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Encyclopedia > Infanticide
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Homicide (Latin homicidium, homo human being + caedere to cut, kill) refers to the act of killing another human being. ... It has been suggested that Selective assassination be merged into this article or section. ... Note: for practices of systematically killing very young children, see infanticide For the killing of ones own children, see filicide. ... Consensual homicide refers to a killing in which the victim wants to die. ... A contract killing (also contract murder or murder-for-hire) is a murder in which a killer is hired by another person to murder for material reward, usually money. ... The felony murder rule is a legal doctrine according to which anyone who commits, or is found to be involved in, a serious crime (a felony), during which any person dies, is guilty of murder. ... An honor killing is a murder, nearly exclusively of a woman, who has been perceived as having brought dishonor to her family. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... A lust murder is a homicide in which the offender stabs, cuts, pierces, slashes, or otherwise mutilates the sexual organs or areas of the victims body. ... Lynching is a form of violence, usually murder, conceived of by its perpetrators as extrajudicial punishment for offenders or as a terrorist method of enforcing social domination. ... This article deals with mass killings which are not considered genocide. ... A murder suicide is an act in which an individual kills one or more other persons immediately before, or while killing himself. ... Negligent homicide is a charge brought against persons, who by inaction, allow others under their care to die. ... A proxy murder is a murder in which the murderer does so at the behest of another, acting as his or her proxy. ... Ritual murder is murder performed in a ritualistic fashion or on a basis of rituals. ... Serial killers are individuals who have a history of multiple slayings of victims who were usually unknown to them beforehand. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Torture murder is a loosely defined legal term to describe murderers who kill their victims by slowly torturing them to death over a prolonged period of time. ... Vehicular homicide is in most places a criminal act involving the killing of a life by hitting it with a vehicle. ...

Manslaughter

In English law For a discussion of the law in other countries, see manslaughter In the English law of homicide, manslaughter is a less serious offence than murder with the the law differentiating between levels of fault based on the mens rea (Latin for a guilty mind). Manslaughter may be either: Voluntary where...

Non-criminal homicide

Justifiable homicide
Capital punishment The concept of justifiable homicide in criminal law stands on the dividing line between an excuse and an exculpation. ... Capital punishment, or the death penalty, is the execution of a convicted criminal by the state as punishment for crimes known as capital crimes or capital offences. ...

Other types of homicide

Democide
Feticide
Filicide
Fratricide
Gendercide
Genocide
Infanticide
Mariticide
Matricide
Parricide
Patricide
Prolicide
Sororicide
Regicide
Tyrannicide
Uxoricide
Democide is a term created by political scientist R. J. Rummel in order to create a broader concept than the legal definition of genocide. ... Abortion, in its most common usage, refers to the voluntary or induced termination of pregnancy, generally through the use of surgical procedures or drugs. ... Filicide is the deliberate act of a parent killing his or her own son or daughter. ... Fratricide (from the Latin word frater, meaning: brother and cide meaning to kill) is the act of a person killing his or her brother. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Genocide is the mass killing of a group of people as defined by Article 2 of the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide (CPPCG) as any of the following acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnic, racial or... Mariticide (not to be confused with matricide); from the Latin maritus (married) & cidium (killing), literally means the murder of ones married partner, but has become most associated with the murder of a husband by his wife. ... Matricide is the act of killing ones mother. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Patricide. ... Patricide is (i) the act of killing ones father, or (ii) a person who kills his or her father. ... Prolicide is the act of killing offspring, either before or soon after birth. ... This article is about a kind of homicide. ... The broad definition of regicide is the deliberate killing of a king, or the person responsible for it. ... Tyrannicide literally means the killing of a tyrant. ... This page is a candidate to be moved to Wiktionary. ...

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In sociology and biology, infanticide is the practice of intentionally causing the death of an infant of a given species, by members of the same species - often by the mother. More recently in criminology, it includes various forms of non-maternal child murder. In many past societies, certain forms of infanticide were considered permissible, whereas in most modern societies the practice is considered immoral and criminal. Nonetheless, it still takes place — in the Western world usually because of the parent's mental illness or violent behavior, and in some poor countries because of tacit societal acceptance. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... A human infant In basic English usage, an infant is defined as a child at the youngest stage of life, especially before they can walk or simply a child before the age of one. ... Criminology is the scientific study of crime as an individual and social phenomenon. ... Morality is a complex of principles based on cultural, religious, and philosophical concepts and beliefs, by which an individual determines whether his or her actions are right or wrong. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... A mental illness or mental disorder refers to one of many mental health conditions characterized by distress, impaired cognitive functioning, atypical behavior, emotional dysregulation, and/or maladaptive behavior. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


In the UK, the Infanticide Act defines infanticide as a specific crime that can only be committed by the mother during the first twelve months of her infant's life. This article deals with the broader notion of infanticide explained above. The Infanticide Act is the name for a number of laws introduced into UK law (England and Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland) that recognised the special nature of the killing of an infant child by its mother during the early months of life. ...

