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Encyclopedia > Infantry

Infantry or footmen are very highly disciplined and trained soldiers who fight primarily with small arms(rifles), but are trained to use everything from their bare hands to missle systems in order to neutralize and destroy the enemy in close personal combat. Infantry training is one of the most rigorous military training/occupations offered by the military and is the basic component in terms of discipline and tactics for special operations units. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (950x672, 256 KB) Photo by a member of the Royal Engineers No 1 Printing Company. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (950x672, 256 KB) Photo by a member of the Royal Engineers No 1 Printing Company. ... The Regiment of the Infantry of the Line that became to be known as The Royal Ulster Rifles dates backs to the reign of King George III. In 1793 there was some expansion of the Armed Forces to meet the commitments of the war with France. ... Combatants British Empire Australia Canada New Zealand Newfoundland South Africa United Kingdom France German Empire Commanders Douglas Haig Joseph Joffre Max von Gallwitz Fritz von Below Strength 13 British & 11 French divisions (initial) 51 British and 48 French divisions (final) 10. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Small arms captured in Fallujah, Iraq by the US Marine Corps in 2004 The term small arms generally describes any number of smaller infantry weapons, such as firearms that an individual soldier can carry. ...


Life in an active duty infantry unit is rigorous, a 24hr cycle makes for long hours of exercise/training/fighting/patrolling in often times brutal climates armed only with weapons and ammunition that they can carry on their backs and maybe, a few meal rations to fight their hunger. Forced marches, carrying 80lbs+ of equipment upwards of 25 miles at a 4-6mi/hr pace is not uncommon nor is eating just one meal a day. Teamwork and absolute trust are absolutely essential for the survival of not only the individual, but the unit as a whole. Very strong bonds that last an entire life time form within these infantry units and there is a sort of professional respect given from one infantryman to another based on a common understanding of what life is like on the inside of an infantry battalion.


Due to the very nature of the "work" with guns, bombs, the extreme physical stress, and genuine violence, casualties and or deaths are not uncommon in both war and in peace.


Although the infantry is the main destroyer of the enemy, there are relatively few infantrymen, comprising approximately 5% of the military force. Most of the rest of the military lives and breaths to support the infantry via cooking, supply, fixing their broken stuff and other combat support roles and for this the average grunt is very appreciative.


Jobs within an infantry team include


Rifleman


Machinegunner


Grenadier


Mortarman


Antitank


Sniper/recon


Women are not allowed to serve in the infantry.

Contents

History

The word infantry comes from the same Latin root as 'infant', either via Italian, where it referred to young men who accompanied knights on foot[1], or via Spanish, where the infantes (royal princes who were not heirs to the throne) commanded the footmen, hence known as infanteria. Infantry soldiers are specially skilled in various forms of combat ranging from their bare hands to missles and everything in between. Latin was the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... In the Spanish and former Portuguese monarchies, Infante (masc. ...

Ramses II at the Battle of Kadesh (relief at Abu Simbel) The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... from Swedish Wikipedia The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... Download high resolution version (819x768, 141 KB)A front view of an M1A1 Abrams, from www. ...

War
Military history
Eras
Prehistoric · Ancient · Medieval
Gunpowder · Industrial · Modern
Battlespace
Air · Information · Land · Sea · Space
Weapons
Armor · Artillery · Biological · Cavalry
Chemical · Electronic · Infantry ·
Nuclear · Psychological
Tactics

