandemic, Spanish flu
The influenza viruses that caused Hong Kong Flu. (magnified approximately 100,000 times)
The influenza viruses that caused Hong Kong Flu. (magnified approximately 100,000 times)
The difference between the influenza mortality age-distributions of the 1918 epidemic and normal epidemics. Deaths per 100,000 persons in each age group, United States, for the interpandemic years 1911–1917 (dashed line) and the pandemic year 1918 (solid line).[15]

The symptoms of human influenza were clearly described by Hippocrates roughly 2,400 years ago.[16][17] Since then, the virus has caused numerous pandemics. Historical data on influenza are difficult to interpret, because the symptoms can be similar to those of other diseases, such as diphtheria, pneumonic plague, typhoid fever, dengue, or typhus. The first convincing record of an influenza pandemic was of an outbreak in 1580, which began in Asia and spread to Europe via Africa. In Rome over 8,000 people were killed, and several Spanish cities were almost wiped out. Pandemics continued sporadically throughout the 17th and 18th centuries, with the pandemic of 1830–1833 being particularly widespread; it infected approximately a quarter of the people exposed.[18] An influenza pandemic is a large scale epidemic of the influenza virus, such as the 1918 Spanish flu. ... The 1918 flu pandemic (commonly referred to as the Spanish flu) was a category 5 influenza pandemic caused by an unusually severe and deadly Influenza A virus strain of subtype H1N1. ... Influenza Virus photo from http://www. ... Influenza Virus photo from http://www. ... The Hong Kong Flu was a pandemic outbreak of influenza that began in Hong Kong in 1968 and spread to the United States of America that year. ... Image File history File links W_curve. ... Image File history File links W_curve. ... For other uses, see Hippocrates (disambiguation). ... Plague redirects here. ... For a similar disease with a similar name, see typhus. ... For music group see Dengue Fever (rock band) Dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) are acute febrile diseases, found in the tropics, with a geographical spread similar to malaria. ... For the unrelated disease caused by Salmonella typhi, see Typhoid fever. ... For other uses, see History of Rome (disambiguation). ...


The most famous and lethal outbreak was the so-called Spanish flu pandemic (type A influenza, H1N1 subtype), which lasted from 1918 to 1919. Older estimates say it killed 40–50 million people[19] while current estimates say 50 million to 100 million people worldwide were killed.[20] This pandemic has been described as "the greatest medical holocaust in history" and may have killed as many people as the Black Death.[18] This huge death toll was caused by an extremely high infection rate of up to 50% and the extreme severity of the symptoms, suspected to be caused by cytokine storms.[19] Indeed, symptoms in 1918 were so unusual that initially influenza was misdiagnosed as dengue, cholera, or typhoid. One observer wrote, "One of the most striking of the complications was hemorrhage from mucous membranes, especially from the nose, stomach, and intestine. Bleeding from the ears and petechial hemorrhages in the skin also occurred."[20] The majority of deaths were from bacterial pneumonia, a secondary infection caused by influenza, but the virus also killed people directly, causing massive hemorrhages and edema in the lung.[15] The 1918 flu pandemic (commonly referred to as the Spanish flu) was a category 5 influenza pandemic caused by an unusually severe and deadly Influenza A virus strain of subtype H1N1. ... Genera Influenzavirus A Influenzavirus B Influenzavirus C Isavirus Thogotovirus Influenzavirus A is a genus of the Orthomyxoviridae family of viruses. ... H1N1 is a subtype of the species Influenza A virus (sometimes called bird flu virus). ... This article concerns the mid fourteenth century pandemic. ... A cytokine storm is a potentially fatal immune reaction consisting of a positive feedback loop between cytokines and immune cells. ... Cholera (or Asiatic cholera or epidemic cholera) is an extreme diarrheal disease caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. ... minor Petechia A petechia (IPA pronunciation: ), plural petechiae (IPA pronunciation: ) is a small red or purple spot on the body, caused by a minor hemorrhage (broken capillary blood vessels). ... Bacterial pneumonia is an infection of the lungs by bacteria. ... A secondary infection is an infection by a microorganism subsequent to and simultaneous with an infection by a different microorganism. ... For other uses, see Bleeding (disambiguation). ... This page is about the condition called edema. ...


The Spanish flu pandemic was truly global, spreading even to the Arctic and remote Pacific islands. The unusually severe disease killed between 2 and 20% of those infected, as opposed to the more usual flu epidemic mortality rate of 0.1%.[15][20] Another unusual feature of this pandemic was that it mostly killed young adults, with 99% of pandemic influenza deaths occurring in people under 65, and more than half in young adults 20 to 40 years old.[21] This is unusual since influenza is normally most deadly to the very young (under age 2) and the very old (over age 70). The total mortality of the 1918–1919 pandemic is not known, but it is estimated that 2.5% to 5% of the world's population was killed. As many as 25 million may have been killed in the first 25 weeks; in contrast, HIV/AIDS has killed 25 million in its first 25 years.[20] The red line indicates the 10°C isotherm in July, sometimes used to define the Arctic region border Artificially coloured topographical map of the Arctic region For the ship, see SS Arctic. ... Crude death rate by country Mortality rate is a measure of the number of deaths (in general, or due to a specific cause) in some population, scaled to the size of that population, per unit time. ... For other uses, see AIDS (disambiguation). ...


Later flu pandemics were not so devastating. They included the 1957 Asian Flu (type A, H2N2 strain) and the 1968 Hong Kong Flu (type A, H3N2 strain), but even these smaller outbreaks killed millions of people. In later pandemics antibiotics were available to control secondary infections and this may have helped reduce mortality compared to the Spanish Flu of 1918.[15] The Avian Flu was a pandemic outbreak of influenza that originated in China in 1957 and spread worldwide that same year. ... The Asian Flu was a pandemic outbreak of influenza that originated in China in 1957 and spread worldwide that same year. ... The Hong Kong Flu was a pandemic outbreak of influenza that began in Hong Kong in 1968 and spread to the United States of America that year. ... H3N2 is a subtype of the species Influenza A virus (sometimes called bird flu virus). ... Staphylococcus aureus - Antibiotics test plate. ...

Known flu pandemics[22][18]
Name of pandemic Date Deaths Subtype involved Pandemic Severity Index
Asiatic (Russian) Flu 1889–1890 1 million possibly H2N2 ?
Spanish Flu 1918–1920 40 to 100 million H1N1 5
Asian Flu 1957–1958 1 to 1.5 million H2N2 2
Hong Kong Flu 1968–1969 0.75 to 1 million H3N2 2

The etiological cause of influenza, the Orthomyxoviridae family of viruses, was first discovered in pigs by Richard Schope in 1931.[23] This discovery was shortly followed by the isolation of the virus from humans by a group headed by Patrick Laidlaw at the Medical Research Council of the United Kingdom in 1933.[24] However, it was not until Wendell Stanley first crystallized tobacco mosaic virus in 1935 that the non-cellular nature of viruses was appreciated. An influenza pandemic is a large scale epidemic of the influenza virus, such as the 1918 Spanish flu. ... The Pandemic Severity Index (PSI) is a scale or index created in January 2007 by the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) designed to mimic the system for indexing the severity of hurricanes (which is the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale for tropical cyclones). ... The Asian Flu was a pandemic outbreak of influenza that originated in China in 1957 and spread worldwide that same year. ... The 1918 flu pandemic (commonly referred to as the Spanish flu) was a category 5 influenza pandemic caused by an unusually severe and deadly Influenza A virus strain of subtype H1N1. ... H1N1 is a subtype of the species Influenza A virus (sometimes called bird flu virus). ... The Asian Flu was a pandemic outbreak of influenza that originated in China in 1957 and spread worldwide that same year. ... The Asian Flu was a pandemic outbreak of influenza that originated in China in 1957 and spread worldwide that same year. ... H3N2 is a subtype of the species Influenza A virus (sometimes called bird flu virus). ... H3N2 is a subtype of the species Influenza A virus (sometimes called bird flu virus). ... This article is about the medical term. ... For other uses, see Pig (disambiguation). ... Richard Schope was the discoverer of the Orthomyxoviridae family of viruses. ... Patrick Laidlaw was one of the scientists working at the Medical Research Council at Mill hill who first isolated influenza virus from humans. ... Current MRC logo The Medical Research Council (MRC) is a UK organisation dedicated to promot[ing] the balanced development of medical and related biological research in the UK. // The MRC is one of seven Research Councils and is answerable to, although politically independent from, the Office of Science and Innovation... Wendell Meredith Stanley (August 16, 1904 - June 15, 1971) was an American biochemist, virologist and Nobel prize laureate. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Drawing of the structure of cork as it appeared under the microscope to Robert Hooke from Micrographia which is the origin of the word cell being used to describe the smallest unit of a living organism Cells in culture, stained for keratin (red) and DNA (green) The cell is the...


The first significant step towards preventing influenza was the development in 1944 of a killed-virus vaccine for influenza by Thomas Francis, Jr.. This built on work by Frank Macfarlane Burnet, who showed that the virus lost virulence when it was cultured in fertilized hen's eggs.[25] Application of this observation by Francis allowed his group of researchers at the University of Michigan to develop the first influenza vaccine, with support from the U.S. Army.[26] The Army was deeply involved in this research due to its experience of influenza in World War I, when thousands of troops were killed by the virus in a matter of months.[20] Dr. Thomas Francis, Jr. ... Sir Frank Macfarlane Burnet OM, AK, KBE (3 September 1899 – 31 August 1985), usually known as Macfarlane or Mac Burnet, was an Australian virologist best known for his contributions to immunology. ... The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor (U of M, UM, U-M or simply Michigan) is a coeducational public research university in the state of Michigan. ... Model of Influenza Virus from NIH The flu vaccine is a vaccine to protect against the highly variable influenza virus. ... The United States Army is the largest and oldest branch of the armed forces of the United States. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ...


Although there were scares in New Jersey in 1976 (with the Swine Flu), world wide in 1977 (with the Russian Flu), and in Hong Kong and other Asian countries in 1997 (with H5N1 avian influenza), there have been no major pandemics since the 1968 Hong Kong Flu. Immunity to previous pandemic influenza strains and vaccination may have limited the spread of the virus and may have helped prevent further pandemics.[22] This article is about the U.S. state. ... Swine Flu is a form of Type A influenza that is normally virulent only in pigs. ... Influenza A virus subtype H5N1, also known as A(H5N1) or simply H5N1, is a subtype of the Influenza A virus which can cause illness in humans and many other animal species. ...