Contents

Infanticide in history

The practice of infanticide has taken many forms. Child sacrifice to supernatural figures or forces, such as that allegedly practiced in ancient Carthage, is one form; however, many societies only practiced simple infanticide and regarded child sacrifice as morally repugnant. Others have argued that child sacrifice was simply infanticide disguised and its inception was driven by the same socio-economic considerations that inspired infanticide.[1]The practice has become less common in the western world, but continues today in areas of extremely high poverty and overpopulation, such as parts of China and India.[2]. Female infants, then and now, are particularly vulnerable. Child sacrifice is the ritualistic killing of children in order to please, propitiate or force supernatural beings in order to achieve a desired result. ... Carthage (Greek: , from the Phoenician meaning new town, Arabic: , Latin: ) refers both to an ancient city in North Africa located in modern day Tunis and to the civilization that developed within the citys sphere of influence. ... A boy from an East Cipinang trash dump slum in Jakarta, Indonesia shows what he found. ... Map of countries by population density (See List of countries by population density. ... Female infanticide, the prevalent form of sex-selective infanticide is the systematic killing of girls at or soon after birth. ...


Judaism prohibits infanticide; Josephus wrote, "The Law orders all the offspring to be brought up, and forbids women either to cause abortion or to make away with the fetus." The ancient Germanic tribes enforced a similar prohibition; Tacitus found such mores remarkable and commented on both in nearly identical language: . . .quemquam ex agnatis necare flagitium habetur. . ., '[The Germani] hold it shameful to kill any unwanted child' (Germania,[3] and ...nam et necare quemquam ex agnatis nefas... putant, "[The Jews] think it criminal to kill any unwanted child" (Histories,[4]). A fanciful representation of Flavius Josephus, in an engraving in William Whistons translation of his works Josephus (37 – sometime after 100 AD/CE)[1], who became known, in his capacity as a Roman citizen, as Flavius Josephus[2], was a 1st-century Jewish historian and apologist of priestly and... Gaius Cornelius Tacitus Publius (or Gaius) Cornelius Tacitus (c. ... Map of the Roman Empire and Germania Magna in the early 2nd century, with the location of some Germanic tribes as described by Tacitus. ... The Histories (Latin: Historiae) is a book by Tacitus, written c. ...


One frequent method of infanticide in antiquity was simply to abandon the infant, leaving it to death by exposure or whatever other fate befell it, commonly acknowledged to be slavery and prostitution. Justin Martyr in First Apology wrote: "But as for us, we have been taught that to expose newly-born children is the part of wicked men; and this we have been taught lest we should do any one an injury, and lest we should sin against God, first, because we see that almost all so exposed (not only the girls, but also the males) are brought up to prostitution."[5] Another method commonly used with female children was to severely malnourish them, resulting in a vastly increased risk of death by accident or disease.[citation needed] In some cultures, this is thought to have been an open and accepted practice, while in others it may have been practiced privately, with the passive acceptance of society.[citation needed] Child abandonment is the practice of abandoning offspring outside of legal adoption. ... Slave redirects here. ... Whore redirects here. ...


Classic Roman civilization can serve as an example of both aspects. In writing home to his wife a certain Hilarion requests: " If you are delivered of a child {before I return home}, if it is a boy keep it; if a girl then discard it".[6].In some periods of Roman history it was traditional practice for a newborn to be brought to the pater familias, the family patriarch, who would then decide whether the child was to be kept and raised, or left to death by exposure. The Twelve Tables of Roman law obliged the pater familias to put to death a child that was visibly deformed. Although infanticide became a capital offense in Roman law in AD 374, offenders were rarely if ever prosecuted. A practice described in Roman texts was to smear the breast with opium residue so that a nursing baby would die with no outward cause.[citation needed] Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law The Law of the Twelve Tables (Lex Duodecim Tabularum, more informally simply Duodecim Tabulae) was the ancient legislation that stood at the foundation of Roman law. ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law Roman law is the legal system of ancient Rome. ... Events 4 May: Spearthrower Owl becomes emperor of Teotihuacan. ... This article does not adequately cite its references. ...