Attrition · Guerilla · Maneuver
Siege · Total war · Trench For other uses, see War (disambiguation). ... Military history is composed of the events in the history of humanity that fall within the category of conflict. ... Prehistoric warfare is war conducted in the era before writing, and before the establishments of large social entities like states. ... Ancient warfare is war as conducted from the beginnings of recorded history to the end of the ancient period. ... Medieval warfare is the warfare of the Middle Ages. ... Gunpowder warfare is associated with the start of the widespread use of gunpowder and the development of suitable weapons to use the explosive. ... Modern warfare involves the widespread use of highly advanced technology. ... Battlespace is the military theatre of operations, including air, ground, information, sea and space. ... Aerial warfare is the use of military aircraft and other flying machines in warfare, including military airlift of cargo to further the national interests as was demonstrated in the Berlin Airlift. ... Information warfare is the use and management of information in pursuit of a competitive advantage over an opponent. ... War is a state of widespread conflict between states, organisations, or relatively large groups of people, which is characterised by the use of lethal violence between combatants or upon civilians. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Space warfare is combat that takes place in outer space. ... For other uses, see Weapon (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that Mechanized warfare be merged into this article or section. ... For other uses, see Artillery (disambiguation). ... For the use of biological agents by terrorists, see bioterrorism. ... Not to be confused with Golgotha, which was called Calvary. ... Chemical warfare is warfare (and associated military operations) using the toxic properties of chemical substances to kill, injure or incapacitate an enemy. ... // Electronic warfare (EW) is the use of the electromagnetic spectrum to effectively deny the use of this phenomena by an adversary, while optimizing its use by friendly forces. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 kilometers (11 mi) above the hypocenter A nuclear weapon derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions of fusion or fission. ... The U.S. Department of Defense defines psychological warfare (PSYWAR) as: The planned use of propaganda and other psychological actions having the primary purpose of influencing the opinions, emotions, attitudes, and behavior of hostile foreign groups in such a way as to support the achievement of national objectives. ... Military tactics (Greek: TaktikÄ“, the art of organizing an army) are the collective name for methods for engaging and defeating an enemy in battle. ... This article is about the military strategy. ... “Guerrilla” redirects here. ... Maneuver warfare, is the term used by military theorist for a concept of warfare that advocates attempting to defeat an adversary by incapacitating their decision-making through shock and disruption brought about by movement. ... A siege is a military blockade of a city or fortress with the intent of conquering by force or attrition, often accompanied by an assault. ... Total war is a military conflict in which nations mobilize all available resources in order to destroy another nations ability to engage in war. ... Trench warfare is a form of war in which both opposing armies have static lines of defense. ...

Strategy

Economic · Grand · Operational This article is about real and historical warfare. ... Economic warfare is the term for economic policies followed as a part of military operations during wartime. ... Grand strategy is military strategy considered at the level of the movement and use of an entire nation state or empires resources. ... Operational warfare is, within warfare and military doctrine, the level of command which coordinates the minute details of tactics with the overarching goals of strategy. ...

Organization

Formations · Ranks · Units The armed forces of a state are its government-sponsored defense and fighting forces and organizations used to further the objectives of the state. ... A formation is a high-level military organization, such as a Brigade, Division, Corps, Army or Army group. ... This article is about the use of the term rank. ... A military unit is an organisation within an armed force. ...

Logistics

Equipment · Materiel · Supply line Military logistics is the art and science of planning and carrying out the movement and maintenance of military forces. ... This article lists military technology items, devices and methods. ... Materiel (from the French for material) is the equipment and supplies in Military and commercial supply chain management. ... Military supply chain management is a cross-functional approach to procuring, producing and delivering products and services. ...

Lists
Battles · Commanders · Operations
Sieges · Theorists · Wars
War crimes · Weapons · Writers

With few exceptions, most armies in history have been built around a core of infantry. While the specific weapons have varied, the common factor is that these soldiers have relied on their feet for operational movements (transportation behind the lines, especially in the pre-industrial era) and tactical movement (movement in battle) although they may sometimes be transported to the battlefield by various means. This is a partial list of battles that have entries in Wikipedia. ... . ... This is a list of missions, operations, and projects. ... The 1453 Siege of Constantinople (painted 1499) A siege is a prolonged military assault and blockade on a city or fortress with the intent of conquering by force or attrition. ... See also list of military writers. ... This is a list of lists of wars, sorted by country, date, region, and type of conflict. ... This article lists and summarizes War Crimes committed since the Hague Conventions of 1907. ... There are a bewildering array of weapons, far more than would be useful in list form. ... This is a list of military writers, alphabetical by last name. ... For other uses, see Weapon (disambiguation). ... Military tactics is the collective name for methods of engaging and defeating an enemy in battle. ...


In earliest days, infantry were essentially armed mobs, fighting in loosely organized opposing lines under the voice direction of individual commanders in the immediate vicinity (within earshot) of the troops under their command. However, the benefits of uniform equipment, weaponry and above all training led to the development of formations able to carry out pre-arranged tactical maneuvers in the heat of battle.


Infantry organization has focused since recorded history began on striking a balance between heavily-armed formations (such as the Greek phalanx) fighting in rigid formations, and more lightly-armed but more mobile units (like the Roman legion) able to move relatively quickly around the battlefield and exploit opportunities as they arose. Mobility, weaponry, and protection have been the competing yet complementary factors to be balanced. Macedonian phalanx formation showing the employment of Macedonian spear or sarissas making the formation nearly impregnable from the front but cumbersome, tactically unwieldy and vulnerable from side or rear A phalanx (plural phalanxes or phalanges) is a rectangular mass military formation, usually composed entirely of heavy infantry armed with spears... The Roman Legion (from Latin , from lego, legere, legi, lectus — to collect) is a term that can apply both as a transliteration of legio (conscription or army) to the entire Roman army and also, more narrowly (and more commonly), to the heavy infantry that was the basic military unit of...