Microbiology

Types of influenza virus

Genus Influenzavirus A Influenzavirus B Influenzavirus C
Species Influenza A virus Influenza B virus Influenza C virus
Structure of the influenza virion. The hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) proteins are shown on the surface of the particle. The viral RNAs that make up the genome are shown as red coils inside the particle and bound to Ribonuclear Proteins (RNPs).
Diagram of influenza virus nomenclature (for a Fujian flu virus)
Diagram of influenza virus nomenclature (for a Fujian flu virus)

The influenza virus is an RNA virus of the family Orthomyxoviridae, which comprises 5 genera: influenzavirus A, influenzavirus B, influenzavirus C, Isavirus, and Thogotovirus.[27] There are three types of influenza virus: Influenzavirus A, Influenzavirus B, and Influenzavirus C. Influenza A and C infect multiple species, while influenza B almost exclusively infects humans.[28] Wild aquatic birds are the natural hosts for a large variety of influenza A viruses. Occasionally viruses are transmitted to other species and may then cause devastating outbreaks in domestic poultry or give rise to human influenza pandemics.[29] The type A viruses are the most virulent human pathogens among the three influenza types and cause the most severe disease. The Influenza A virus can be subdivided into different serotypes based on the antibody response to these viruses.[28] The serotypes that have been confirmed in humans, ordered by the number of known human pandemic deaths, are: For other uses, see Genus (disambiguation). ... Genera Influenzavirus A Influenzavirus B Influenzavirus C Isavirus Thogotovirus Influenzavirus A is a genus of the Orthomyxoviridae family of viruses. ... Influenzavirus B is a genus in the virus family Orthomyxoviridae. ... Influenzavirus C is a genus in the virus family Orthomyxoviridae. ... For other uses, see Species (disambiguation). ... Influenza A virus, the virus that causes Avian flu. ... Influenzavirus B is a genus in the virus family Orthomyxoviridae. ... Genera Influenzavirus A Influenzavirus B Influenzavirus C Isavirus Thogotovirus Influenzavirus C is a genus in the virus family Orthomyxoviridae, which includes those viruses which cause influenza. ... Image File history File links 3D_Influenza_virus. ... Image File history File links 3D_Influenza_virus. ... Hemagglutinin, as depicted in a simplified molecular model. ... Neuraminidase is a glycoside hydrolase enzyme (EC 3. ... In biology the genome of an organism is the whole hereditary information of an organism that is encoded in the DNA (or, for some viruses, RNA). ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... The International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) is a committee which authorizes and organizes the taxonomic classification of viruses. ... See H5N1 flu and Flu for details about the illnesses and H5N1 and H3N2 for details about the causitive agents. ... An RNA virus is a virus that either uses RNA as its genetic material, or whose genetic material passes through an RNA intermediate during replication. ... Genera Influenzavirus A Influenzavirus B Influenzavirus C Isavirus Thogotovirus The Orthomyxoviridae are a family of RNA viruses which infect vertebrates. ... Infectious salmon anemia or anaemia (ISA) is a viral disease of Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar) which affect fish farms in Canada, Norway and Scotland, causing severe losses to infected farms. ... Thogotovirus is a genus in the virus family Orthomyxoviridae. ... Genera Influenzavirus A Influenzavirus B Influenzavirus C Isavirus Thogotovirus Influenzavirus A is a genus of the Orthomyxoviridae family of viruses. ... Influenzavirus B is a genus in the virus family Orthomyxoviridae. ... Influenzavirus C is a genus in the virus family Orthomyxoviridae. ... For other uses, see Pandemic (disambiguation). ... A serovar or serotype is a grouping of microorganisms or viruses based on their cell surface antigens. ... Each antibody binds to a specific antigen; an interaction similar to a lock and key. ...

Influenza B virus is almost exclusively a human pathogen and is less common than influenza A. The only other animal known to be susceptible to influenza B infection is the seal.[31] This type of influenza mutates at a rate 2–3 times lower than type A[32] and consequently is less genetically diverse, with only one influenza B serotype.[28] As a result of this lack of antigenic diversity, a degree of immunity to influenza B is usually acquired at an early age. However, influenza B mutates enough that lasting immunity is not possible.[33] This reduced rate of antigenic change, combined with its limited host range (inhibiting cross species antigenic shift), ensures that pandemics of influenza B do not occur.[34] H1N1 is a subtype of the species Influenza A virus (sometimes called bird flu virus). ... The 1918 flu pandemic (commonly referred to as the Spanish flu) was a category 5 influenza pandemic caused by an unusually severe and deadly Influenza A virus strain of subtype H1N1. ... The Asian Flu was a pandemic outbreak of influenza that originated in China in 1957 and spread worldwide that same year. ... H3N2 is a subtype of the species Influenza A virus (sometimes called bird flu virus). ... Influenza A virus subtype H5N1, also known as A(H5N1) or simply H5N1, is a subtype of the Influenza A virus which can cause illness in humans and many other animal species. ... For other uses, see Pandemic (disambiguation). ... H7N7 is a subtype of the species avian influenza virus (bird flu virus). ... Zoonosis is any infectious disease that can be transmitted from animals, both wild and domestic, to humans. ... H1N2 is a subtype of the species avian influenza virus (bird flu virus) currently endemic in both human and pig populations. ... H9N2 is a subtype of the species avian influenza virus (bird flu virus). ... H7N2 is a subtype of the species avian influenza virus (bird flu virus). ... H7N3 is a subtype of the species avian influenza virus (bird flu virus). ... H10N7 is a subtype of the species avian influenza virus (bird flu virus). ... Families Odobenidae Otariidae Phocidae Pinnipeds (fin-feet, lit. ... An antigen or immunogen is a molecule that stimulates an immune response. ... Immunity is a medical term that describes a state of having sufficient biological defenses to avoid infection, disease, or other unwanted biological invasion. ... Antigenic shift is the process by which two different strains of influenza combine to form a new subtype having a mixture of the surface antigens of the two original strains. ...


The influenza C virus infects humans and pigs, and can cause severe illness and local epidemics.[35] However, influenza C is less common than the other types and usually seems to cause mild disease in children.[36][37]


Structure and properties

The following applies for Influenza A viruses, although other strains are very similar in structure:[38] Genera Influenzavirus A Influenzavirus B Influenzavirus C Isavirus Thogotovirus Influenzavirus A is a genus of the Orthomyxoviridae family of viruses. ...


The influenza A virus particle or virion is 80–120 nm in diameter and usually roughly spherical, although filamentous forms can occur.[39] Unusually for a virus, the influenza A genome is not a single piece of nucleic acid; instead, it contains eight pieces of segmented negative-sense RNA (13.5 kilobases total), which encode 11 proteins (HA (hemagglutinin), NA (neuraminidase), NP (nucleoprotein), M1, M2, NS1, NS2(NEP), PA, PB1, PB1-F2, PB2).[40] The best-characterised of these viral proteins are hemagglutinin and neuraminidase, two large glycoproteins found on the outside of the viral particles. Neuraminidase is an enzyme involved in the release of progeny virus from infected cells, by cleaving sugars that bind the mature viral particles. By contrast, hemagglutinin is a lectin that mediates binding of the virus to target cells and entry of the viral genome into the target cell.[41] The hemagglutinin (HA or H) and neuraminidase (NA or N) proteins are targets for antiviral drugs.[42] These proteins are also recognised by antibodies, i.e. they are antigens.[22] The responses of antibodies to these proteins are used to classify the different serotypes of influenza A viruses, hence the H and N in H5N1. This article is about the unit of length. ... In biology the genome of an organism is the whole hereditary information of an organism that is encoded in the DNA (or, for some viruses, RNA). ... Look up nucleic acid in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Sense, when applied in a molecular biology context, is a general concept used to compare the polarity of nucleic acid molecules, particularly RNA, to other nucleic acid molecules. ... For other uses, see RNA (disambiguation). ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin showing coloured alpha helices. ... Hemagglutinin, as depicted in a simplified molecular model. ... Neuraminidase is a glycoside hydrolase enzyme (EC 3. ... N-linked protein glycosylation (N-glycosylation of N-glycans) at Asn residues (Asn-x-Ser/Thr motifs) in glycoproteins[1]. Glycoproteins are proteins that contain oligosaccharide chains (glycans) covalently attached to their polypeptide backbones. ... Ribbon diagram of the enzyme TIM, surrounded by the space-filling model of the protein. ... Lectins are a type of receptor proteins of non-immune origin that specifically interact with sugar molecules (carbohydrates) without modifying them. ... Antiviral drugs are a class of medication used specifically for treating viral infections. ... Each antibody binds to a specific antigen; an interaction similar to a lock and key. ... An antigen or immunogen is a molecule that stimulates an immune response. ... A serovar or serotype is a grouping of microorganisms or viruses based on their cell surface antigens. ...


Infection and replication

Host cell invasion and replication by the influenza virus. The steps in this process are discussed in the text.
Host cell invasion and replication by the influenza virus. The steps in this process are discussed in the text.

Influenza viruses bind through hemagglutinin onto sialic acid sugars on the surfaces of epithelial cells; typically in the nose, throat and lungs of mammals and intestines of birds (Stage 1 in infection figure).[43] The cell imports the virus by endocytosis. In the acidic endosome, part of the haemagglutinin protein fuses the viral envelope with the vacuole's membrane, releasing the viral RNA (vRNA) molecules, accessory proteins and RNA-dependent RNA transcriptase into the cytoplasm (Stage 2).[44] These proteins and vRNA form a complex that is transported into the cell nucleus, where the RNA-dependent RNA transcriptase begins transcribing complementary positive-sense vRNA (Steps 3a and b).[45] The vRNA is either exported into the cytoplasm and translated (step 4), or remains in the nucleus. Newly-synthesised viral proteins are either secreted through the Golgi apparatus onto the cell surface (in the case of neuraminidase and hemagglutinin, step 5b) or transported back into the nucleus to bind vRNA and form new viral genome particles (step 5a). Other viral proteins have multiple actions in the host cell, including degrading cellular mRNA and using the released nucleotides for vRNA synthesis and also inhibiting translation of host-cell mRNAs.[46] Hemagglutinin, as depicted in a simplified molecular model. ... Sialic acid is a generic term for the N- or O-substituted derivatives of neuraminic acid, a nine-carbon monosaccharide. ... This article is about the epithelium as it relates to animal anatomy. ... Human respiratory system The lungs flank the heart and great vessels in the chest cavity. ... In anatomy, the intestine is the segment of the alimentary canal extending from the stomach to the anus and, in humans and other mammals, consists of two segments, the small intestine and the large intestine. ... Endocytosis (IPA: ) is a process whereby cells absorb material (molecules such as proteins) from the outside by engulfing it with their cell membrane. ... In biology an endosome is a membrane-bound compartment inside cells. ... RNA replicase is a polymerase enzyme that catalyzes the self-replication of single-stranded RNA. it is RNA dependent RNA plwhich is not haVING PRROFREEDING ACTIVITY. THIS IS ANOTHER EXTENSION IN THE CENTRADOGMA. IT IS MADE UP OF THREE SUBUNIT. Categories: | ... Schematic showing the cytoplasm, with major components of a typical animal cell. ... HeLa cells stained for DNA with the Blue Hoechst dye. ... Micrograph of Golgi apparatus, visible as a stack of semicircular black rings near the bottom. ... The interaction of mRNA in a eukaryote cell. ... A nucleotide is a chemical compound that consists of 3 portions: a heterocyclic base, a sugar, and one or more phosphate groups. ... Translation is the second stage of protein biosynthesis (part of the overall process of gene expression). ...


Negative-sense vRNAs that form the genomes of future viruses, RNA-dependent RNA transcriptase, and other viral proteins are assembled into a virion. Hemagglutinin and neuraminidase molecules cluster into a bulge in the cell membrane. The vRNA and viral core proteins leave the nucleus and enter this membrane protrusion (step 6). The mature virus buds off from the cell in a sphere of host phospholipid membrane, acquiring hemagglutinin and neuraminidase with this membrane coat (step 7).[47] As before, the viruses adhere to the cell through hemagglutinin; the mature viruses detach once their neuraminidase has cleaved sialic acid residues from the host cell.[43] After the release of new influenza viruses, the host cell dies. In biology the genome of an organism is the whole hereditary information of an organism that is encoded in the DNA (or, for some viruses, RNA). ... Neuraminidase is a glycoside hydrolase enzyme (EC 3. ...


Because of the absence of RNA proofreading enzymes, the RNA-dependent RNA transcriptase makes a single nucleotide insertion error roughly every 10 thousand nucleotides, which is the approximate length of the influenza vRNA. Hence, nearly every newly-manufactured influenza virus is a mutant[48] - antigenic drift. The separation of the genome into eight separate segments of vRNA allows mixing or reassortment of vRNAs if more than one viral line has infected a single cell. The resulting rapid change in viral genetics produces antigenic shifts and allow the virus to infect new host species and quickly overcome protective immunity.[22] This is important in the emergence of pandemics, as discussed below in the section on Epidemiology. Proofreading means reading a proof copy of a text in order to detect and correct any errors. ... Antigenic shift is the process by which two different strains of influenza combine to form a new subtype having a mixture of the surface antigens of the two original strains. ...


Symptoms and diagnosis

Influenza spreads by aerosols created by coughs or sneezes.