From its earliest days, Christianity rejected the notion of infanticide. The Didache prescribed "You shall not murder a child by abortion nor kill that which is born." So widely accepted was this teaching that Justin Martyr, in his Apology, defended the practice of not exposing children: The Didache (, Koine Greek for Teaching[1]) is the common name of a brief early Christian treatise ( 70–160), containing instructions for Christian communities. ... Justin Martyr (Justin the Martyr, also known as Justin of Caesarea) (100 – 165) was an early Christian apologist. ...

"But as for us, we have been taught that to expose newly-born children is the part of wicked men; and this we have been taught lest we should do any one an injury, and lest we should sin against God, first, because we see that almost all so exposed (not only the girls, but also the males) are brought up to prostitution."

He continues with the observation:

"And again [we fear to expose children], lest some of them be not picked up, but die, and we become murderers"

which reflects on the difficulty of determining how many exposed children actually died.


This spread with Christianity; in Njal's Saga, the account of how Christianity came to Iceland concludes with the simultaneous proscription of pagan worship and exposure of infants (as well as eating horsemeat).[7] Njáls saga (also known as The Story of Burnt Njál) is an epic of Icelandic literature from the 13th century that describes the progress of a 50-year blood feud. ...


Infanticide was practiced in pre-Islamic Arabia, usually targeting female babies. It was explicitly prohibited by the Qur'an. Islamic law forbids killing an unborn baby after recieving its soul (traditionally considered to be at the end of fourth month of pregnancy). [8]


Explanations for the practice

Many historians believe the reason to be primarily economic, with more children born into families than the family is prepared to support. However, this does not explain why infanticide would occur equally among rich and poor, nor why it would be as frequent during decadent periods of the Roman Empire as during earlier, more affluent, periods.[citation needed] Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus (SPQR) The Roman Empire. ...


A letter from a Roman citizen to his wife, dating from 1 BC, describes the casual nature with which infanticide was often viewed: Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC - 0s BC - 0s 10s 20s 30s 40s 6 BC 5 BC 4 BC 3 BC 2 BC 1 BC 1 2 3 4 // Events Births December 25 - Jesus (died about...

"Know that I am still in Alexandria. [...] I ask and beg you to take good care of our baby son, and as soon as I received payment I shall send it up to you. If you are delivered [before I come home], if it is a boy, keep it, if a girl, discard it." – Naphtali Lewis, Life in Egypt Under Roman Rule.

Jewish and Roman texts indicate that newborn babies were not traditionally considered to be human, or even fully alive, until they were several weeks old.[citation needed] Alexandria (Greek: , Coptic: , Arabic: , Egyptian Arabic: Iskindireyya), (population of 3. ...


Some anthropologists have suggested other causes for infanticide in non-state and non-industrialized societies. Janet Siskind has argued that female infanticide may be a form of population control in Amazonian societies. Population control is achieved not only by limiting the number of potential mothers; increased fighting among men for access to relatively scarce wives would also lead to a decline in population. Although additional research by Marvin Harris and William Divale supports this argument, it has been criticized as an example of environmental determinism. In the Solomon Islands, some people reportedly kill their first-born child as a matter of custom -- and then adopt a child from another island, a practice that suggests that the causes of infanticide are more complex.[citation needed] Other anthropologists have suggested a variety of largely culture-specific reasons for infanticide. In cultures where different value is placed on male and female children, sex-selective infanticide may be practiced simply to increase the proportion of children of the preferred sex, usually male. In cultures where childbearing is strongly tied to social structures, infants born outside of those structures (illegitimate children, children of incest, children of cross-caste relationships, and so forth) may be killed by family members to conceal or atone for the violation of taboo. Population control is the practice of limiting population increase, usually by reducing the birth rate. ... Marvin Harris Marvin Harris (August 18, 1927 – October 25, 2001) was an American anthropologist. ... William Tulio Divale is a professor of Anthropology at York College, City University of New York in Jamaica, New York. ... Sex-selective abortion is the practice of aborting a fetus after a determination (usually by ultrasound but also rarely by amniocentesis or another procedure) that the fetus is an undesired sex, typically female. ... This article is about cultural prohibitions in general, for other uses, see Taboo (disambiguation). ...


In times of famine or cases of extreme poverty, parents may have to choose which of their children will live and which will starve.


A minority of academics subscribe to an alternate school of thought blaming the practice, both modern and historical, on psychological inability to raise children. Early infanticidal childrearing is a psychohistorical model developed by Lloyd deMause within the framework of psychohistory which purports that childrearing in the paleolithic era and in contemporary pre-literate hunter-gatherer tribes can be summarized by three basic ideas: children are not considered human infants are useful to parents as...