Classical Period

Infantry was the primary combat arm of the Classical period. Examples of infantry units of the period are the phalanxes of ancient Greece and the legions of Imperial Rome. In contrast to the strictly organized phalanxes and legions, most armies of the ancient world also employed units of irregulars (often mercenaries) who wore less armor and fought in more open formations usually as skirmishers. Classical antiquity is a broad term for a long period of cultural history centered on the Mediterranean Sea, which begins roughly with the earliest-recorded Greek poetry of Homer (7th century BC), and continues through the rise of Christianity and the fall of the Western Roman Empire (5th century AD... Macedonian phalanx formation showing the employment of Macedonian spear or sarissas making the formation nearly impregnable from the front but cumbersome, tactically unwieldy and vulnerable from side or rear A phalanx (plural phalanxes or phalanges) is a rectangular mass military formation, usually composed entirely of heavy infantry armed with spears... The term ancient Greece refers to the periods of Greek history in Classical Antiquity, lasting ca. ... The Roman Legion (from Latin , from lego, legere, legi, lectus — to collect) is a term that can apply both as a transliteration of legio (conscription or army) to the entire Roman army and also, more narrowly (and more commonly), to the heavy infantry that was the basic military unit of... Roman Empire between AD 60 and 400 with major cities. ... Irregular soldiers in Beauharnois, Quebec, 19th century Irregular military refers to any non-standard military. ... Mercenary (disambiguation). ... Traditionally light infantry (or skirmishers) were soldiers whose job was to provide a skirmishing screen ahead of the main body of infantry, harassing and delaying the enemy advance. ...

As the Roman Empire declined and fell to the depredations of Germanic tribes such as the Vandals, Goths, and Visigoths in the 5th century AD, the political and military resources necessary for the maintenance of such rigid-formation units largely disappeared until the later Middle Ages. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2288x1712, 809 KB) Summary I took this picture in summer 2005. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2288x1712, 809 KB) Summary I took this picture in summer 2005. ... The Terracotta Army (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ; literally soldier and horse funerary statues) or Terracotta Warriors and Horses is a collection of 8,099 life-size Chinese terra cotta figures of warriors and horses located near the Mausoleum of the First Qin Emperor (Chinese: ; pinyin: ). The figures were discovered... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... The Vandals were an East Germanic tribe that entered the late Roman Empire during the 5th century and created a state in North Africa, centered on the city of Carthage. ... This article is about the Germanic tribes. ... Migrations The Visigoths (Western Goths) were one of two main branches of the Goths, an East Germanic tribe (the Ostrogoths being the other). ...


Middle Ages

For most of the Middle Ages, warfare and society were dominated by the cavalry (horse-mounted soldiers), composed of individual knights. Knights were generally drawn from the aristocracy, while the infantry levies were raised from commoners. This situation slowed the advance of infantry tactics and weapon technologies; those that were developed by the end of the Middle Ages included the use of long spears or halberds to counter the long reach of knights' lances, and the increased use of ranged weaponry to counter the cavalry's advantages of momentum, speed, height, and reach. However, from 1350 onwards the knights themselves usually dismounted for battle, becoming super-heavy infantry themselves, as a countermeasure to development of massed archery tactics which would bring their horses down. This led to development of combined arms tactics of archery and dismounted knights. The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... Not to be confused with Golgotha, which was called Calvary. ... Binomial name Equus caballus Linnaeus, 1758 The horse (Equus caballus, sometimes seen as a subspecies of the Wild Horse, Equus ferus caballus) is a large odd-toed ungulate mammal, one of ten modern species of the genus Equus. ... The silver Anglia knight, commissioned as a trophy in 1850, intended to represent the Black Prince. ... // No one is exactly sure when the first war was fought. ... For other uses, see Spear (disambiguation) and Spears (disambiguation). ... This article or section cites very few or no references or sources. ... The term lance has become a catchall for a variety of different pole weapons based on the spear. ... A statue of an armoured knight of the Middle Ages For the chess piece, see knight (chess). ... Combined arms is an approach to warfare which seeks to integrate different arms of a military to achieve mutually complementary effects. ...

Austrian infantry wearing bicornes and carrying muskets.

While bows remained in use long after the development of firearms, technological fine-tuning (along with the development of the wheel-lock) allowed firearms to supersede even the feared English longbow as the ranged weapon of choice for infantry. The bow also declined in favor due to the ease with which musketeers could be trained (days or weeks to attain moderate proficiency, as opposed to many years for the longbow). Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1715x1073, 322 KB) en: Soldiers - relief of infantry. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1715x1073, 322 KB) en: Soldiers - relief of infantry. ... Imperial and Royal Army // The Imperial and Royal Army (German: Kaiserlich-königliche Armee) was that of the Austrian Empire, formed on 11 August 1804 preceding the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire ruled by the Habsburgs, under Emperor Francis II (Emperor Francis I of Austria). ... Napoléon Bonaparte in his trademark bicorne hat The Bicorne hat is an archaic form of headgear associated with the late 18th and early 19th centuries. ... Muskets and bayonets aboard the frigate Grand Turk. ... Firearms redirects here. ... Wheel lock rifle, from around 1680 to 1690. ... Self-yew English longbow, 6 ft 6 in (2 m) long, 470 N (105 lbf) draw force. ... For other uses of this term, see Musketeer (disambiguation). ...