In humans, influenza's effects are much more severe than those of the common cold, and last longer. Recovery takes about one to two weeks. Influenza, however, can be deadly, especially for the weak, old or chronically ill.[22] The flu can worsen chronic health problems. People with emphysema, chronic bronchitis or asthma may experience shortness of breath while they have the flu, and influenza may cause worsening of coronary heart disease or congestive heart failure.[49] Smoking is another risk factor associated with more serious disease and increased mortality from influenza.[50] Aerosol, is a term derived from the fact that matter floating in air is a suspension (a mixture in which solid or liquid or combined solid-liquid particles are suspended in a fluid). ... Acute viral nasopharyngitis, or acute coryza, usually known as the common cold, is a highly contagious, viral infectious disease of the upper respiratory system, primarily caused by picornaviruses or coronaviruses. ... Coronary heart disease (CHD), also called coronary artery disease (CAD), ischaemic heart disease, atherosclerotic heart disease, is the end result of the accumulation of atheromatous plaques within the walls of the arteries that supply the myocardium (the muscle of the heart) with oxygen and nutrients. ... Congestive heart failure (CHF), also called congestive cardiac failure (CCF) or just heart failure, is a condition that can result from any structural or functional cardiac disorder that impairs the ability of the heart to fill with or pump a sufficient amount of blood throughout the body. ... The cigarette is the most common method of smoking tobacco. ... A risk factor is a variable associated with an increased risk of disease or infection but risk factors are not necessarily causal. ...


Symptoms

Symptoms of influenza can start quite suddenly one to two days after infection. Usually the first symptoms are chills or a chilly sensation but fever is also common early in the infection, with body temperatures as high as 39 °C (approximately 103 °F). Many people are so ill that they are confined to bed for several days, with aches and pains throughout their bodies, which are worst in their backs and legs.[1] Symptoms of influenza may include:

  • Body aches, especially joints and throat
  • Coughing and sneezing
  • Extreme coldness and fever
  • Fatigue
  • Headache
  • Irritated watering eyes
  • Nasal congestion
  • Reddened eyes, skin (especially face), mouth, throat and nose
  • Abdominal pain (in children with Influenza B)[51]

It can be difficult to distinguish between the common cold and influenza in the early stages of these infections,[2] but usually the symptoms of the flu are more severe than their common-cold equivalents. Research on signs and symptoms of influenza found that the best findings for excluding the diagnosis of influenza were:[52] For other uses, see Sneeze (disambiguation). ... An analogue medical thermometer showing the temperature of 38. ... Exhaustion redirects here. ... A headache (cephalgia in medical terminology) is a condition of pain in the head; sometimes neck or upper back pain may also be interpreted as a headache. ... Nasal congestion is the blockage of the nasal passages usually due to membranes lining the nose becoming swollen from inflamed blood vessels. ...

Highest sensitive individual findings for diagnosing influenza[52]
Finding: sensitivity specificity
Fever 86% 25%
Cough 98% 23%
Nasal congestion 70–90% 20–40%

Notes to table: The sensitivity of a binary classification test or algorithm, such as a blood test to determine if a person has a certain disease, or an automated system to detect faulty products in a factory, is a parameter that expresses something about the tests performance. ... The sensitivity of a binary classification test or algorithm, such as a blood test to determine if a person has a certain disease, or an automated system to detect faulty products in a factory, is a parameter that expresses something about the tests performance. ... The specificity is a statistical measure of how well a binary classification test correctly identifies the negative cases, or those cases that do not meet the condition under study. ...

  • Sensitivity is the proportion of people who tested positive of all the positive people tested. In this case, being positive or negative is having influenza or not, and being tested positive or negative is having the symptom or not. For instance, 86% of those with influenza had fever.
  • Specificity is the proportion of people who tested negative of all the negative people tested. In this case, the ones without fever only constitute 25% of those without influenza. In other words, the majority of people with fever do not have influenza.
  • All three findings, especially fever, were less sensitive in patients over 60 years of age.

Since anti-viral drugs are effective in treating influenza if given early (see treatment section, below), it can be important to identify cases early. Of the symptoms listed above, the combinations of findings below can improve diagnostic accuracy.[53] Unfortunately, even combinations of findings are imperfect. However, Bayes Theorem can combine pretest probability with clinical findings to adequately diagnose or exclude influenza in some patients. The pretest probability has a strong seasonal variation; the current prevalence of influenza among patients in the United States receiving sentinel testing is available at the CDC.[54] Using the CDC data, the following table shows how the likelihood of influenza varies with prevalence: The sensitivity of a binary classification test or algorithm, such as a blood test to determine if a person has a certain disease, or an automated system to detect faulty products in a factory, is a parameter that expresses something about the tests performance. ... The specificity is a statistical measure of how well a binary classification test correctly identifies the negative cases, or those cases that do not meet the condition under study. ... Bayes theorem is a result in probability theory, which gives the conditional probability distribution of a random variable A given B in terms of the conditional probability distribution of variable B given A and the marginal probability distribution of A alone. ... The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta, Georgia, is recognized as the leading United States agency for protecting the public health and safety of people. ...

Combinations of findings for diagnosing influenza[52]
Combinations of findings Sensitivity Specificity

As reported in study[52]
and projected during local outbreaks
(prevalence= 66%)

Projected during influenza season
(prevalence=25%)
Projected in off-season
(prevalence=2%)
PPV NPV PPV NPV PPV NPV
Fever and cough 64% 67% 79% 49% 39% 15% 4% 1%
Fever and cough and sore throat 56 71 79 45 39 17 4 2
Fever and cough and nasal congestion 59 74 81 48 43 16 4 1

Two decision analysis studies[55][56] suggest that during local outbreaks of influenza, the prevalence will be over 70%[56] and thus patients with any of the above combinations of symptoms may be treated with neuramidase inhibitors without testing. Even in the absence of a local outbreak, treatment may be justified in the elderly during the influenza season as long as the prevalence is over 15%.[56] Decision analysis (DA) is the discipline comprising the philosophy, theory, methodology, and professional practice necessary to address important decisions in a formal manner. ...


Most people who get influenza will recover in one to two weeks, but others will develop life-threatening complications (such as pneumonia). According to the World Health Organization: "Every winter, tens of millions of people get the flu. Most are only ill and out of work for a week, yet the elderly are at a higher risk of death from the illness. We know the world-wide death toll exceeds a few hundred thousand people a year, but even in developed countries the numbers are uncertain, because medical authorities don't usually verify who actually died of influenza and who died of a flu-like illness."[57] Even healthy people can be affected, and serious problems from influenza can happen at any age. People over 50 years old, very young children and people of any age with chronic medical conditions, are more likely to get complications from influenza: such as pneumonia, bronchitis, sinus, and ear infections.[58] This article is about human pneumonia. ... WHO redirects here. ... Bronchitis is an inflammation of the bronchi (medium-size airways) in the lungs. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Otitis media (also known as glue ear) is an inflammation of the middle ear, usually associated with a buildup of fluid. ...


Common symptoms of the flu such as fever, headaches, and fatigue come from the huge amounts of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines (such as interferon or tumor necrosis factor) produced from influenza-infected cells.[2][59] In contrast to the rhinovirus that causes the common cold, influenza does cause tissue damage, so symptoms are not entirely due to the inflammatory response.[60] Cytokines are a category of less-widely-known signalling proteins and glycoproteins that, like hormones and neurotransmitters, are used extensively in cellular communication. ... Chemokines are a family of pro-inflammatory activation-inducible cytokines, or small protein signals secreted by cells. ... Interferons (IFNs) are natural proteins produced by the cells of the immune system of most vertebrates in response to challenges by foreign agents such as viruses, bacteria, parasites and tumor cells. ... In medicine, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα, cachexin or cachectin) is an important cytokine involved in systemic inflammation and the acute phase response. ... Species Human rhinovirus A (HRV-A) Human rhinovirus B (HRV-B) Rhinovirus (from the Greek rhin-, which means nose) is a genus of the Picornaviridae family of viruses. ... Acute viral nasopharyngitis, or acute coryza, usually known as the common cold, is a highly contagious, viral infectious disease of the upper respiratory system, primarily caused by picornaviruses or coronaviruses. ...


Laboratory tests

The available laboratory tests for influenza continue to improve. The United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) maintains an up-to-date summary of available laboratory tests.[61] According to the CDC, rapid diagnostic tests have a sensitivity of 70–75% and specificity of 90–95% when compared with viral culture. These tests may be especially useful during the influenza season (prevalence=25%) but in the absence of a local outbreak, or peri-influenza season (prevalence=10%[56]). The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta, Georgia, is recognized as the leading United States agency for protecting the public health and safety of people. ...


Epidemiology

Seasonal variations

Further information: Flu season
Cumulative Confirmed Human Cases of H5N1. The regression curve for deaths is shown extended through the end of April 2007.
Cumulative Confirmed Human Cases of H5N1.[62] The regression curve for deaths is shown extended through the end of April 2007.

Influenza reaches peak prevalence in winter, and because the Northern and Southern Hemisphere have winter at different times of the year, there are actually two different flu seasons each year. This is why the World Health Organization (assisted by the National Influenza Centers) makes recommendations for two different vaccine formulations every year; one for the Northern, and one for the Southern Hemisphere.[63] Flu season is mostly a colloquial term used to describe the regular outbreak in flu cases, or even cases of the common cold during the late fall or winter. ... Image File history File links H5n1_spread_(with_regression). ... Image File history File links H5n1_spread_(with_regression). ... Northern hemisphere highlighted in yellow. ... southern hemisphere highlighted in yellow (Antarctica not depicted). ... WHO redirects here. ... National Influenza Centers (also called National Influenza Centres) are institutions which are formally recognized as such by WHO. Among the more than 110 National Influenza Centers are the WHO collaborating centres and reference laboratories that are involved in annual influenza vaccine composition recommendations. ...


It is not completely clear why outbreaks of the flu occur seasonally rather than uniformly throughout the year. One possible explanation is that, because people are indoors more often during the winter, they are in close contact more often, and this promotes transmission from person to person. Another is that cold temperatures lead to drier air, which may dehydrate mucus, preventing the body from effectively expelling virus particles. The virus may also survive longer on exposed surfaces (doorknobs, countertops, etc.) in colder temperatures. Increased travel due to the Northern Hemisphere winter holiday season may also play a role.[64] A contributing factor is that aerosol transmission of the virus is highest in cold environments (less than 5 degrees Celsius) with low humidity.[65] However, seasonal changes in infection rates also occur in tropical regions, and these peaks of infection are seen mainly during the rainy season.[66] Seasonal changes in contact rates from school-terms, which are a major factor in other childhood diseases such as measles and pertussis, may also play a role in flu. A combination of these small seasonal effects may be amplified by "dynamical resonance" with the endogenous disease cycles.[67] H5N1 exhibits seasonality in both humans and birds.[62] Pertussis, also known as whooping cough, a highly contagious disease caused by the bacterium, Bordetella pertussis; it derived its name from a characteristic severe hacking cough followed by a high-pitched intake of breath that sounds like whoop; a similar, milder disease is caused by B. parapertussis. ... Influenza A virus subtype H5N1, also known as A(H5N1) or simply H5N1, is a subtype of the Influenza A virus which can cause illness in humans and many other animal species. ...


An alternative hypothesis to explain seasonality in influenza infections is an effect of vitamin D levels on immunity to the virus.[68] This idea was first proposed by Robert Edgar Hope-Simpson in 1965.[69] He proposed that the cause of influenza epidemics during winter may be connected to seasonal fluctuations of vitamin D, which is produced in the skin under the influence of solar (or artificial) UV radiation. This could explain why influenza occurs mostly in winter and during the tropical rainy season, when people stay indoors, away from the sun, and their vitamin D levels fall. Furthermore, some studies have suggested that administering cod liver oil, which contains large amounts of vitamin D, can reduce the incidence of respiratory tract infections.[70] Vitamin D is a fat soluble vitamin that contributes to the maintenance of normal levels of calcium and phosphorus in the bloodstream. ... Robert Edgar Hope-Simpson was a general practitioner. ... For other uses, see Ultraviolet (disambiguation). ... Capsules of Cod Liver Oil Cod liver oil, as its name suggests, is an oil extracted from cod livers. ...