Contemporary data suggests that modern infanticide is usually brought about by a combination of postpartum depression and a psychological unreadiness to raise children. It could also be exacerbated by schizophrenia or bipolar disorder. It is also attributed, in some cases, to the desire of unwed, underage parents to conceal their sexual relations and/or avoid the responsibility of childrearing.[citation needed] Postpartum depression (also postnatal depression) is a form of clinical depression which can affect women, and less frequently men, after childbirth. ... For other uses, see Bipolar. ...


In addition to debates over the morality of infanticide itself, there is some debate over the effects of infanticide on surviving children, and the effects of childrearing in societies that also sanction infanticide. Some argue that the practice of infanticide in any widespread form causes enormous psychological damage in children.[citation needed] Some anthropologists studying societies that practice infanticide, however, have reported how loving the parents were to their children.[citation needed] (Harris and Divale's work on the relationship between female infanticide and warfare suggests that there are, however, extensive negative effects).


In the absence of sex-selective abortion, sex-selective infanticide can be deduced from very skewed birth statistics. The biologically normal birth ratio for homo sapiens is approximately 105 males per 100 females, and the life expectancy of females is slightly greater than males on average. When a society has an infant male to female ratio which is significantly higher than the biological norm, sex selection can usually be inferred. (However, new research has led to alternate explanations to this theory.) Sex-selective abortion is the practice of aborting a fetus after a determination (usually by ultrasound but also rarely by amniocentesis or another procedure) that the fetus is an undesired sex, typically female. ... Homo sapiens (Latin: wise man) is the scientific name for the human species. ... In statistics, a result is significant if it is unlikely to have occurred by chance, given that a presumed null hypothesis is true. ...


There have been some accusations that infanticide occurs in the People's Republic of China due to the one-child policy although most demographers do not believe that the practice is widespread. In the 1990s, a certain stretch of the Yangtze River was known to be a common site of infanticide by drowning, until government projects made access to it more difficult. Others assert that China has twenty-five million fewer girl children than expected, but sex selective abortion can partially be to blame. The illegal use of ultrasound is widespread in China, and itinerant sonographers with plain vans in parking lots offer inexpensive sonographs to determine the sex of a fetus. Poster of Chinese birth control policy under the slogan Sweet Achievement. ... Ultrasound is a form of cyclic sound pressure with a frequency greater than the upper limit of human hearing, this limit being approximately 20 kilohertz (20,000 hertz). ...


There are 100 million missing women in the world partly due to infanticide.[9] China and India have the highest rates of missing women because of this, although sex-selective abortions are also to blame. However, recent statistical evidence suggests that outbreaks of hepatitis B, which causes female fetuses to miscarry at a higher rate than male fetuses, may account for a large proportion of the "missing" women.[10]. Girls are killed because of the low rewards of bringing them up. For example, the dowry price, which can be up to 10 times what an average family in India makes a year, can leave a family in debt. Also when women or girls are married off they will no longer be able to support the family. However, a boy will support his family until they die, making bringing up a boy much more financially rewarding to the parents.[citation needed] Hepatitis B is an inflammation of the liver and is caused by the Hepatitis B virus (HBV), a member of the Hepadnavirus family[1] and one of hundreds of unrelated viral species which cause viral hepatitis. ...


Infant euthanasia in the Netherlands

Joseph Fletcher, founder of situational ethics and a euthanasia proponent, proposed that infanticide be permitted in cases of severe birth defects. He and philosopher Peter Singer have suggested that it is a logical extension of abortion. Joseph Fletcher (1905-1991) founded the theory of situational ethics in the 1960s, and was a pioneer in the field of bioethics. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Situation ethics. ... Euthanasia (from Greek: ευθανασία -ευ, eu, good, θάνατος, thanatos, death) is the practice of terminating the life of a person or animal in a presumably painless or minimally painful way, usually by lethal injection. ... For other persons named Peter Singer, see Peter Singer (disambiguation). ...


In the Netherlands, euthanasia remains technically illegal for patients under the age of 12. However, Dr. Eduard Verhagen has documented several cases of infant euthanasia. Together with colleagues and prosecutors, he has developed a protocol to be followed in those cases. Prosecutors will refrain from pressing charges if this Groningen protocol is followed.[11][12] Eduard Verhagen is clinical director of pediatrics at the University of Groningen. ...


Infant euthanasia in the UK

The Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecology (RCOG) has recently recommeded to "Allow Active Euthanasia for Disabled Babies, Doctors Urge" [13] that physicians should be allowed to make “deliberate interventions to kill infants” who are disabled. It has been argued that killing disabled babies will save millions of pounds that otherwise would be required to care for them.