After the Spanish Tercios, many other nations combined firearms with extremely long pikes into units that were virtually invincible against cavalry formations. Eventually, with the development of the bayonet, the pikemen were dropped from the formation, resulting in the first examples of an infantry unit as recognizable today. Spanish Military formation well known for it`s superiority in 1600th century Europe. ... A modern recreation of a mid-17th century company of pikemen. ... For other uses, see bayonet (disambiguation). ...


Modern

Before the development of railroads in the 19th century, infantry armies got to the battlefield by walking, or sometimes by ship. The Republic of Venice set up the "Fanti da mar," the first corps of troops specifically trained for fighting from ships, in the 15th century[2] or possibly even before;[3] the oldest still-existing Marine corps in the world was established in the 16th century by the Spanish (Infanteria de Marina), followed in the 17th century by other European countries including the United Kingdom. Due to Britain's island status, a large army was unnecessary, however infantry soldiers were still required for eventual landings. A typical Royal Navy warship carried 600 men. Of these men, 120-180 would be Royal Marines. These men usually had a deck to themselves and had little to do with sailing the vessel. The men were proficient in the use of metal-working, gunpowder and modern weapons of the day and would form landing parties when exploring. The Marines also defended the vessel if boarded and would repair damaged weapons and cannons after a battle. This is the top-level page of WikiProject trains Rail tracks Rail transport refers to the land transport of passengers and goods along railways or railroads. ... For other uses, see Ship (disambiguation). ... Borders of the Republic of Venice in 1796 Capital Venice Language(s) Venetian, Latin, Italian Religion Roman Catholic Government Republic Doge  - 1789–97 Ludovico Manin History  - Established 697  - Treaty of Zara June 27, 1358  - Treaty of Leoben April 17, 1797 * Traditionally, the establishment of the Republic is dated to 697. ... Seal of the spanish Infantería de Marina The Infantería de Marina or Spanish Marines is a branch of the Spanish Armed Forces responsible for providing amphibious warfare from the sea utilizing the mobility of the Spanish Navy. ...

Photo showing Bersaglieri with Bicycles strapped to their backs. Image before 1911.

In the 1890s and later, some countries, such as Italy with their Bersaglieri, used bicycle infantry, but the real revolution in mobility started in the 1920s with the use of motor vehicles, resulting in motorized infantry. Action in World War II demonstrated the importance of protecting the soldiers while they are moving around, resulting in the development of mechanized infantry, who use armored vehicles for transport. World War II also saw the first widespread use of paratroops, which played key roles in several campaigns in the European theater. During the Vietnam conflict, the United States Army pioneered the use of helicopters to deliver large numbers of infantry quickly to and from key locations on the battlefield. During that era such formations were referred to as airmobile. Today, delivering infantry into battle by way of helicopter is known as an air assault. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 662 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (896 × 811 pixel, file size: 219 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) (All user names refer to en. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 662 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (896 × 811 pixel, file size: 219 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) (All user names refer to en. ... The Bersaglieri are a corps of the Italian army created by General Alessandro Lamarmora in 1836. ... Bicycle infantry are infantry soldiers who maneuver on the battlefield using bicycles. ... Motorised infantry is an infantry unit which is transported by trucks or other fast motor vehicles. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Mechanized infantry are infantry equipped with armored personnel carriers (APCs), or infantry fighting vehicles (IFVs) for transport and combat (see also mechanized force). ... An American Paratrooper using a T-10C series parachute Paratroopers are soldiers trained in parachuting and formed into an airborne force. ... Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000... The United States Army is the largest and oldest branch of the armed forces of the United States. ... For other uses, see Helicopter (disambiguation). ... Air assault (or air mobile) is a military term used to describe the movement of friendly forces by helicopter to engage and destroy enemy forces or to seize and hold key terrain. ... A US Army UH-1 Huey seen offloading troops during the Vietnam War Air Assault (or air mobile, in the U.S.) is the movement of forces by helicopter or aircraft to engage and destroy enemy forces or to seize and hold key terrain. ...