Epidemic and pandemic spread

Further information: Flu pandemic
Antigenic drift creates influenza viruses with slightly-modified antigens, while antigenic shift generates viruses with entirely novel antigens.
Antigenic drift creates influenza viruses with slightly-modified antigens, while antigenic shift generates viruses with entirely novel antigens.
How antigenic shift, or reassortment, can result in novel and highly pathogenic strains of human influenza
How antigenic shift, or reassortment, can result in novel and highly pathogenic strains of human influenza

As influenza is caused by a variety of species and strains of viruses, in any given year some strains can die out while others create epidemics while yet another strain can cause a pandemic. Typically, in a year's normal two flu seasons (one per hemisphere) there are between three and five million cases of severe illness and up to 500,000 deaths worldwide, which by some definitions is a yearly influenza epidemic.[71] Although the incidence of influenza can vary widely between years, approximately 36,000 deaths and more than 200,000 hospitalizations are directly associated with influenza every year in America.[72][73][74] Every ten to twenty years a pandemic occurs, which infects a large proportion of the world's population, and can kill tens of millions of people (see history section). An influenza pandemic is a large scale epidemic of the influenza virus, such as the 1918 Spanish flu. ... Image File history File links Antigenic_drift_vs_shift. ... Image File history File links Antigenic_drift_vs_shift. ... Antigenic drift refers to mutations in the influenza virus over time. ... Antigenic shift is the process by which two different strains of influenza combine to form a new subtype having a mixture of the surface antigens of the two original strains. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... This article is about biological infectious particles. ... In epidemiology, an epidemic (from [[Latin language] epi- upon + demos people) is a disease that appears as new cases in a given human population, during a given period, at a rate that substantially exceeds what is expected, based on recent experience (the number of new cases in the population during... For other uses, see Pandemic (disambiguation). ... Flu season is mostly a colloquial term used to describe the regular outbreak in flu cases, or even cases of the common cold during the late fall or winter. ...


New influenza viruses are constantly being produced by mutation or by reassortment.[28] Mutations can cause small changes in the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase antigens on the surface of the virus. This is called antigenic drift, which creates an increasing variety of strains over time until one of the variants eventually achieves higher fitness, becomes dominant, and rapidly sweeps through the human population – often causing an epidemic.[75] In contrast, when influenza viruses re-assort, they may acquire new antigens — for example by reassortment between avian strains and human strains; this is called antigenic shift. If a human influenza virus is produced with entirely novel antigens, everybody will be susceptible and the novel influenza will spread uncontrollably, causing a pandemic.[76] In contrast to this model of pandemics based on antigenic drift and shift, an alternative approach has been proposed where the periodic pandemics are produced by interactions of a fixed set of viral strains with a human population with a constantly-changing set of immunities to different viral strains.[77] For linguistic mutation, see Apophony. ... Reassortment is the exchange of DNA between viruses inside a host cell. ... An antigen or immunogen is a molecule that stimulates an immune response. ... Antigenic drift refers to mutations in the influenza virus over time. ... Fitness (often denoted in population genetics models) is a central concept in evolutionary theory. ...


Prevention

Vaccination and infection control

Further information: Influenza vaccine

Vaccination against influenza with a influenza vaccine is often recommended for high-risk groups, such as children and the elderly. Influenza vaccines can be produced in several ways; the most common method is to grow the virus in fertilised hen eggs. After purification, the virus is inactivated (for example, by treatment with detergent) to produce an inactivated-virus vaccine. Alternatively, the virus can be grown in eggs until it loses virulence and the avirulent virus given as a live vaccine.[22] The effectiveness of these influenza vaccines is variable. Due to the high mutation rate of the virus, a particular influenza vaccine usually confers protection for no more than a few years. Every year, the World Health Organization predicts which strains of the virus are most likely to be circulating in the next year, allowing pharmaceutical companies to develop vaccines that will provide the best immunity against these strains.[63] Vaccines have also been developed to protect poultry from avian influenza. These vaccines can be effective against multiple strains and are used either as part of a preventative strategy, or combined with culling in attempts to eradicate outbreaks.[78] Model of Influenza Virus from NIH The flu vaccine is a vaccine to protect against the highly variable influenza virus. ... Model of Influenza Virus from NIH The flu vaccine is a vaccine to protect against the highly variable influenza virus. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Virulence refers to the degree of pathogenicity of a microbe, or in other words the relative ability of a microbe to cause disease. ... WHO redirects here. ... A pharmaceutical company, or drug company, is a commercial business whose focus is to research, develop, market and/or distribute drugs, most commonly in the context of healthcare. ... Ducks amongst other poultry The Poultry-dealer, after Cesare Vecellio Poultry is the category of domesticated birds kept for meat, eggs, and feathers. ... For the H5N1 subtype of Avian influenza see H5N1. ... To cull is to remove from a group of animals those individuals who show signs of weakness. ...


It is possible to get vaccinated and still get influenza. The vaccine is reformulated each season for a few specific flu strains, but cannot possibly include all the strains actively infecting people in the world for that season. It takes about six months for the manufacturers to formulate and produce the millions of doses required to deal with the seasonal epidemics; occasionally, a new or overlooked strain becomes prominent during that time and infects people although they have been vaccinated (as by the H3N2 Fujian flu in the 2003–2004 flu season).[79] It is also possible to get infected just before vaccination and get sick with the very strain that the vaccine is supposed to prevent, as the vaccine takes about two weeks to become effective.[58] See H5N1 flu and Flu for details about the illnesses and H5N1 and H3N2 for details about the causitive agents. ...


The 2006–2007 season is the first in which the CDC has recommended that children younger than 59 months receive the annual influenza vaccine.[80] Vaccines can cause the immune system to react as if the body were actually being infected, and general infection symptoms (many cold and flu symptoms are just general infection symptoms) can appear, though these symptoms are usually not as severe or long-lasting as influenza. The most dangerous side-effect is a severe allergic reaction to either the virus material itself, or residues from the hen eggs used to grow the influenza; however, these reactions are extremely rare.[81] A scanning electron microscope image of a single neutrophil (yellow), engulfing anthrax bacteria (orange). ... Allergy is an abnormal reaction to a substance foreign to the body that is acquired, predictable and rapid. ...

U.S. Navy personnel receiving influenza vaccination
U.S. Navy personnel receiving influenza vaccination

Good personal health and hygiene habits are reasonably effective in avoiding and minimizing influenza. People who contract influenza are most infective between the second and third days after infection and infectivity lasts for around 10 days.[82] Children are notably more infectious than adults, and shed virus from just before they develop symptoms until 2 weeks after infection.[82][83] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (3008x1960, 623 KB) Summary Vaccination / Schutzimpfung Source: [1] 041028-N-9864S-021 Yokosuka, Japan (Oct. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (3008x1960, 623 KB) Summary Vaccination / Schutzimpfung Source: [1] 041028-N-9864S-021 Yokosuka, Japan (Oct. ... USN redirects here. ... An influenza pandemic is a large scale epidemic of the influenza virus, such as the 1918 Spanish flu. ...


Since influenza spreads through aerosols and contact with contaminated surfaces, it is important to persuade people to cover their mouths while sneezing and to wash their hands regularly.[80] Surface sanitizing is recommended in areas where influenza may be present on surfaces.[84] Alcohol is an effective sanitizer against influenza viruses, while quaternary ammonium compounds can be used with alcohol, to increase the duration of the sanitizing action.[85] In hospitals, quaternary ammonium compounds and halogen-releasing agents such as sodium hypochlorite are commonly used to sanitize rooms or equipment that have been occupied by patients with influenza symptoms.[85] During past pandemics, closing schools, churches and theaters slowed the spread of the virus but did not have a large effect on the overall death rate.[86][87] Particulates, alternatively referred to as particulate matter (PM), aerosols or fine particles, are tiny particles of solid or liquid suspended in a gas. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Quaternary ammonium cation. ... Sodium hypochlorite is a chemical compound with the formula NaClO. Sodium hypochlorite solution, commonly known as bleach, is frequently used as a disinfectant and as a bleaching agent. ...


Treatment

Further information: Influenza treatment

People with the flu are advised to get plenty of rest, drink a lot of liquids, avoid using alcohol and tobacco and, if necessary, take medications such as paracetamol (acetaminophen) to relieve the fever and muscle aches associated with the flu. Children and teenagers with flu symptoms (particularly fever) should avoid taking aspirin during an influenza infection (especially influenza type B) because doing so can lead to Reye's syndrome, a rare but potentially fatal disease of the liver.[88] Since influenza is caused by a virus, antibiotics have no effect on the infection; unless prescribed for secondary infections such as bacterial pneumonia, they may lead to resistant bacteria. Antiviral medication is sometimes effective, but viruses can develop resistance to the standard antiviral drugs. This article is about flu treatment in humans for mild human flu, which includes both efforts to reduce symptoms and treatments for the flu virus itself. ... Alcoholic beverages An alcoholic beverage is a drink containing ethanol, commonly known as alcohol, although in chemistry the definition of alcohol includes many other compounds. ... The cigarette is the most common method of smoking tobacco. ... Paracetamol (INN) (IPA: ) or acetaminophen (USAN), is the active metabolite of phenacetin, a so-called coal tar analgesic. ... This article is about the drug. ... Influenzavirus B is a genus in the virus family Orthomyxoviridae. ... Reyes syndrome is a potentially fatal disease that causes numerous detrimental effects to many organs, especially the brain and liver. ... The liver is the largest internal organ in the human body, and is an organ present in vertebrates and some other animals. ... Staphylococcus aureus - Antibiotics test plate. ... A secondary infection is an infection by a microorganism subsequent to and simultaneous with an infection by a different microorganism. ... Bacterial pneumonia is an infection of the lungs by bacteria. ...


The two classes of anti-virals are neuraminidase inhibitors and M2 inhibitors (adamantane derivatives). Neuraminidase inhibitors are currently preferred for flu virus infections. The CDC recommended against using M2 inhibitors during the 2005–06 influenza season.[89] Adamantane (tricyclo[3. ...


Neuraminidase inhibitors

Antiviral drugs such as oseltamivir (trade name Tamiflu) and zanamivir (trade name Relenza) are neuraminidase inhibitors that are designed to halt the spread of the virus in the body.[90] These drugs are often effective against both influenza A and B.[91] The Cochrane Collaboration reviewed these drugs and concluded that they reduce symptoms and complications.[92] Different strains of influenza virus have differing degrees of resistance against these antivirals and it is impossible to predict what degree of resistance a future pandemic strain might have.[93] Oseltamivir (INN) (IPA: ) is an antiviral drug that is used in the treatment and prophylaxis of both Influenzavirus A and Influenzavirus B. Like zanamivir, oseltamivir is a neuraminidase inhibitor. ... Zanamivir is a neuraminidase inhibitor used in the treatment of and prophylaxis of both influenza A and influenza B. Zanamivir was the first neuraminidase inhibitor commercially developed. ... Neuraminidase inhibitors are a class of antiviral drugs, whose mode of action relies on blocking the function of viral neuraminidase protein, thus preventing the virus from budding from the host cell. ... The Cochrane Collaboration developed in response to Archie Cochranes call for systematic, up-to-date reviews (currently known as systematic reviews) of all relevant randomized clinical trials of health care. ...


M2 inhibitors (adamantanes)

The antiviral drugs amantadine and rimantadine are designed to block a viral ion channel (M2 protein) and prevent the virus from infecting cells. These drugs are sometimes effective against influenza A if given early in the infection, but are always ineffective against influenza B.[91] Measured resistance to amantadine and rimantadine in American isolates of H3N2 has increased to 91% in 2005.[94] Antiviral drugs are a class of medication used specifically for treating viral infections. ... Amantadine, 1-aminoadamantane, is an antiviral drug that was approved by the FDA in 1976 for the treatment of influenza type A in adults. ... Rimantadine (systematic name 1-(1-aminoethyl)adamantane) is an orally administered medicine used to treat, and in rare cases prevent, Influenzavirus A infection. ... Ion channels are pore-forming proteins that help to establish and control the small voltage gradient that exists across the plasma membrane of all living cells (see cell potential) by allowing the flow of ions down their electrochemical gradient. ... The M2 protein is a proton-selective ion channel protein, integral in the cell membrane of the influenza A virus. ... H3N2 is a subtype of the species Influenza A virus (sometimes called bird flu virus). ...