Infanticide in other species

Many other species, besides Homo sapiens, commit infanticide. See Cannibalism (zoology)#Infanticide. Homo sapiens (Latin: wise man) is the scientific name for the human species. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Notes

  1. ^ "Child Sacrifice at Carthage—Religious Rite or Population Control?", Lawrence E. Stager and Samuel R. Wolff, Biblical Archaeology Review, Jan/Feb 1984.[1]
  2. ^ http://www.gendercide.org/case_infanticide.html
  3. ^ http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?lookup=Tac.+Ger.+19 19
  4. ^ http://tst.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin///ptext?lookup=Tac.+Hist.+5.5 5.5
  5. ^ http://www.newadvent.org/fathers/0126.htm
  6. ^ Papyrus Oxyrhynchus 744, translated in Naphtali Lewis, Life in Egypt Under Roman Rule (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1985), p. 54.[2]
  7. ^ http://www.pitt.edu/~dash/njal100.html
  8. ^ The Oxford Dictionary of Islam, p.138
  9. ^ http://www.bw.lehigh.edu/story.asp?ID=19974
  10. ^ http://www.slate.com/id/2119402/
  11. ^ Verhagen, Eduard & Pieter J.J. Sauer (March 10, 2005), "The Groningen Protocol — Euthanasia in Severely Ill Newborns", The New England Journal of Medicine 352 (10): 959-962. Retrieved on 2007-05-22
  12. ^ December 1, 2004, Outrage from Churches over Euthanasia on Newborns. Retrieved on 2007-05-22
  13. ^ Elliott, Francis (November 5, 2006), "Allow 'active euthanasia' for disabled babies, doctors urge", The Independent. Retrieved on 2007-05-22

The Biblical Archaeology Review (illuminating archaeology and the Bible) is the organ of the non-denominational Bible Archaeology Society which has been combining the excitement of archaeology and the latest in Bible scholarship since 1974 [1]. The Societys founder and editor-in-chief is Hershel Shanks. ... March 10 is the 69th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (70th in leap years). ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM) is a peer-reviewed medical journal published by the Massachusetts Medical Society. ... December 1 is the 335th (in leap years the 336th) day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... shelby was here 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... November 5 is the 309th day of the year (310th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 56 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... For other uses, see The Independent (disambiguation). ...

See also

Examples of: Note: for practices of systematically killing very young children, see infanticide For the killing of ones own children, see filicide. ... Filicide is the deliberate act of a parent killing his or her own son or daughter. ... Eugenics is the self-direction of human evolution: Logo from the Second International Congress of Eugenics, 1921, depicting it as a tree which unites a variety of different fields. ... Baby-farming was a term used in Victorian England to mean the taking in of an infant for a small payment, with an understanding that nursing care would be provided; improper treatment was usually implied. ... Female perversion is a controversial term used to describe cases where women deviate from the behavioral norms of their gender and commit violence, either against oneself or against others (Welldon, 1991, 1992)[1] [2] . Though the term can be used perjoratively and sometimes has sexual conitations, its strict definition is... The Bruce effect is a form of pregnancy disruption in mammals in which exposure of a female to an unknown male results in pre- (Bruce 1959) or postimplantation failure (e. ... The Cruel Mother (Roud 9, Child 20) is a murder ballad. ... The Holy Innocents by Giotto di Bondone. ... Overlaying is the act of smothering a child to death by rolling over them in sleep. ...

Seamus Davey-Fitzpatrick as Damien in The Omen remake Damien Thorn is the main fictional character in The Omen series (The Omen, Omen II, Omen III, The Omen 2006 remake). ... Melissa Drexler (born 1978, a. ... Margaret Garner was a slave from Kentucky. ... Amy Grossbergs high school yearbook photo. ... Mug shots of Moors murderers Myra Hindley and Ian Brady at the time of their arrest in October 1965. ... Gilles de Rais Gilles de Rais (also spelled Retz) (autumn of 1404 – October 26, 1440) was a French noble, soldier, and one time brother-in-arms of Joan of Arc. ... Darlie Routier (b. ... Diego Santoy Riveroll is a Mexican university student who is accused of stabbing his ex-girlfriend, Érika Peña Coss, and killing her two young siblings in the City of Monterrey on March 2, 2006. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Infanticide - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1219 words)
In sociology and biology, infanticide is the practice of intentionally causing the death of an infant of a given species, by members of the same species.
Infanticide was common in all well-studied ancient cultures, including those of ancient Greece, Rome, India, China, and Japan.
Joseph Fletcher, founder of situational ethics and a euthanasia proponent, proposed that infanticide be permitted in cases of severe birth defects.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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