Modern-day mechanized infantry is supported by armored fighting vehicles, artillery, and aircraft, but along with light infantry, which does not use armored fighting vehicles, is still the only kind of military force that can take and hold ground, and thus remains essential to fighting wars. However, the tactic of having massive formations of infantry on open terrain fight it out has fallen into disuse ever since World War II. This is mainly because of advanced technology which can support, replace, and exceed the capabilities of infantry. Modern politics have also to some extent kept the practice of total war and mass combat to a minimum.[citation needed] An armoured fighting vehicle (AFV) is a military vehicle, equipped with protection against hostile attacks and often mounted weapons. ... For other uses, see Artillery (disambiguation). ... Flying machine redirects here. ... Traditionally light infantry (or skirmishers) were soldiers whose job was to provide a skirmishing screen ahead of the main body of infantry, harassing and delaying the enemy advance. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


Organization

An Australian infantry patrol at Tobruk, Libya in 1941.

Infantry is notable by its reliance on organized formations to be employed in battle. These have been developed over time, but remain a key element to effective infantry development and deployment. Up until the 20th century, infantry units were for the most part employed in close organized formations up until the last moment possible. This was necessary to allow commanders to retain control of the unit, especially while maneuvering, as well as allowing officers to retain discipline amongst the ranks. Image File history File linksMetadata 9_Div_Tobruk(AWM_020779). ... Image File history File linksMetadata 9_Div_Tobruk(AWM_020779). ...


With the development of weapons with increased firepower, it became necessary to disperse the infantry over a wider expanse of terrain. This made the unit less susceptible to high explosive and rapid fire weapons. From World War I, it was recognized that infantry were most successfully employed when using their ability to maneuver in constricted terrain and evade detection in ways not possible for other weapons such as vehicles. This decentralization of command was made possible by improved communications equipment and greater focus on small unit training.


The organization of the modern Infantry has changed severly as the dynamics of the modern battlefield has changed. Officers and non-commissioned officers (NCOs), have fused modern era technology with the historic relevance of the classic Infantryman. The more that technology plays a role in the advancement or defense of any nation, its Army's Infantry will study, train, and fight in less organized formations. These less organized formations will be governed by the effects of a technological weapon, listening device, or vision-enhancing device. Additionally, vehicles and body armor play a very important role in where an Infantryman may traverse. The aforementioned reasons, coupled with the technological advances by a global society often limits an Infantrymans repertoire of academicly learned formations. It is the experience of the modern warrior that will moderate and formulate a new organizational level of Infantry deployment.


Missions

The most important role of the infantry has been as the primary force of an army. It is the infantry which ultimately decides whether ground was held or taken, and it is the presence of infantry that assures control of territory. While the tactics of employment in battle have changed, the basic missions of the infantry have not.


Attack operations are the most basic role of the infantry, and along with defense, form the two primary stances of the infantry on the battlefield. Traditionally, in an open battle, or meeting engagement, two armies would maneuver to contact, at which point they would form up their infantry and other units opposite each other. Then one or both would advance and attempt to defeat the enemy force. The goal of an attack remains the same: to advance into an enemy-held objective and dislodge the enemy, thereby establishing control of the objective. Attacks are often feared by the infantry conducting them due to the high number of casualties suffered while advancing under enemy fire (Mechanized infantry are considered in assualting positions in contrast to light infantry due to armoured protection and high mobility). Successful attacks rely on sufficient force, preparative reconnaissance and bombardment, and retention of unit cohesion throughout the attack. This article is about real and historical warfare. ... In warfare, a meeting engagement is a combat action that occurs when a moving force, incompletely deployed for battle, engages an enemy at an unexpected time and place. ... This article is about persons held as enemy combatants. ... Mechanized infantry are infantry equipped with armored personnel carriers (APCs), or infantry fighting vehicles (IFVs) for transport and combat (see also mechanized force). ...


Defense operations are the natural counter to attacks, in which the mission is to hold an objective and defeat enemy forces attempting to dislodge the defender. Defensive posture offers many advantages to the infantry, including the ability to use terrain and constructed fortifications to advantage and the reduced exposure to enemy fire compared with advancing forces. Effective defense relies on minimizing losses to enemy fire, breaking the enemy's cohesion before their advance is completed, and preventing enemy penetration of defensive positions. In military science, defense (or defence) is the art of preventing an enemy from conquering territory. ...


Patrol is the most common infantry mission. Full scale attacks and defensive efforts are occasional, but patrols are constant. Patrols consist of small groups of infantry moving about in areas of possible enemy activity to discern enemy deployments and ambush enemy patrols. Patrols are used not only on the front-lines, but in rear areas where enemy infiltration or insurgencies are possible. In military tactics, to patrol, or conduct a patrol, is to conduct reconnaissance of a designated area or route. ...

Canadian reserve infantrymen train in urban operations.