Research

Further information: Influenza research
CDC scientist working on influenza under high bio-safety conditions
CDC scientist working on influenza under high bio-safety conditions

Research on influenza includes studies on molecular virology, how the virus produces disease (pathogenesis), host immune responses, viral genomics, and how the virus spreads (epidemiology). These studies help in developing influenza countermeasures; for example, a better understanding of the body's immune response helps vaccine development, and a detailed picture of how influenza invades cells aids the development of antiviral drugs. One important basic research program is the Influenza Genome Sequencing Project, which is creating a library of influenza sequences; this library should help clarify which factors make one strain more lethal than another, which genes most affect immunogenicity, and how the virus evolves over time.[95] Flu research includes molecular virology, pathogenesis, host immune responses, genomics, and epidemiology. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (700x991, 83 KB) CDC, CDC Public Health Image Library (PHIL), http://phil. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (700x991, 83 KB) CDC, CDC Public Health Image Library (PHIL), http://phil. ... Molecular Virology is the study of viruses at the molecular level. ... Pathogenesis is the mechanism by which a certain etiological factor causes disease (pathos = disease, genesis = development). ... A request has been made on Wikipedia for this article to be deleted in accordance with the deletion policy. ... Genomics is the study of an organisms entire genome; Rathore et al, . Investigation of single genes, their functions and roles is something very common in todays medical and biological research, and cannot be said to be genomics but rather the most typical feature of molecular biology. ... Epidemiology is the study of factors affecting the health and illness of populations, and serves as the foundation and logic of interventions made in the interest of public health and preventive medicine. ... A vaccine is an antigenic preparation used to establish immunity to a disease. ... The Influenza Genome Sequencing Project is funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) which is a component of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), which is an agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services. ... This page is a candidate to be copied to Wiktionary using the Transwiki process. ... This article is about evolution in biology. ...


Research into new vaccines is particularly important: as current vaccines are slow and expensive to produce and must be reformulated every year. The sequencing of the influenza genome and recombinant DNA technology may accelerate the generation of new vaccine strains by allowing scientists to substitute new antigens into a previously-developed vaccine strain.[96] New technologies are also being developed to grow virus in cell culture; which promises higher yields, less cost, better quality and surge capacity.[97]. Research on a universal influenza A vaccine, targeted against the external domain of the transmembrane viral M2-protein (M2e), is being done at the University of Ghent by Walter Fiers, Xavier Saelens and their team[98][99][100], and has now concluded successfully Phase I clinical trials. Recombinant DNA (rDNA) is an artificial DNA sequence resulting from the combination of different DNA sequences. ... Epithelial cells in culture, stained for keratin (red) and DNA (green) Cell culture is the process by which either prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells are grown under controlled conditions. ... The M2 protein is a proton-selective ion channel protein, integral in the cell membrane of the influenza A virus. ... Ghent University (in Dutch, Universiteit Gent, abbreviated UGent) is one of the two large Flemish universities. ... Walter Fiers was born in Ieper (Belgium) in 1931. ...


The U.S. government has purchased from Sanofi Pasteur and Chiron Corporation several million doses of vaccine meant to be used in case of an influenza pandemic of H5N1 avian influenza and is conducting clinical trials with these vaccines.[101] The UK government is also stockpiling millions of doses of antiviral drugs(oseltamivir (Tamiflu®), zanimivir(Relanza®)) to give to its citizens in the event of an outbreak, the UK Health Protection Agency has also gathered a limited amount of HPAI H5N1 vaccines for experimental purposes.[citations needed] Sanofi pasteur is the vaccines business of sanofi-aventis Group. ... Chiron Corporation (NASDAQ: NVS) was a multinational biotechnology firm based in Emeryville, California that was acquired by Novartis International AG on April 30, 2006. ... An influenza pandemic is a large scale epidemic of the influenza virus, such as the 1918 Spanish flu. ... Influenza A virus subtype H5N1, also known as A(H5N1) or simply H5N1, is a subtype of the Influenza A virus which can cause illness in humans and many other animal species. ... The Health Protection Agency (HPA), originally established as a special health authority (SpHA) in 2003, is an independent national organisation charged with protecting the health and well-being of the United Kingdom citizens from infectious diseases and in preventing harm and reducing impacts when hazards involving chemicals, poisons or radiation...


Infection in other animals

H5N1
Further information: Influenzavirus A, H5N1 and Transmission and infection of H5N1

Influenza infects many animal species and transfer of viral strains between species can occur. Birds are thought to be the main animal reservoirs of influenza viruses.[102] Sixteen forms of hemagglutinin and 9 forms of neuraminidase have been identified. All known subtypes (HxNy) are found in birds but many subtypes are endemic in humans, dogs, horses, and pigs; populations of camels, ferrets, cats, seals, mink, and whales also show evidence of prior infection or exposure to influenza.[33] Variants of flu virus are sometimes named according to the species the strain is endemic in or adapted to. The main variants named using this convention are: Bird flu, Human Flu, Swine Flu, Horse Flu and Dog Flu. (Cat flu generally refers to Feline viral rhinotracheitis or Feline calicivirus and not infection from an influenza virus.) In pigs, horses and dogs, influenza symptoms are similar to humans, with cough, fever and loss of appetite.[33] The frequency of animal diseases are not as well-studied as human infection, but an outbreak of influenza in harbour seals caused approximately 500 seal deaths off the New England coast in 1979–1980.[103] On the other hand, outbreaks in pigs are common and do not cause severe mortality.[33] Image File history File links Colorized_transmission_electron_micrograph_of_Avian_influenza_A_H5N1_viruses. ... Genera Influenzavirus A Influenzavirus B Influenzavirus C Isavirus Thogotovirus Influenzavirus A is a genus of the Orthomyxoviridae family of viruses. ... Influenza A virus subtype H5N1, also known as A(H5N1) or simply H5N1, is a subtype of the Influenza A virus which can cause illness in humans and many other animal species. ... H5N1 genetic structure refers to the molecular structure of the H5N1 viruss RNA. H5N1 is an Influenza A virus subtype. ... See Epidemiology of WHO-confirmed human cases of avian influenza A(H5N1) infection. ... The thin line represents average mortality of recent cases. ... The global spread of H5N1 in birds is considered a significant pandemic threat. ... Main article: Global spread of H5N1 Notes: Source WHO Confirmed Human Cases of H5N1 [T]he incidence of human cases peaked, in each of the three years in which cases have occurred, during the period roughly corresponding to winter and spring in the northern hemisphere. ... See Influenza pandemic for government preparation for an H5N1 pandemic H5N1 impact is the effect or influence of H5N1 in human society; especially the financial, political, social and personal responses to both actual and predicted deaths in birds, humans, and other animals. ... An influenza pandemic is a large scale epidemic of the influenza virus, such as the 1918 Spanish flu. ... Genera Influenzavirus A Influenzavirus B Influenzavirus C Isavirus Thogotovirus Influenzavirus A is a genus of the Orthomyxoviridae family of viruses. ... Influenza A virus subtype H5N1, also known as A(H5N1) or simply H5N1, is a subtype of the Influenza A virus which can cause illness in humans and many other animal species. ... See Epidemiology of WHO-confirmed human cases of avian influenza A(H5N1) infection. ... For other uses, see Bird (disambiguation). ... In biology, a host is an organism that harbors a parasite, mutual partner, or commensal partner, typically providing nourishment and shelter. ... Hemagglutinin, as depicted in a simplified molecular model. ... Neuraminidase is a glycoside hydrolase enzyme (EC 3. ... Trinomial name Canis lupus familiaris The dog (Canis lupus familiaris) is a domestic subspecies of the wolf, a mammal of the Canidae family of the order Carnivora. ... Binomial name Equus caballus Linnaeus, 1758 The horse (Equus caballus, sometimes seen as a subspecies of the Wild Horse, Equus ferus caballus) is a large odd-toed ungulate mammal, one of ten modern species of the genus Equus. ... For other uses, see Pig (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Camel (disambiguation). ... This article is about the mammal. ... Binomial name Felis catus Linnaeus, 1758 Synonyms Felis lybica invalid junior synonym The cat (or domestic cat, house cat) is a small carnivorous mammal. ... Families Odobenidae Otariidae Phocidae Pinnipeds (fin-feet, lit. ... For other uses, see Mink (disambiguation). ... This article is about the animal. ... For the H5N1 subtype of Avian influenza see H5N1. ... Human Flu refers to a subset of Orthomyxoviridae that create influenza in humans and are endemic in humans. ... Swine Flu is a form of Type A influenza that is normally virulent only in pigs. ... Horse flu (or Equine influenza) refers to varieties of influenzavirus A that are endemic in horses. ... Canine influenza or dog flu refers to varieties of influenzavirus A that affect dogs. ... Cat flu is feline upper respiratory tract disease. ... Feline viral rhinotracheitis (FVR) is a respiratory disease of cats caused by feline herpesvirus 1, of the family Herpesviridae. ... Feline calicivirus (FCV) is a virus of the family Caliciviridae that causes disease in cats. ... This article is about the region in the United States of America. ...


Flu symptoms in birds are variable and can be unspecific.[104] The symptoms following infection with low-pathogenicity avian influenza may be as mild as ruffled feathers, a small reduction in egg production, or weight loss combined with minor respiratory disease.[105] Since these mild symptoms can make diagnosis in the field difficult, tracking the spread of avian influenza requires laboratory testing of samples from infected birds. Some strains such as Asian H9N2 are highly virulent to poultry, and may cause more extreme symptoms and significant mortality.[106] In its most highly pathogenic form, influenza in chickens and turkeys produces a sudden appearance of severe symptoms and almost 100% mortality within two days.[107] As the virus spreads rapidly in the crowded conditions seen in the intensive farming of chickens and turkeys, these outbreaks can cause large economic losses to poultry farmers. For the H5N1 subtype generating the concern see H5N1. ... H9N2 is a subtype of the species avian influenza virus (bird flu virus). ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Intensive farming or intensive agriculture is an agricultural production system characterized by the high inputs of capital or labour relative to land area. ...


An avian-adapted, highly pathogenic strain of H5N1 (called HPAI A(H5N1), for "highly pathogenic avian influenza virus of type A of subtype H5N1") causes H5N1 flu, commonly known as "avian influenza" or simply "bird flu", and is endemic in many bird populations, especially in Southeast Asia. This Asian lineage strain of HPAI A(H5N1) is spreading globally. It is epizootic (an epidemic in non-humans) and panzootic (a disease affecting animals of many species, especially over a wide area) killing tens of millions of birds and spurring the culling of hundreds of millions of other birds in an attempt to control its spread. Most references in the media to "bird flu" and most references to H5N1 are about this specific strain.[108][109] See Epidemiology of WHO-confirmed human cases of avian influenza A(H5N1) infection. ... In epidemiology, an infection is said to be endemic in a population when that infection is maintained in the population without the need for external inputs. ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... The global spread of H5N1 in birds is considered a significant pandemic threat. ... An epizootic is the nonhuman equivalent of an epidemic, meaning that large numbers of animals are infected with a disease. ... To cull is to remove from a group of animals those individuals who show signs of weakness. ...