Pursuit is a role that the infantry often assumes. The objective of pursuit operations is the destruction of enemy forces which are not capable of effectively engaging friendly units before they can build their strength to the point where they are effective. Infantry traditionally have been the main force to overrun these units in the past, and in modern combat are used to pursue enemy forces in constricted terrain (urban areas in particular), where faster forces, such as armored vehicles are incapable of going or would be exposed to ambush. Image File history File links Calgary_Highlanders_Exercise_Black_Bear_2004. ... Image File history File links Calgary_Highlanders_Exercise_Black_Bear_2004. ... // The CF reserve force comprises the Primary and Supplementary Reserves, the Canadian Rangers and the Cadet Instructor Cadre and is represented, though not commanded, at the national level by the Chief of Reserves and Cadets (a Major General or Rear Admiral). ...


Escort consists of protecting other units from ambush, particularly from other infantry. This is one of the most important roles for the modern infantry, in particular when operating along side armored vehicles. In this capacity, infantry essentially conducts patrol on the move, scouring terrain which may hide enemy infantry waiting to ambush friendly vehicles, and identifying enemy strong points for attack by the heavier units.


Maneuver operations consume much of an infantry unit's time. Infantry, like all combat units, are often maneuvered to meet battlefield needs, and often must do so under enemy attack. The infantry must maintain their cohesion and readiness during the move to ensure their usefulness when they reach their objective. Traditionally, infantry have relied on their own legs for mobility, but modern infantry often uses trucks and armored vehicles for transport. A maneuver (spelled manoeuvre in Commonwealth English) is a tactical or strategical move or action. ...


Reserve assignments for infantry units involve deployment behind the front, although patrol and security operations are usually maintained in case of enemy infiltration. This is usually the best time for infantry units to integrate replacements into units and to maintain equipment. Additionally, soldiers can be rested and general readiness should improve. However, the unit must be ready for deployment at any point. A military reserve force is a military organization composed of part-time military personnel, and sometimes civilians, who are available to fight when a nation mobilizes for total war or to defend against invasion. ...


Construction can be undertaken either in reserve or on the front, but consists of using infantry troops as labor for construction of field positions, roads, bridges, airfields, and all other manner of structures. The infantry is often given this assignment due to the quantity of men within the unit, although it can lessen a unit's morale and limit the unit's ability to maintain readiness and perform other missions. This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


'Base Defense' is where infantry units are tasked to protect certain areas like command posts or airbases. Units assigned to this job usually have a large amount of military police attached to them for control of checkpoints and prisons.


Equipment

Modern infantrymen of the United States Army.

The equipment of infantry forces has evolved along with the development of military technology in general, but certain constants remain regarding the design and selection of this equipment. Primary types of equipment are weaponry, protective gear, survival gear, and special equipment. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1812x1494, 405 KB) August 22, 2006 - Soldiers from the 2nd Infantry Division conduct an area reconnaissance mission in Baghdad. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1812x1494, 405 KB) August 22, 2006 - Soldiers from the 2nd Infantry Division conduct an area reconnaissance mission in Baghdad. ... The United States Army is the largest and oldest branch of the armed forces of the United States. ...


Infantry weapons include all types of personal weapons, i.e. anything that can be handled by individual troops, as well as some small crew-served weapons that can be carried and used by infantry. Modern infantry weaponry include rifles, machine guns, shoulder-fired rocket launchers and missiles, and lighter mortars and grenade launchers. Older examples of infantry weapons include all sorts of melee weapons and some light ranged weapons such as spears, bows, and slings. During operations, especially in modern times, infantry have a tendency to scavenge and employ whatever weapons they can acquire in addition to those given them by their superiors. A personal weapon is a weapon that can be carried and employed by a single person, although their use may be restricted to specialist members of attack or defense teams. ... For other uses, see Rifle (disambiguation). ... A machine gun is a fully-automatic firearm that is capable of firing bullets in rapid succession. ... Shoulder-launched weapons avoid the problem of recoil by directing all exhaust out the rear of the launch tube A shoulder-launched missile weapon is a weapon that fires a projectile at a target, yet is small enough to be carried by one person, and fired while held on one... For other uses, see Missile (disambiguation). ... US soldier loading a M224 60-mm mortar. ... A grenade launcher is weapon that fires or launches a grenade to longer distances than a soldier could throw by hand. ... A mêlée weapon is any weapon that does not involve a projectile--that is, both the user and target of the weapon are in contact with it simultaneously in normal use. ... For other uses, see Spear (disambiguation) and Spears (disambiguation). ... This article is about the projectile weapon bow. ... The word sling may refer to one of the following: A sling (weapon) is a device used to hurl projectiles A sling is one of any sort of mixed alcoholic drink, also known as a cocktail. ...