At present, HPAI A(H5N1) is an avian disease and there is no evidence suggesting efficient human-to-human transmission of HPAI A(H5N1). In almost all cases, those infected have had extensive physical contact with infected birds.[110] In the future, H5N1 may mutate or reassort into a strain capable of efficient human-to-human transmission. Due to its high lethality and virulence, its endemic presence, and its large and increasing biological host reservoir, the H5N1 virus is the world's pandemic threat in the 2006–7 flu season, and billions of dollars are being raised and spent researching H5N1 and preparing for a potential influenza pandemic.[111] Virulence refers to the degree of pathogenicity of a microbe, or in other words the relative ability of a microbe to cause disease. ... In epidemiology, an infection is said to be endemic in a population when that infection is maintained in the population without the need for external inputs. ... An influenza pandemic is a large scale epidemic of the influenza virus, such as the 1918 Spanish flu. ...


Economic impact

Further information: Social impact of H5N1

Influenza produces direct costs due to lost productivity and associated medical treatment, as well as indirect costs of preventative measures. In the United States, influenza is responsible for a total cost of over $10 billion per year, while it has been estimated that a future pandemic could cause hundreds of billions of dollars in direct and indirect costs.[112] However, the economic impact of past pandemics have not been intensively studied, and some authors have suggested that the Spanish influenza actually had a positive long-term effect on per-capita income growth, despite a large reduction in the working population and severe short-term depressive effects.[113] Other studies have attempted to predict the costs of a pandemic as serious as the 1918 Spanish flu on the U.S. economy, where 30% of all workers became ill, and 2.5% were killed. A 30% sickness rate and a three-week length of illness would decrease the gross domestic product by 5%. Additional costs would come from medical treatment of 18 million to 45 million people, and total economic costs would be approximately $700 billion.[114] See Influenza pandemic for government preparation for an H5N1 pandemic H5N1 impact is the effect or influence of H5N1 in human society; especially the financial, political, social and personal responses to both actual and predicted deaths in birds, humans, and other animals. ... Variable costs or direct costs are expenses that change in direct proportion to the activity of a business. ... Indirect costs are costs that are not directly accountable to a particular function or product; these are fixed costs. ... The 1918 flu pandemic (commonly referred to as the Spanish flu) was a category 5 influenza pandemic caused by an unusually severe and deadly Influenza A virus strain of subtype H1N1. ... In macroeconomics, a Recession is a decline in any countrys Gross Domestic Product (GDP), or negative real economic growth, for two or more successive quarters of a year. ... The United States economy has the worlds largest gross domestic product (GDP), $13. ... GDP redirects here. ...


Preventative costs are also high. Governments worldwide have spent billions of U.S. dollars preparing and planning for a potential H5N1 avian influenza pandemic, with costs associated with purchasing drugs and vaccines as well as developing disaster drills and strategies for improved border controls.[111] On November 1, 2005, President George W. Bush unveiled the National Strategy to Safeguard Against the Danger of Pandemic Influenza[115] backed by a request to Congress for $7.1 billion to begin implementing the plan.[116] Internationally, on January 18, 2006 donor nations pledged US$2 billion to combat bird flu at the two-day International Pledging Conference on Avian and Human Influenza held in China.[117] // Emergency management (or disaster management) is the discipline dealing of with and avoiding risks. ... Border control Border crossing between Germany and The Netherlands Border controls are measures used by a country to monitor or regulate its borders. ... is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the forty-third and current President of the United States of America, originally inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... Type Bicameral Houses Senate House of Representatives President of the Senate President pro tempore Dick Cheney, (R) since January 20, 2001 Robert C. Byrd, (D) since January 4, 2007 Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Members 535 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political... is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


As of 2006, over ten billion dollars have been spent and over two hundred million birds have been killed to try to contain H5N1 avian influenza.[118] However, as these efforts have been largely ineffective at controlling the spread of the virus, other approaches are being tried: for example, the Vietnamese government in 2005 adopted a combination of mass poultry vaccination, disinfecting, culling, information campaigns and bans on live poultry in cities.[119] As a result of such measures, the cost of poultry farming has increased, while the cost to consumers has gone down due to demand for poultry falling below supply. This has resulted in devastating losses for many farmers. Poor poultry farmers cannot afford mandated measures which isolate their bird livestock from contact with wild birds (among other measures), thus risking losing their livelihood altogether. Multinational poultry farming is increasingly becoming unprofitable as H5N1 avian influenza becomes endemic in wild birds worldwide.[120] Financial ruin for poor poultry farmers, which can be as severe as threatening starvation, has caused some to commit suicide and many others to stop cooperating with efforts to deal with this virus – further increasing the human toll, the spread of the disease, and the chances of a pandemic mutation.[121][122] For other uses, see Suicide (disambiguation). ...


See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Information concerning flu research can be found at

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... This article is about biological infectious particles. ... This is a list of biological viruses, and types of viruses. ... This is a list of major epidemics. ... Flu research includes molecular virology, pathogenesis, host immune responses, genomics, and epidemiology. ... H5N1 clinical trials are clinical trials concerning H5N1 vaccine; which is to say they are investigations concerning H5N1 vaccine in humans intended to discover pharmacological effects and identify any adverse reactions. ... The Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER) is one of five main centers for the United Statess Food and Drug Administration (US FDA). ... H5N1 genetic structure refers to the molecular structure of the H5N1 viruss RNA. H5N1 is an Influenza A virus subtype. ... The ICEID or International Conference on Emerging Infectious Diseases was first convened in 1998; ICEID 2006 marks its fifth occurence. ... The Influenza Genome Sequencing Project is funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) which is a component of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), which is an agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services. ... A cytokine storm is a potentially fatal immune reaction consisting of a positive feedback loop between cytokines and immune cells. ... President George W. Bush announced the International Partnership on Avian and Pandemic Influenza in his remarks to the High-Level Plenary Meeting of the United Nations General Assembly on September 14, 2005, in New York. ... National Influenza Centers (also called National Influenza Centres) are institutions which are formally recognized as such by WHO. Among the more than 110 National Influenza Centers are the WHO collaborating centres and reference laboratories that are involved in annual influenza vaccine composition recommendations. ... The Pandemic Preparedness and Response Act is a bill introduced on October 5, 2005 by Democratic Senators Harry Reid, Evan Bayh, Dick Durbin, Ted Kennedy, Barack Obama, and Tom Harkin in response to the growing threat of an outbreak of the Avian Flu. ...

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2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 74th day of the year (75th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 293rd day of the year (294th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 296th day of the year (297th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Dr. Francis Adams (1796 – February 26, 1861) was a Scottish medical doctor and translator of Greek medical works. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 291st day of the year (292nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... is the 292nd day of the year (293rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 17 is the 351st day of the year (352nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 292nd day of the year (293rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 334th day of the year (335th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 295th day of the year (296th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Viral shedding refers to the successful production of virus progeny and that the progeny is leaving the cell to infect other host cells. ... is the 14th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 299th day of the year (300th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further reading

General

  • NEJM's Avian Influenza
  • Bernd Sebastian Kamps, Christian Hoffmann and Wolfgang Preiser (Eds.) Influenza Report 2006 Flying publisher 2006.
  • Arnold J. Levine 'Viruses' Scientific American Library, WH Freeman, 1992 ISBN 0-7167-5031-7
  • Samuel Baron et al. 'Medical Microbiology' Fourth Edition, The University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston 1996 ISBN 0-9631172-1-1.
  • Cox NJ, Subbarao K. 'Influenza.' Lancet. 1999 Oct 9;354(9186):1277–82. PMID 10520648

History

  • Edwin D. Kilbourne Influenza Pandemics of the 20th Century Emerging Infectious Diseases Special Issue: Influenza Vol. 12, No. 1 January 2006
  • Richard Collier 'The Plague of the Spanish Lady' Macmillan publishers (London) 1974 ISBN 0-7490-0246-8
  • John M. Barry 'The Great Influenza: the Epic Story of the Deadliest Plague in History' Penguin 2004 ISBN 0-670-89473-7

Microbiology

  • Webster RG, Bean WJ, Gorman OT, Chambers TM, Kawaoka Y. "Evolution and ecology of influenza A viruses." Microbiol Rev. 1992 Mar;56(1):152–79. PMID 1579108
  • Scholtissek C. 'Molecular epidemiology of influenza.' Arch Virol Suppl. 1997;13:99–103. PMID 9413530

Pathogenesis

  • Adolfo García-Sastre Antiviral Response in Pandemic Influenza Viruses 'Emerging Infectious Diseases Special Issue: Influenza Vol. 12, No. 1 January 2006
  • Zambon MC. 'The pathogenesis of influenza in humans.' Rev Med Virol. 2001 Jul–Aug;11(4):227–41. PMID 11479929

Epidemiology

  • Walter R. Dowdle Influenza Pandemic Periodicity, Virus Recycling, and the Art of Risk Assessment 'Emerging Infectious Diseases Special Issue: Influenza Vol. 12, No. 1 January 2006
  • Horimoto T, Kawaoka Y. Pandemic threat posed by avian influenza A viruses. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2001 Jan;14(1):129–49. PMID 11148006
  • Epidemiology of WHO-confirmed human cases of avian influenza A(H5N1) infection

Treatment and prevention

  • CDC 2005. Centers for Disease Control. Prevention and Control of Influenza Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). MMWR 2005; 54 (RR08): 1–40.
  • Arnold S. Monto Vaccines and Antiviral Drugs in Pandemic Preparedness Emerging Infectious Diseases Special Issue: Influenza Vol. 12, No. 1 January 2006

Research

  • Peter Palese Making Better Influenza Virus Vaccines? Emerging Infectious Diseases Special Issue: Influenza Vol. 12, No. 1 January 2006
  • WHO (PDF} contains latest Evolutionary "Tree of Life" for H5N1 article Antigenic and genetic characteristics of H5N1 viruses and candidate H5N1 vaccine viruses developed for potential use as pre-pandemic vaccines published August 18, 2006
  • WHO's assessment of Flu Research as of November 2006.

External links

  • Info on influenza at CDC
  • Influenza (Mayo Clinic)
  • Fact Sheet Overview of influenza at World Health Organization
  • Health encyclopedia entry at NHS Direct
  • BioHealthBase Bioinformatics Resource Center Database of influenza sequences and related information.
  • Overview of influenza at MedicineNet
  • Congressional Research Service (CRS) Reports regarding Influenza Law related government reports at University of North Texas
  • Influenza Surveillance and Contingency Plans (by Country/Region)
  • Orthomyxoviridae The Universal Virus Database of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses
  • Influenza Virus Resource from the NCBI
  • InfluenzaWorld Resource for all influenza-related information.
  • European Influenza Surveillance Scheme
  • Review of Influenza origin, virology, clinical syndromes and management, from thenakedscientists.com at Cambridge University Pathology Dept.