U.S. Marines and their M240G at Camp Hansen, Okinawa

Infantry protective gear includes all equipment designed to protect the soldier against enemy attack. Most protective gear comprises body armor of some type. Classical and Medieval infantry employed leather and metal armor as defense against both ranged and melee attacks, but with the advent of firearms, such armor could no longer defeat attacks and was discarded. The return to use of the helmet was prompted by the need to defend against high explosive fragmentation, and further developments in materials led to effective bullet-defeating armor within the weight acceptable for infantry use. The use of body armor is again becoming widespread amongst infantry units, primarily using Kevlar technology. Infantry must also often carry protective measures against chemical and biological attack, including gas masks, counter-agents, and protective suits. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2000x1312, 1580 KB)PhotoID: 20044724929 Submitted by: MCB Camp Butler Caption: CAMP HANSEN, Okinawa, Japan - Lance Cpl. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2000x1312, 1580 KB)PhotoID: 20044724929 Submitted by: MCB Camp Butler Caption: CAMP HANSEN, Okinawa, Japan - Lance Cpl. ... The M240, formally United States Machine Gun, 7. ... Fragmentation is the process by which the casing of an artillery shell, bomb, grenade, etc is shattered by the detonating high explosive filling. ... Kevlars molecular structure; BOLD: monomer unit; DASHED: hydrogen bonds. ...


Infantry survival gear includes all of the items soldiers require for day-to-day survival in the combat environment. These include basic environmental protections, medical supplies, food, and sundries. Traditionally, infantry have suffered large casualty rates from disease, exposure, and privation--often in excess of those suffered from enemy attacks. Better equipment of troops in this area greatly reduce this rate of loss. One of the most valuable pieces of gear is the entrenching tool--basically a small shovel--which can be employed not only to dig important defenses, but also in a variety of other daily tasks and even as an effective weapon. Shovel with wide blade - especially appropriate for lifting snow or coal A shovel is a tool for lifting and moving loose material such as coal, gravel, snow, dirt, or sand. ...


Specialized equipment consists of a variety of gear which may or may not be carried depending on the mission and the level of equipment of an army. Communications gear has become a necessity, as it allows effective command of infantry units over greater distances. In some units, individual communications are being used to allow the greatest level of flexibility. Engineering equipment, including demolitions, mines, and other gear, is also commonly carried by the infantry or attached specialists. A variety of other gear, often relating to a specific mission, or to the particular terrain in which the unit is employed, can be carried by infantry units.


There are some general rules to which all infantry equipment must adhere to be effective and widely adopted:[citation needed]

  • Reliability: Equipment failure is fatal to the infantry, and if equipped with unreliable gear, morale will suffer greatly. Soldiers tend to prefer reliable proven technology to new, unproven gadgets. Additionally, the conditions in which infantry operate are often extreme and gear must be able to survive and operate in these conditions without fail.
  • Utility: Infantry have very limited weight capacity, and thus gear which does not help them do their job will be discarded.
  • Availability: Since infantry units are often large, and must be able to be raised in quantity, a particular tool must be available in sufficient quantity to equip the units. This means that it must be inexpensive enough to afford in quantity during peacetime, and producible enough to meet wartime demands.
  • Simplicity: Infantry relies on large numbers of troops, often conscripted and therefore of lesser quality than those available to other branches. An army must be able to train its troops uniformly in minimal time on the tools of the trade. Overly complex gear will often be useless in combat due to a lack of training or the difficulty of maintenance under field conditions.

Historical descriptions

  • "I love the infantry because they are the underdogs. They are the mud-rain-frost-and-wind boys. They have no comforts, and they even learn to live without the necessities. And in the end they are the guys that wars can't be won without." Ernie Pyle
  • "I'm convinced that the infantry is the group in the army which gives more and gets less than anybody else." Bill Mauldin, Up Front (1945)
  • "Queen of Battle." — motto of the infantry, in reference to the queen chess piece. (This is in opposition to "the King of Battle," field artillery; as the classic infantryman joke goes: '... and we all know what kings do to queens.')
  • "Follow me" — motto of the United States Army Infantry School
  • "To seek out and close with the enemy; to kill or capture him; to seize and hold ground; to repel attack, by day or night, regardless of season, weather or terrain" — The stated role of the Royal Australian Infantry Corps, an Arms Corps of the Australian Army.
  • "Duty First" - motto of the Royal Australian Regiment.
  • "War is never glorious. Ask the infantry, ask the dead."-Hemingway
  • "The infantry doesn't change. We're the only arm of the military where the weapon is the man himself." C.T. Shortis
  • "Ah, yes, mere infantry — poor beggars…" Plautus
  • "To close with and engage the enemy in all operational environments, in order to bring about his defeat" The British Army Infantry Mission
  • "The Infantry to be structured, equipped, manned, trained and motivated to fulfil its Mission, in accordance with the British Army's Manoeuvrist doctrine. It must be capable of successful, high tempo and sustained Warfighting, in concert with other Arms, as part of a light, medium or heavy force in a Joint or Multinational context. The Infantry must be able to operate simultaneously, across the spectrum of conflict prevention, conflict and post conflict activities, in all terrain, and in all environmental and climatic conditions." Director Of Infantry's Intent, DInf, British Army
  • "To Close with and Destroy the enemy day or night; regardless of weather or terrain." Role of the Canadian Army Infantry
  • "Ducimus" Motto of the Canadian Infantry ("We Lead")
  • "The very tip of the spear" saying in the United States Marine Corps Infantry
  • "The pointy end of the bayonet" description of the Infantry among the Canadian Army
  • "The army's infantry is its most essential component. Even today, no army can take and hold any ground without the use of infantry." (George Nafziger - "Napoleon's Invasion of Russia" p 13, 1998)
  • "Fideliter" Motto of the Princess Louise Fusiliers of the Canadian Reserve Infantry(Faithfully)
  • "Ascend to Victory" Motto of the 3rd-172nd Infantry (Mountain), US Army National Guard
  • "Airborne! All the Way!" Motto of the 82nd Airborne Division, US Army
  • "H-MINUS" Motto of the 505th Parachute Infantry Regiment (PIR), US Army. The motto refers to the regiment's one hour earlier than H-hour parachute drop into Normandy, France during World War II as part of the Allied Force's invasion during Operation Overlord
  • "Grunt" Common western slang for infantrymen
  • "The infantry is there so that when some die the generals know where to direct the artillery fire" (anonymous Japanese soldier, Iwo Jima)
  • 'Ek Goli Ek Dushman' (one bullet one enemy) Indian Infantry Motto
  • "To close with and destroy the enemy by means of fire and maneuver; in the defense, to repel the enemy's assault by means of fires, close combat, and counter attack." Mission description of the US Infantry
  • '"Aerial bombardment can obliterate, but only infantry can occupy" - a Finnish Army observation of the War of the Balkans in the 1990s, where the Serbian army remained unconquered
  • "PBI, poor bloody infantry." Common joke acronym amongst commonwealth forces.

Ernie Pyle on board the U.S.S. Cabot. ... William Henry Bill Mauldin (October 29, 1921 – January 22, 2003) was a two-time Pulitzer Prize-winning editorial cartoonist of the United States. ... The United States Army Infantry School is located in Fort Benning, Georgia. ... The Australian Army is Australias military land force. ... The Royal Australian Regiment (RAR) is the parent regiment for regular infantry battalions of the Australian Army, making up the majority of the Royal Australian Infantry Corps. ... Ernest Miller Hemingway (July 21, 1899 – July 2, 1961) was an American novelist, short-story writer, and journalist. ... Titus Macchius Plautus, generally referred to simply as Plautus, was a playwright of Ancient Rome. ... George F. Nafziger is an American writer, an author and editor of numerous books and articles in military history. ... The Finnish Army (Finnish: Maavoimat) is one of the branches of the Finnish Defence Forces. ...

See also

A Marine is an elite warrior whose primary function is to serve aboard a ship and/or assault the land from the sea in amphibious warfare. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... The term grunt is slang for an infantryman in the U.S. military and some of the other armed forces of the English speaking world, and both Army and Marine The equipment laden soldiers were said to emit grunting sounds under the weight of modern combat equipment. ... Military history is composed of the events in the history of humanity that fall within the category of conflict. ... Mounted infantry were soldiers who rode horses instead of marching, but actually fought on foot with muskets or rifles. ... Mobile infantry is one of several military terms usually referring to infantry units equipped with vehicles. ... Mechanized infantry are infantry equipped with armored personnel carriers (APCs), or infantry fighting vehicles (IFVs) for transport and combat (see also mechanized force). ... Motorised infantry is infantry which is transported by trucks or other motor vehicles. ... Heavy infantry refers to heavily armed and armoured ground troops, as opposed to medium or light infantry, in which the warriors are relatively lightly-armoured. ... Traditionally light infantry (or skirmishers) were soldiers whose job was to provide a skirmishing screen ahead of the main body of infantry, harassing and delaying the enemy advance. ...

References

  1. ^ The Social Art: Language and Its Uses By Ronald K. S. Macaulay
  2. ^ http://www.un.org/Depts/dpko/missions/unifil/pr044.pdf
  3. ^ http://www.nato.int/kfor/chronicle/2003/chronicle_02/12.htm
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