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta, Georgia, is recognized as the leading United States agency for protecting the public health and safety of people. ... WHO redirects here. ... NHS Direct is the name of a telephone and online service provided by the National Health Service in the UK. It was introduced throughout England and Wales in 1999 and rolled out into Scotland (where it is called NHS24) in 2004. ... WebMD Health Corp. ... “UNT” redirects here. ... The International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) is a committee which authorizes and organizes the taxonomic classification of viruses. ... National Center for Biotechnology Information logo The National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) is part of the United States National Library of Medicine (NLM), a branch of the National Institutes of Health. ... Flu research includes molecular virology, pathogenesis, host immune responses, genomics, and epidemiology. ... Model of Influenza Virus from NIH The flu vaccine is a vaccine to protect against the highly variable influenza virus. ... For the H5N1 subtype of Avian influenza see H5N1. ... This article is about flu treatment in humans for mild human flu, which includes both efforts to reduce symptoms and treatments for the flu virus itself. ... The Influenza Genome Sequencing Project is funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) which is a component of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), which is an agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services. ... Flu season is mostly a colloquial term used to describe the regular outbreak in flu cases, or even cases of the common cold during the late fall or winter. ... Genera Influenzavirus A Influenzavirus B Influenzavirus C Isavirus Thogotovirus The Orthomyxoviridae are a family of RNA viruses which infect vertebrates. ... Genera Influenzavirus A Influenzavirus B Influenzavirus C Isavirus Thogotovirus Influenzavirus A is a genus of the Orthomyxoviridae family of viruses. ... Influenzavirus B is a genus in the virus family Orthomyxoviridae. ... Influenzavirus C is a genus in the virus family Orthomyxoviridae. ... H1N1 is a subtype of the species Influenza A virus (sometimes called bird flu virus). ... H1N2 is a subtype of the species avian influenza virus (bird flu virus) currently endemic in both human and pig populations. ... The Asian Flu was a pandemic outbreak of influenza that originated in China in 1957 and spread worldwide that same year. ... H3N1 is a subtype of the species Influenza A virus (sometimes called bird flu virus). ... H3N2 is a subtype of the species Influenza A virus (sometimes called bird flu virus). ... H3N8 is a subtype of the species avian influenza virus (bird flu virus). ... Influenza A virus subtype H5N1, also known as A(H5N1) or simply H5N1, is a subtype of the Influenza A virus which can cause illness in humans and many other animal species. ... H5N2 is a strain of avian influenza virus. ... H5N3 is a subtype of the species Influenza A virus (sometimes called bird flu virus). ... H5N8 is a subtype of the species Influenzavirus A (avian influenza virus or bird flu virus). ... H5N9 is a subtype of the species Influenzavirus A (avian influenza virus or bird flu virus). ... H7N1 is a subtype of the species Influenzavirus A (avian influenza virus or bird flu virus). ... H7N2 is a subtype of the species avian influenza virus (bird flu virus). ... H7N3 is a subtype of the species avian influenza virus (bird flu virus). ... H7N4 is a subtype of the species Influenzavirus A (avian influenza virus or bird flu virus). ... H7N7 is a subtype of the species avian influenza virus (bird flu virus). ... H9N2 is a subtype of the species avian influenza virus (bird flu virus). ... H10N7 is a subtype of the species avian influenza virus (bird flu virus). ... Influenza A virus subtype H5N1, also known as A(H5N1) or simply H5N1, is a subtype of the Influenza A virus which can cause illness in humans and many other animal species. ... H5N1 genetic structure refers to the molecular structure of the H5N1 viruss RNA. H5N1 is an Influenza A virus subtype. ... See Epidemiology of WHO-confirmed human cases of avian influenza A(H5N1) infection. ... The global spread of H5N1 in birds is considered a significant pandemic threat. ... H5N1 clinical trials are clinical trials concerning H5N1 vaccine; which is to say they are investigations concerning H5N1 vaccine in humans intended to discover pharmacological effects and identify any adverse reactions. ... The thin line represents average mortality of recent cases. ... Antiviral drugs are a class of medication used specifically for treating viral infections. ... Arbidol (Russian Cyrillic Арбидол) is an antiviral drug manufactured by Masterlek in Moscow, Russia. ... Adamantane (tricyclo[3. ... Amantadine, 1-aminoadamantane, is an antiviral drug that was approved by the FDA in 1976 for the treatment of influenza type A in adults. ... Rimantadine (systematic name 1-(1-aminoethyl)adamantane) is an orally administered medicine used to treat, and in rare cases prevent, Influenzavirus A infection. ... Neuraminidase inhibitors are a class of antiviral drugs, whose mode of action relies on blocking the function of viral neuraminidase protein, thus preventing the virus from budding from the host cell. ... Oseltamivir (INN) (IPA: ) is an antiviral drug that is used in the treatment and prophylaxis of both Influenzavirus A and Influenzavirus B. Like zanamivir, oseltamivir is a neuraminidase inhibitor. ... Peramivir is a pharmaceutical drug used to viral infections. ... Zanamivir is a neuraminidase inhibitor used in the treatment of and prophylaxis of both influenza A and influenza B. Zanamivir was the first neuraminidase inhibitor commercially developed. ... Peramivir is a pharmaceutical drug used to viral infections. ... Model of Influenza Virus from NIH The flu vaccine is a vaccine to protect against the highly variable influenza virus. ... FluMist is the product name of a nasal spray vaccine against the flu virus. ... A 5cc vial of Fluzone Fluzone is the commercial name of an influenza virus vaccine, distributed by sanofi pasteur, USA. It is a split-virus vaccine, which is produced by chemical disruption of the influenza virus. ... An influenza pandemic is a large scale epidemic of the influenza virus, such as the 1918 Spanish flu. ... The Avian Flu was a pandemic outbreak of influenza that originated in China in 1957 and spread worldwide that same year. ... The Hong Kong Flu was a pandemic outbreak of influenza that began in Hong Kong in 1968 and spread to the United States of America that year. ... The 1918 flu pandemic (commonly referred to as the Spanish flu) was a category 5 influenza pandemic caused by an unusually severe and deadly Influenza A virus strain of subtype H1N1. ... See H5N1 flu and Flu for details about the illnesses and H5N1 and H3N2 for details about the causitive agents. ... The Pandemic Severity Index (PSI) is a scale or index created in January 2007 by the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) designed to mimic the system for indexing the severity of hurricanes (which is the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale for tropical cyclones). ... For the H5N1 subtype of Avian influenza see H5N1. ... Canine influenza or dog flu refers to varieties of Influenzavirus A that create influenza in canines. ... Equine influenza (Horse flu) refers to varieties of Influenzavirus A that are endemic in horses. ... Location of initial outbreak, August 24, 2007 An outbreak of equine influenza in Australia was confirmed by the New South Wales Department of Primary Industries on August 24, 2007 in Sydney. ... Swine Flu is a form of Type A influenza that is normally virulent only in pigs. ... A renal cell carcinoma (chromophobe type) viewed on a hematoxylin & eosin stained slide Pathologist redirects here. ... Among quadrupeds, the respiratory system generally includes tubes, such as the bronchi, used to carry air to the lungs, where gas exchange takes place. ... In humans the respiratory tract is the part of the anatomy that has to do with the process of respiration or breathing. ... Upper respiratory infections, commonly referred to the acronym URI, is the illness caused by an acute infection which involves the upper respiratory tract: nose, sinuses, pharynx, larynx, or bronchi. ... Acute viral nasopharyngitis, or acute coryza, usually known as the common cold, is a highly contagious, viral infectious disease of the upper respiratory system, primarily caused by picornaviruses or coronaviruses. ... Rhinitis is the medical term describing irritation and inflammation of the nose. ... Sinusitis is an inflammation of the paranasal sinuses, which may or may not be as a result of infection, from bacterial, fungal, viral, allergic or autoimmune issues. ... ÏŽ:For the noisegrind band, see Sore Throat. ... Strep throat (or Streptococcal pharyngitis, or Streptococcal Sore Throat) is a form of Group A streptococcal infection that affects the pharynx. ... Tonsillitis is an inflammation of the tonsils in the mouth and will often, but not necessarily, cause a sore throat and fever. ... Laryngitis is an inflammation of the larynx. ... Tracheitis (also known as Bacterial tracheitis or Acute bacterial tracheitis) is a bacterial infection of the trachea and is capable of producing airway obstruction. ... This term also refers to the rump of a quadruped; see croup (Wiktionary). ... Epiglottitis is inflammation of the cartilage that covers the trachea(windpipe). ... This article is about human pneumonia. ... Viral pneumonia is an inflammation of the lung caused by a virus. ... Bacterial pneumonia is an infection of the lungs by bacteria. ... Bronchopneumonia (Lobular pneumonia) - is one of two types of bacterial pneumonia as classified by gross anatomic distribution of consolidation (solidification). ... SARS redirects here. ... While often used as a synonym for pneumonia, the rubric of lower respiratory tract infection can also be applied to other types of infection including lung abscess, acute bronchitis, and emphysema. ... Bronchitis is an inflammation of the bronchi (medium-size airways) in the lungs. ... TAE is an inflammation of the bronchi of the lungs, that causes the cilia of the bronchial epithelial cells to stop functioning. ... Bronchitis is an inflammation of the bronchi (medium-size airways) in the lungs. ... Bronchiolitis is inflammation of the bronchioles, the smallest air passages of the lungs. ... Vasomotor rhinitis is a form of rhinitis that is not related to allergic reactions, but which is characterized by many of the same symptoms, such as a chronic running nose with intermittent sneezing, rhinorrhea and blood-vessel congestion of the nasal mucus membranes. ... For the play, see Hay Fever. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... An MRI image showing a congenitally deviated nasal septum A deviated septum commonly occurs when the anterior spine of the maxilla is severed in half. ... Adenoid hypertrophy (or enlarged adenoids) is the unusual growth (hypertrophy) of the adenoid tonsil. ... A vocal fold nodule (or Nodules of vocal cords) is a nodule or mass of tissue that grows on the vocal folds (vocal cords). ... In medicine, laryngospasm is an uncontrolled/involuntary muscular contraction (spasm) of the laryngeal cords. ... Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), also known as chronic obstructive airway disease (COAD), is a group of diseases characterized by limitation of airflow in the airway that is not fully reversible. ... Pneumoconiosis, also known as coal workers pneumoconiosis, miners asthma, or black lung disease, is a lung condition caused by the inhalation of dust, characterized by formation of nodular fibrotic changes in lungs. ... Asbestosis is a chronic inflammatory medical condition affecting the parenchymal tissue of the lungs. ... Silicosis (also known as Grinders disease) is a form of pneumoconiosis caused by inhalation of crystalline silica dust, and is marked by inflammation and scarring in forms of nodular lesions in the upper lobes of the lungs. ... Bauxite pneumoconiosis, also known as Shavers disease, corundum smelters lung, bauxite lung or bauxite smelters disease, is a progressive form of pneumoconiosis caused by exposure to bauxite fumes which contain aluminium and silica particulates. ... Berylliosis is a chronic lung disease caused by prolonged exposure to beryllium, a chemical irritant to the lungs. ... Siderosis is the deposition of iron in tissue. ... Byssinosis, commonly called Brown Lung, pooh is caused by exposure to cotton dust in inadequately ventilated working environments. ... Hypersensitivity pneumonitis is an inflammation of the lung caused by the bodys immune reaction to small air-borne particles. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Bird fanciers lung is a type of hypersensitivity pneumonitis caused by bird droppings. ... Interstitial is a generic term for referring to the space between other structures or objects. ... Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), also known as respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) or adult respiratory distress syndrome (in contrast with IRDS) is a serious reaction to various forms of injuries to the lung. ... Pulmonary edema is swelling and/or fluid accumulation in the lungs. ... Hamman-Rich syndrome (also known as acute interstitial pneumonia) is a rare, severe lung disease which usually affects otherwise healthy individuals. ... Interstitial lung disease (ILD), also known as diffuse parenchymal lung disease (DPLD), refers to a group of lung diseases (including idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis), affecting the alveolar epithelium, pulmonary capillary endothelium, basement membrane, perivascular and perilymphatic tissues. ... Pus is a whitish-yellow or yellow substance that can be found in regions of bacterial infection, including superficial infections, such as pimples. ... Necrosis (in Greek Νεκρός = Dead) is the name given to unprogrammed death of cells/living tissue (compare with apoptosis - programmed cell death). ... Lung abscess is necrosis of the pulmonary tissue and formation of cavities containing necrotic debris or fluid caused by microbial infection. ... Pleural effusion Chest x-ray of a pleural effusion. ... An empyema is a collection of pus within a natural body cavity. ... “Collapsed lung” redirects here. ... A hemothorax is a condition that results from blood accumulating in the pleural cavity. ... Hemopneumothorax is a medical term relating to the combination of 2 conditions, Pneumothorax (air in the chest cavity) and Hemothorax (or Hæmothorax - Blood in the chest cavity). ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Respiratory failure is a medical term for inadequate gas exchange by the respiratory system. ... Atelectasis is defined as a state in which the lung, in whole or in part, is collapsed or without air. ... Pneumomediastinum (or mediastinal emphysema, from Greek pneuma - air) is a condition in which air is present in the mediastinum. ... Mediastinitis is inflammation of the tissues in the mediastinum. ... This article is about biological infectious particles. ... // A00-A79 - Bacterial infections, and other intestinal infectious diseases, and STDs (A00-A09) Intestinal infectious diseases (A00) Cholera (A01) Typhoid and paratyphoid fevers (A010) Typhoid fever (A02) Other Salmonella infections (A03) Shigellosis (A04) Other bacterial intestinal infections (A040) Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli infection (A045) Campylobacter enteritis (A046) Enteritis due to Yersinia... A diagram showing the CNS: 1. ... This article is about the disease. ... Post-polio syndrome (PPS) is a condition that frequently affects survivors of poliomyelitis, a viral infection of the nervous system, after recovery from an initial paralytic attack of the virus. ... Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a rare chronic, progressive encephalitis that affects primarily children and young adults, caused by defective measles virus (which can be a result of a mutation of the virus itself). ... This article is about the viral disease. ... Encephalitis lethargica (EL) is an atypical form of encephalitis. ... Lymphocytic choriomeningitis (LCM), is a rodent-borne viral infectious disease that presents as aseptic meningitis, encephalitis or meningoencephalitis. ... Tick-borne meningoencephalitis or Tick-borne encephalitis is a tick-borne viral infection of the central nervous system affecting humans as well as most other mammals. ... Tropical spastic paraparesis (TSP) is an infection of the spinal cord by Human T-lymphotropic virus resulting in paraparesis or weakness of the legs. ... Viral hemorrhagic fevers (VHFs) are a group of illnesses that are caused by several distinct families of viruses: Arenavirus, Filoviridae, Bunyaviridae and Flavivirus. ... Dengue Fever redirects here. ... Chikungunya is a relatively rare form of viral fever caused by an alphavirus that is spread by mosquito bites from Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, though recent research by the Pasteur Institute in Paris claims the virus has suffered a mutation that enables it to be transmitted by Aedes albopictus (Tiger mosquito). ... Rift Valley Fever (RVF) is a viral zoonosis (affects primarily domestic livestock, but can be passed to humans) causing fever. ... Onyongnyong virus was first isolated by the Uganda Virus Research Institute in Entebbe, Uganda. ... West Nile virus (WNV) is a virus of the family Flaviviridae; part of the Japanese encephalitis (JE) antigenic complex of viruses, it is found in both tropical and temperate regions. ... Red areas show the distribution of Japanese Enecphalitis in Asia 1970-1998 Japanese encephalitis (Japanese: 日本脳炎, Nihon-nōen; previously known as Japanese B encephalitis to distinguish it from von Economos A encephalitis) is a disease caused by the mosquito-borne Japanese encephalitis virus. ... St. ... Murray Valley encephalitis virus (MVEV) is a flavivirus endemic to northern Australia and Papua New Guinea. ... Ross River virus (RRV) is an arbovirus of the genus Alphavirus. ... Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a widespread tick-borne viral disease, a zoonosis of domestic animals and wild animals, that may affect humans. ... Omsk hemorrhagic fever is a viral hemorrhagic fever caused by a Flavivirus. ... Kyasanur forest disease is a tick-borne viral hemorrhagic fever endemic to South Asia. ... Alkhurma virus is a member of the Flaviviridae virus family (class IV) so has a positive sense single stranded RNA genome and the virus will replicate in the cytoplasm of the infected host cell. ... The Powassan virus is a tick-borne encephalitis virus related to the classic TBE flavivirus. ... Zoonosis is any infectious disease that can be transmitted from animals, both wild and domestic, to humans. ... Menangle virus is a virus that infects pigs, humans and bats. ... Species Hendravirus Nipahvirus Henipavirus is a genus of the family Paramyxoviridae, order Mononegavirales containing two members, Hendravirus and Nipahvirus. ... Borna disease is an infectious neurological syndrome of warm-blooded animals, which causes abnormal behaviour and fatality. ... Lassa fever is an acute viral hemorrhagic fever first described in 1969 in the Nigerian town of Lassa in the Yedseram River valley. ... Species Guanarito virus Venezualan hemorrhagic fever (VHF) is a zoonotic human illness, first identified in 1989, causing fever and malaise followed by hemorrhagic manifestations and convulsions. ... Species Junín virus Argentine hemorrhagic fever, known locally as mal de los rastrojos, is a hemorrhagic fever and zoonotic infectious disease occurring in Argentina. ... Species Machupo virus Bolivian hemorrhagic fever (BHF), also known as black typhus or Machupo virus, is a hemorrhagic fever and zoonotic infectious disease occurring in Bolivia. ... Puumala virus is a species of hantavirus, and causes nephropathia epidemica. ... Andes virus (ANDV) is a hantavirus, which, in South America, is the major causative agent of Hantavirus Cardiopulmonary Syndrome (HCPS or HPS). ... The Sin Nombre virus (Spanish for virus without name) (SNV) is the prototypical etiologic agent of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS). ... Species Andes virus (ANDV) Bayou virus (BAYV) Black Creek Canal virus (BCCV) Cano Delgadito virus (CADV) Choclo virus (CHOV) Dobrava-Belgrade virus (DOBV) Hantaan virus (HTNV) Isla Vista virus (ISLAV) Khabarovsk virus (KHAV) Laguna Negra virus (LANV) Muleshoe virus (MULV) New York virus (NYV) Prospect Hill virus (PHV) Puumala virus... Australian bat lyssavirus (ABLV) is a zoonotic virus closely related to rabies virus. ... For other uses, see Ebola (disambiguation). ... The Marburg virus is the causative agent of Marburg hemorrhagic fever. ... Mokola virus is one of four members of the lyssavirus genome found in Africa, the others being Duvenhage virus, Lagos bat virus and classical rabies virus. ... Duvenhage virus is a member of the lyssavirus genus which also contains rabies virus. ... For other uses, see Skin (disambiguation). ... The mucous membranes (or mucosae; singular: mucosa) are linings of mostly endodermal origin, covered in epithelium, and are involved in absorption and secretion. ... Skin lesions caused by Chickenpox A lesion is any abnormal tissue found on or in an organism, usually damaged by disease or trauma. ... This article is about the disease. ... Chickenpox is one of the five classical childhood exanthems or rashes, once a cause of significant morbidity and mortality, but now chiefly of historical importance—it was formerly one of the childhood infectious diseases caught by and survived by almost every child. ... Shingles redirects here, for other uses of the term, see Shingle. ... Smallpox (also known by the Latin names Variola or Variola vera) is a contagious disease unique to humans. ... (Cricetomys sp. ... Rubella, commonly known as German measles, is a disease caused by the rubella virus. ... A plantar wart (verruca plantaris, VP; also commonly called a verruca) is a wart caused by the human papilloma virus (HPV). ... Cowpox is a disease of the skin caused by a virus (Cowpox virus) that is related to the Vaccinia virus. ... Vaccinia virus (VACV or VV) is a large, complex enveloped virus belonging to the poxvirus family of viruses. ... Molluscum contagiosum (MC) is a viral infection of the skin or occasionally of the mucous membranes. ... species Human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) Human herpesvirus 7 (HHV-7) Exanthem subitum (meaning sudden rash), also referred to as roseola infantum (or rose rash of infants), sixth disease and (confusingly) baby measles, or three day fever, is a benign disease of children, generally under two years old, whose manifestations... Fifth disease is also referred to as erythema infectiosum (meaning infectious redness) and as slapped cheek syndrome, slap face or slapped face. ... Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is caused by a number of enteroviruses in the family Picornaviridae. ... Not to be confused with hand, foot and mouth disease. ... Kaposis sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is the eighth human herpesvirus; its formal name according to the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses is HHV-8. ... Hepatitis (plural hepatitides) implies injury to liver characterised by presence of inflammatory cells in the liver tissue. ... Species Hepatitis A virus Hepatitis A (formerly known as infectious hepatitis) is an acute infectious disease of the liver caused by the hepatovirus hepatitis A virus. ... “HBV” redirects here. ... This page is for the disease. ... Hepatitis D is a disease caused by a small circular RNA virus (Hepatitis delta virus); this virus is replication defective and therefore cannot propagate in the absence of another virus. ... Hepatitis E is an acute viral hepatitis (liver inflammation) caused by infection with a virus called hepatitis E virus (HEV). ... Hepatitis G and GB virus C (GBV-C) are RNA viruses that were independently identified in 1995, and were subsequently found to be two isolates of the same virus. ... Among quadrupeds, the respiratory system generally includes tubes, such as the bronchi, used to carry air to the lungs, where gas exchange takes place. ... For the H5N1 subtype of Avian influenza see H5N1. ... Acute viral nasopharyngitis, or acute coryza, usually known as the common cold, is a highly contagious, viral infectious disease of the upper respiratory system, primarily caused by picornaviruses or coronaviruses. ... SARS redirects here. ... Viral pneumonia is an inflammation of the lung caused by a virus. ... Human parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs) are a group of four distinct serotypes of single-stranded RNA viruses belonging to the paramyxovirus family. ... Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a negative sense, single-stranded RNA virus of the family Paramyxoviridae, which includes common respiratory viruses such as those causing measles and mumps. ... Species Turkey rhinotracheitis virus Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) was isolated for the first time in 2001 in the Netherlands by using the RAP-PCR technique for identification of unknown viruses growing in cultured cells. ... Species Human immunodeficiency virus 1 Human immunodeficiency virus 2 Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a retrovirus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS, a condition in humans in which the immune system begins to fail, leading to life-threatening opportunistic infections). ... For other uses, see AIDS (disambiguation). ... AIDS dementia complex (ADC; also known as HIV dementia, HIV encephalopathy and HIV-associated dementia) has become a common neurological disorder associated with HIV infection and AIDS. It is is a metabolic encephalopathy induced by HIV infection and fueled by immune activation of brain macrophages and microglia. ... Genital warts (or Condyloma, Condylomata acuminata, or venereal warts) is a highly contagious sexually transmitted infection caused by some sub-types of human papillomavirus (HPV). ... Human T cell leukemia/lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is believed to be the cause of several diseases, including adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL), a rare cancer of the immune systems own T-cells. ... See also Bacterial gastroenteritis and Diarrhea Gastroenteritis is a general term referring to inflammation or infection of the gastrointestinal tract, primarily the stomach and intestines. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Norovirus is a genus of viruses of the family Caliciviridae. ... Astroviruses that infect humans have been poorly studied due to the fact that they do not grow in culture. ... Coronavirus is a genus of animal virus belonging to the family Coronaviridae. ... Genera Mastadenovirus Aviadenovirus Atadenovirus Siadenovirus Adenoviruses are viruses of the family Adenoviridae. ... Human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV) is a human, single-stranded RNA retrovirus that causes T-cell leukemia and T-cell lymphoma in adults and may also be involved in certain demyelinating diseases, including tropical spastic paraparesis. ... Leukemia or leukaemia(Greek leukos λευκός, “white”; aima αίμα, “blood”) (see spelling differences) is a cancer of the blood or bone marrow and is characterized by an abnormal proliferation (production by multiplication) of blood cells, usually white blood cells (leukocytes). ... Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) is a virus in the family Rhabdoviridae, order Mononegavirales. ... An oncolytic virus is a virus used to treat cancer due to their ability to specifically infect cancer cells, while leaving normal cells unharmed. ... Species see text Cytomegalovirus (CMV) (from the Greek cyto-, cell, and -mega-, large) is a viral genus of the Herpesviruses group: in humans it is commonly known as human herpesvirus 5 (HHV-5). ... Bornholm disease or pleurodynia is a disease caused by the Coxsackie virus. ...


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Influenza Report 2006 | A Medical Textbook, 250 pages (249 words)
Influenza Report 2006 is a medical textbook that provides a comprehensive overview of epidemic and pandemic influenza.
Influenza Report has also been published in Chinese, Croatian, German, Indonesian, Mongolian, Serbian, and Slovenian.
If you wish to be informed about new chapters or editions, you may subscribe to the Influenza Report Alert.
Encyclopedia4U - Influenza - Encyclopedia Article (531 words)
Influenza or as it is commonly known the flu is a contagious disease caused by an RNA virus of the orthomyxoviridae family.
Influenza A viruses that infect mammals (humans, pigs, ferrets, horses) and birds
Influenza is an extremely variable disease: similar viruses are found in pigs and domestic fowl.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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